SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Chest

168

Bronchoscopy is often the initial diagnostic procedure performed in patients with pulmonary lesions suspicious for lung cancer. A bronchial genomic classifier was previously validated to identify patients at low risk for lung cancer after an inconclusive bronchoscopy. In this study, we evaluate the potential of the classifier to reduce invasive procedure utilization in patients with suspected lung cancer.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Cancer, Pulmonology, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Pneumonia, Bronchoscopy, Alveolar duct

53

Chest x-ray (CXR) is the test of choice for diagnosing pneumonia. Lung ultrasound (LUS) has been shown to be accurate for diagnosing pneumonia in children and may be an alternative to CXR. Our objective was to determine the feasibility and safety of substituting LUS for CXR when evaluating children with suspected pneumonia.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Lung, Pneumonia, Heart, Randomized controlled trial, Free will

52

In COPD, functional status is improved by pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) but requires specific facilities. Tai Chi, which combines psychological treatment and physical exercise and requires no special equipment, is widely practiced in China and is becoming increasingly popular in the rest of the world. We hypothesized that Tai Chi is equivalent (ie, difference less than ±4 St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire [SGRQ] points) to PR.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Physical exercise, World

49

The global burden of sepsis is estimated as 15 to 19 million cases annually with a mortality rate approaching 60% in low income countries.

Concepts: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome, Vitamin, Septic shock, Sepsis

48

We update recommendations on 12 topics that were in the 9th edition of these guidelines, and address 3 new topics.

Concepts: Medicine, Cure

43

Over a quarter of the US population qualify as excessive alcohol consumers. Alcohol use impacts several lung diseases and heavy consumption has been associated with poor clinical outcomes. The fractional excretion of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) has clinical implications in multiple airway diseases. We hypothesized that excessive alcohol intake is associated with lower FeNO levels.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Pulmonology, Poverty, Nitric oxide, Alcoholic beverage, Beer, Exhaled nitric oxide, French Quarter

36

Problems with the use of inhalers by patients were noted shortly after the launch of the metered dose inhaler (MDI) and persist today. We aimed to assess the most common errors in inhaler use over the last 40 years in patients treated with MDI or dry powder inhalers (DPI).

Concepts: Asthma, Patient, Metered-dose inhaler, Dry powder inhaler, Dosage forms, Inhaler, Nebulizer, Drug delivery devices

33

Lung nodules are a diagnostic challenge with an estimated yearly incidence of 1.6 million in the United States. This study evaluated the accuracy of an integrated proteomic classifier in identifying benign nodules in patients with a pretest probability of malignancy (pCA) ≤50%.

Concepts: Cancer, Medical terms, United States, United States Constitution, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Solitary pulmonary nodule, Chinese language

31

Parental smoking is known to worsen asthma symptoms in children and make them refractory to asthma treatment, but the molecular mechanism is unclear. Recently, oxidative stress from tobacco smoke has been reported to impair histone deacetylase-2 (HDAC2) via phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activation and thus to reduce corticosteroid sensitivity. The aim of this study is to investigate passive smoking dependent molecular abnormalities in alveolar macrophages by comparing passive smoke exposed children and non-passive smoke exposed children with uncontrolled severe asthma.

Concepts: Asthma, Lung cancer, Smoking, Tobacco, Tobacco smoking, Passive smoking, Nicotine, Smoking ban

28

We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of short- versus long-duration antibiotic regimens for ventilator-associated pneumonia(VAP).

Concepts: Pneumonia, Evidence-based medicine, Systematic review, Meta-analysis