SciCombinator

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Journal: Circulation. Arrhythmia and electrophysiology

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Heat shock protein (HSP) 27 is related to the pathogenesis of AF. However, the clinical relationship between HSP27 and AF is unclear. The present study was conducted to determine the clinical relationship between HSP27 and atrial fibrillation (AF).

Concepts: Present, Atrial fibrillation, Atrial flutter, Heat shock protein, Hsp27

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Background- The Sprint Fidelis implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead was recalled in 2007 because of an elevated risk of lead fracture. Several studies have demonstrated an accelerating risk of lead failure over time. We sought to identify predictors and characterize trends of Fidelis lead failure. Methods and Results- We evaluated 604 Fidelis leads with ≥90 days of follow-up implanted at our institution. Fidelis lead survival was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method. Analysis of log-log plots of cumulative hazard plots was performed to assess changes in lead failure rate over time. During follow-up of 3.3±1.7 years, 51 (8.4%) Fidelis lead failures were identified. The 3-year and 5-year Fidelis lead survival rates were 93.5% and 85.3%, respectively. Female sex was the only significant predictor of lead failure (heart rate, 2.1; 95% CI, 1.1-3.9; P<0.0001). The rate of lead failure initially increased exponentially with a power of 2.3 (95% CI, 2.22-2.43; P<0.0001). However, log-log analysis of cumulative hazard for leads functioning at 2 and 4 years revealed a stable rate of failure of 4.5%/year. Mathematical modeling of the Fidelis lead failure demonstrated a transition from an exponential to linear pattern of lead failure at 2.9 years. Conclusions- After 3 years, failure rates of Fidelis leads stabilize but at a significantly elevated rate. Female sex is associated with a doubling of the risk of Fidelis lead failure. These findings have implications for Fidelis lead management decisions that are based on the prediction of lead failure risk.

Concepts: Decision making, Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, Failure, Failure rate, Exponential growth, Weibull distribution, Annualized failure rate, Exponential distribution

28

Background- The potential health benefits of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) usually are studied using a combination of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). This combination reduces vulnerability to experimentally induced atrial fibrillation (AF). It is unknown whether EPA and DHA have differential effects when taken alone. Using a model of pacing-induced atrial hemodynamic overload, we investigated the individual effects of EPA and DHA on vulnerability to AF and atrial remodeling. Methods and Results- Thirty-four dogs were randomized into 3 groups, all of which underwent simultaneous atrial and ventricular pacing at 220 beats per minute for 14 days. One group received purified DHA (≈1 g/d) orally for 21 days beginning 7 days before pacing began. Similarly, 1 group received ≈1 g/d purified EPA. In a third (control) group (No-PUFAs), 8 dogs received ≈1 g/d olive oil, and 12 were unsupplemented. Electrophysiological and echocardiographic measurements were taken at baseline and 21 days. Atrial tissue samples were collected at 21 days for histological and molecular analyses. Persistent AF inducibility was significantly reduced by DHA compared with No-PUFAs median [25-75 percentiles], 0% [0%-3%] for DHA versus 3.1% [2.2%-11%] for No-PUFAs; P=0.007) but not by EPA (3.4% [1.9%-8.9%]). DHA also reduced atrial fibrosis compared with No-PUFAs (11±6% versus 20±4%, respectively; P<0.05), whereas EPA did not (15±5%; P>0.05). Conclusions- DHA is more effective than EPA in attenuating AF vulnerability and atrial remodeling in structural remodeling-induced AF.

Concepts: Fatty acid, Fatty acids, Atrial fibrillation, Essential fatty acid, Omega-3 fatty acid, Eicosapentaenoic acid, Docosahexaenoic acid, Polyunsaturated fatty acid

28

Late potentials (LP) detected with signal-averaged ECGs are known to be useful in identifying patients at risk of Brugada syndrome (BS) and arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC). Because the pathophysiology is clearly different between these disorders, we clarified the LP characteristics of these disorders.

Concepts: Cardiology, Cardiac electrophysiology, Syndromes, Debut albums, Holter monitor

28

Cardiac memory refers to the observation that altered cardiac electrical activation results in repolarization changes that persist after the restoration of a normal activation pattern. Animal studies, however, have yielded disparate conclusions, both regarding the spatial pattern of repolarization changes in cardiac memory and the underlying mechanisms. The present study was undertaken to produce 3-dimensional images of the repolarization changes underlying long-term cardiac memory in humans.

Concepts: Present, Time, Heart, Electrophysiology, Dimension, Cultural studies, IMAGE

28

BACKGROUND: -To identify and understand clinically encountered pitfalls in the assessment of transmitral conduction block using differential coronary sinus (CS) and left atrial appendage (LAA) pacing techniques in patients with left mitral isthmus (MI) linear ablation. METHODS AND RESULTS: -All the available assessments of MI block were thoroughly reviewed in 271 MI ablation procedures undertaken among 236 patients from October 2008 to April 2011. Bidirectional block was established in 186/271 (69%) procedures. Careful evaluation of electrograms recorded on the multipolar CS and ablation catheters was undertaken to identify and understand the characteristics of pitfall, if any. Pitfall was encountered in 55/271 (20%) procedures among 51 patients and categorized into 6 types (types 1, 3, 4 and 5 led to spurious diagnosis of block; types 2 and 6 led to erroneous diagnosis of absence of block). There were 14, 10, 17, 2, 15 and 3 (total=61) cases of pitfall-types 1 through 6 respectively. Operator recognized 42/61 (69%) pitfalls intraprocedurally. Recognition of types 1 and 5 was difficult due to indiscernible electrograms at usual amplifier-settings or presence of very slow conduction mimicking block. CONCLUSIONS: -Every fifth assessment of bidirectional block across MI linear lesion using differential CS and LAA pacing techniques encounters a pitfall, which can lead to erroneous clinical diagnosis of block or absence of block. Recognition of pitfall during the procedure is feasible and necessitates careful distinction of far-field LA from the local CS electrograms besides appropriate adjustments in catheter position and pacing outputs.

Concepts: Medical terms, Evaluation, Heart, Atrial fibrillation, Assessment, Left atrial appendage occlusion, Left atrial appendage, Sinus venosus

28

BACKGROUND: -Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) is one of the most common conditions requiring emergent cardiac care in children yet its management has never been subjected to a randomized controlled clinical trial. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of the 2 most commonly used medications for antiarrhythmic prophylaxis of SVT in infants: digoxin and propranolol. METHODS AND RESULTS: -This was a randomized, double-blind, multi-center study of infants <4 months with SVT (AVRT or AVNRT), excluding Wolff-Parkinson-White, comparing digoxin to propranolol. The primary end-point was recurrence of SVT requiring medical intervention. Time to recurrence and adverse events were secondary outcomes. Sixty-one patients completed the study, 27 randomized to digoxin and 34 to propranolol. SVT recurred in 19% of patients on digoxin and 31% of patients on propranolol. (P=0.25). No recurrence occurred after 110 days of treatment. The 6-month recurrence-free status was 79% for patients on digoxin and 67% for patients on propranolol (P=0.34, and there were no first recurrences in either group between 6 and 12 months. There were no deaths and no serious adverse events related to study medication. CONCLUSIONS: -There was no difference in SVT recurrence in infants treated with digoxin versus propranolol. The current standard practice may be treating infants longer than required and indicates the need for a placebo-controlled trial. Clinical Trial Registration Information-http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT-00390546.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Clinical trial, Randomized controlled trial, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Supraventricular tachycardia, Antiarrhythmic agent, Tachycardia

25

-Atrial fibrillation (AF) requires arrhythmogenic changes in atrial ion channels/receptors and usually altered atrial structure. AF is commonly treated with antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs); the most effective block many ion channels/receptors. Modest efficacy, intolerance, and safety concerns limit current AADs. We hypothesized that combining agents with multiple anti-AF mechanisms at reduced individual drug doses might produce synergistic efficacy plus better tolerance/safety.

Concepts: Atrial fibrillation, Cardiac electrophysiology, Atrial flutter, Amiodarone, Digoxin, Flecainide, Procainamide, Dronedarone

12

-Animal models suggest that the neurotransmitter inhibitor, botulinum toxin, when injected into the epicardial fat pads can suppress atrial fibrillation (AF) inducibility. The aim of this prospective randomized double-blind study was to compare the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin injection into epicardial fat pads for preventing atrial tachyarrhythmias.

Concepts: Heart, Atrial fibrillation, Botulinum toxin, Microbial toxins, Suppression, Suppression of dissent

8

Age is the foremost risk factor for atrial fibrillation (AF), and AF has a rising prevalence in older adults. How AF may contribute to decline in physical performance in older adults has had limited investigation. We examined the associations of incident AF and 4-year interval declines in physical performance at ages 70, 74, 78, and 82 years in the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Death, Age, Atrial fibrillation, Gerontology, Ageing