SciCombinator

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Journal: Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France)

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Human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) have the ability to self-renew, and multipotent differentiation into three germ layer cells. We obtained 5 ml amniotic fluid from ten 16-20 week pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis. hAFSCs were isolated from all samples, co-cultured with T47D breast cancer cell line and characterized using flow cytometry and RT-PCR. After 3, 4 and 5 days, T47D and HSFCs viability were evaluated with MTT assay. After 5 days of co-culture T47D cells viability were decreased. Our findings showed that hAFSCs can release soluble factors in cell culture, causing an efficient anticancer effect.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Stem cell, Bone marrow, Cell biology, Chemotherapy, Amniotic fluid

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The Rosa damascena Mill. is cultivated in different parts of Iran. For evaluation of its essence, the experiment was carried out on 50 accessions during 2014-17 using randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Results showed that the essence of Kermanshah11 (0.412 g), Yazd 1 (0.400 g), Isfahan 4 (0.364 g), Lorestan 1 (0.361 g), Kermanshah 2 (0.350 g) and Isfahan 3 (0.331 g) accessions had a higher amount of essence. Strong positive correlation coefficients (p≤0.01) were found between essence of citronellol- n-eicosan (0.845), citronellol- n-heneicosane (0.879), n-nonadecane-geraniol (0.883), n-heneicosane-geraniol (0.842), n-heneicosane- geraniol (0.850), n-eicosane- geraniol (0.885), n-nonadecane- geraniol (0.930). Comparing the years, the accessions of Isfahan 5, Arak 1, Kordestan 1, West Azarbaijan 1, Tehran 1, Arak1, Fars 1 and Zanjan1 had the highest citronellol, geraniol, geraniol, n-tetradecanal, n-nonadecane, n-eicosane, n-pentacosane, n-heneicosane, respectively.

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In the current experiment, the effects of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/Smad and ERK pathway crosstalk on synovial and pulmonary systems during rheumatoid arthritis have been investigated. For this purpose, rats were divided into normal control (NC) and model control (MC) groups. In the MC group, 0.1 ml Freund’s complete adjuvant was injected intradermally into the right hind paw, and the resulting inflammation represented a rheumatoid arthritis model. Joint swelling and changes in lung functions were observed in arthritic rats. Synovial and lung were observed by light and electron microscopies. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to detect TGF-β1, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-10, interferon-γ (IFN-γ), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), and fibroblast growth factor (FGF). PCR, immunohistochemistry, and immunoblotting were used to detect changes in Smad and ERK pathways of synovial and lung tissues. Compared with the NC group, toe swelling was elevated in the MC group. Pulmonary functions FEV1, FEF50, FEF75, MMF, and PEF were decreased (P< 0.01). Serum cytokines IL-1β, IL-4, TGF-β1, and CTGF were increased, while IFN-γ, IL-10, Th1/Th2 cell ratio, and FGF were decreased (P< 0.01 or P< 0.05). Expression of TGF-β1 and Smad2/¾ mRNAs and TGF-β1, TβRI, TβRII, Smad2/3, p-Smad2/3, and Smad4 proteins in the synovial membrane and lung tissue were increased, and expression of Smad7 mRNA and protein was decreased (P<0.01) or P<0.05). Expression of ERK2 mRNA and p-ERK1/2 protein was increased in the synovial membrane and lung tissue, and expression of ERK1/2 mRNAs and ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2 proteins was increased in lung tissue (P< 0.01 or P< 0.05). Correlation analysis showed that FEV1 was negatively correlated with TGF-β1 mRNA and protein in arthritic rats, FEF25 was negatively correlated with Smad4 protein, and FEF50 was negatively correlated with the TβRII protein, and FEF75, TGF-β1 and Smad3 mRNAs. There was a negative correlation between Smad2/3 protein and a negative correlation between PEF and TGF-β1 protein (P< 0.05). FEF50 and MMF were positively correlated with Smad7 mRNA (P< 0.05). FEV1 was negatively correlated with ERK2 mRNA, and FEF25 was negatively correlated with p-ERK1/2 protein. FEF75 and MMF were negatively correlated with ERK1/2 and p-ERK1/2, respectively (P< 0.05). ERK1 mRNA was positively correlated with Smad3 mRNA and TβRII protein, ERK2 mRNA was positively correlated with p-Smad2/3, and ERK1/2 protein was positively correlated with Smad2 mRNA, Smad4 protein, p-ERK1/2 protein, Smad4 mRNA, and p-Smad2/3 protein (P< 0.05). p-ERK1/2 protein was negatively correlated with Smad7 protein (P< 0.05). It is concluded that arthritic rats have synovial and systemic pulmonary damage. Smad and ERK pathway crosstalk leads to systemic lesions. Smad and ERK pathways are gradually activated by phosphorylation under the induction of the TGF-β1 promoter, and then participate in transcriptional activities, leading to the increase in synovial inflammation of arthritis, pulmonary lesions, and decreases in lung functions.

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This study aimed to observe and analyze the effect of calcitriol combined with sevelamer carbonate on serum parathyroid hormone in patients with chronic renal failure. This study included 180 patients who had been treated for chronic renal failure in our hospital were enrolled as research objects. The patients were randomly divided into two groups: a research group and a control group, each containing 90 cases. The research group was treated with calcitriol combined with sevelamer carbonate, and the control group was treated with calcitriol alone. The therapeutic effects of the two groups were observed and analyzed by SPSS 21. Comparing the levels of blood indexes (Ca, Cr, P, ALP, iPTH, TC, TG, LDL-C, HDL-C) of the two groups showed no significant difference between the two groups, P <0.05. Our results have the effect of different treatment regimens, the improvement effect of various blood indicators in the research group was significantly better than the control group, p<0.05.  We concluded that the combined therapy of calcitriol and sevelamer carbonate in chronic renal failure patients can significantly improve the therapeutic effect, and at the same time actively improve the serum parathyroid hormone level, which is a treatment model that can be popularized and applied.

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Hepatocellular carcinoma is known to be a common predominant cancer in adults, especially in eastern countries. Immune response and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) have significant influences on tumor development. However, the interaction between CAFs and immunotherapy is unclear in hepatocellular carcinoma. We measured the number of activated fibroblasts in hepatocellular carcinoma samples and samples taken from normal liver tissues. A total of 20 patients' fresh hepatocellular carcinoma and normal tissues which were surrounding the tumor were obtained from the surgery and used for evaluating alpha-SMA expression. We investigated the effects of CAFs in anti-tumor immunity in hepatocellular carcinoma animal model. The effects of CAFs in inducing anti-PD-1 treatment resistance were also measured in a preclinical animal model. Activated fibroblasts were highly accumulated in hepatocellular carcinoma tissues but not in surrounding normal tissues. CAFs showed a significant tumor-promoting effect in an immunocompetent model. The infiltration and function of some immune cells like myeloid-derived suppressive cells and T-cells were increased by CAFs. CAFs also reduced the number and activation of tumor-infiltrating cytotoxic T-cell in tumor tissue. In the treatment model, tumors with a higher amount of CAFs had been insensitive to therapy with anti-PD-1. CAFs are potent inducers of immunosuppression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Depleting CAFs rescued the antitumor immunity in the hepatocellular model and could be a novel treatment to combine with the existing immunotherapy.

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This study aimed to investigate the expression of miR-93-5p in esophageal carcinoma-patients and its relationship with the curative effect and prognosis of radiotherapy. 102 patients with esophageal carcinoma treated in Yiwu Central Hospital from May 2013 to July 2015 were considered as the experimental group, and 89 healthy people for physical examination during the same period were selected as the control group. The expression of miR-93-5p in the serum of the two groups was compared. Based on the mean expression of miR-93-5p in serum, esophageal carcinoma patients were divided into high expression and low expression groups. Then the relationship between clinical-pathological characteristics and the expression of miR-93-5p was analyzed. The curative effect of radiotherapy in patients with esophageal carcinoma was evaluated, and the relationship between the expression of miR-93-5p, the curative effect of radiotherapy and the 3-year survival rate in patients with esophageal carcinoma was analyzed. The expression of miR-93-5p in the serum of the experimental group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P< 0.05); there was a significant correlation between the expression of miR-93-5p and pathological stage (P< 0.05). The expression of miR-93-5p in the effective radiotherapy group was significantly lower than that in the ineffective radiotherapy group (P< 0.05). ROC curve showed that the sensitivity and specificity of miR-93-5p in predicting radiotherapy response of esophageal carcinoma were 88.57 and 64.69% respectively, AUC was 0.864 (95%CI:0.791~0.936), P< 0.001; the 3-year survival rate of low expression group was significantly higher than that of high expression group (P< 0.05). In Conclusion, the expression of miR-93-5p was high in esophageal carcinoma patients, and the higher the expression, the worse the curative effect of radiotherapy and the worse the prognosis, which may be a new predictor of radiotherapy effect and prognosis in patients with esophageal carcinoma.

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Polygonatum odoratum is a historically traditional Chinese medicine plant. However, the consecutive monoculture problem (CMP) widespread in other Chinese medicine limiting their cultivation on a large scale. In this study, the physiological data showed the adverse effect of CMP on the growth of P. odoratum under the consecutive cropping (CC) compared with the first cropping (FC). Then the high-throughput sequencing of miRNA and mRNA libraries of leaves and roots from FC and CC P. odoratum plants identified 671 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 184 differentially expressed miRNAs and revealed that the DEGs and target genes of the miRNAs were mainly involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, phenylpropanoid and brassinosteroid biosynthesis. The KEGG analysis revealed that the DEGs between CC and FC roots were enriched in the plant-pathogen interaction pathway. This study provided the expression regulation of genes related to CMP of P. odoratum but also suggested that CMP may result in the serious damage of pathogens to roots and cause the slow growth in the consecutive cropping plants.

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Burn generally refers to thermal damage, including tissue damage caused by hydrothermal (water, soup, oil, etc.), flame, steam, high-temperature gas, hot metal liquid or solid (such as molten steel, ingot). However, little is known about the pathogenesis and inducement of skin inflammation in burned rats. Therefore, this study has carried out an in-depth analysis of the related causes of skin inflammation in burned rats. We analyzed the gene expression and the differentially expressed genes co-expression in burned rats. Subsequently, a set of functional dysfunction modules about inflammation of skin tissue in burned rats were obtained by comprehensive enrichment analysis. In addition, based on related network prediction analysis, we identified a number of regulatory factors, such as endogenous genes, nCRNAs, and transcription factors that have potential monitoring effects on skin inflammation in burned rats. Firstly, we obtained 2679 differentially expressed genes and 7 disease-related dysfunction modules in burned rats. Secondly, we identified a series of regulators related to skin inflammation in burned rats, including 117 ncRNAs (including miR-17-5p, miR-122-5p, and miR-140-5p), 31 transcription factors (including AhR, Foxo1 and Sp1) and 10 endogenous genes (including Il5, Atp5d, and Cox4i1). Core transcription factors AhR and Foxo1 may induce skin inflammation in burned rats through the cascade of MAPK signals. According to the results of this study, we can show a new method for biologists and pharmacists to reveal the inducement of skin inflammation in burned rats and provide a valuable reference for different treatment options.

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Premature preeclampsia is the second cause of maternal mortalities around the world. To investigate its potential driving mechanism(s), we constructed a multi-regulatory-mediated preeclampsia dysfunction module. Through combining differential expression analysis, co-expression analysis, and enrichment analysis, we obtained 23 sets of preeclampsia expression disorder modules in the disease, which involve the modular aggregations of 3016 genes. The modules were subjected to be analyzed for GO and KEGG paths for enrichment analysis. Based on these pivotal regulators, it is possible to manipulate the essential parts of the modular subnetwork and study their cooperative acts to mediate the driving mechanism of the preeclampsia. Simultaneously, they mainly cause the onset of the disease through the regulation of the apoptotic signaling pathway, down-regulation of an inflammatory response and retinol metabolism. This may present a potential driving mechanism for the disease. The predictor analysis of the regulators showed a series of non-coding RNAs that have potentially significant regulatory effects on the disease, including miR-182-5p, miR-200b-3p, miR-23a-3p, miR -429, miR-590-3p, and transcription factors. These pivotal regulators might mediate the potential driving processes. Based on a comprehensive multivariate analysis, we found a possible driving mechanism in which significant pivotal regulators were used as distinct functional segments in the preterm preeclampsia-driven process.

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Bile acids usually build up in patients with cholestatic liver disease. It was found that the concentration of taurocholic acid (TCA), one of the taurine conjugates of primary bile acids in serum, was elevated the most. While the role played by TCA in the disease is unclear, there is concern whether TCA contributes to the development of hepatocarcinoma from cholestasis. In the present study, the cell viability, flow cytometry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, intracellular ROS measurement, and intracellular Ca2+ measurement were used to investigate the effects of TCA on THLE-2 and HepG2 cells. The results showed that TCA is capable of inhibiting HepG2 cell growth whereas it has relatively little or no impact on that of THLE-2 cells until later stages of 16-day treatment. The growth inhibition is a result of cell apoptosis induced by the increase of Ca2+ and ROS level, and also associated with the increased expression of c-Myc, CEBPα, TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, CXCL-2, Egr-1. HepG2 growth inhibition could contribute to the research on the treatment methods of patients already with hepatocarcinoma.