SciCombinator

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Journal: Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France)

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Candida species are considered as one of the important cause of nosocomial and community infections. Candidacies are fourth caused by septicemia in some countries and possess extra cost to the health care system. The aim of this study was survey the presence of virulence factors associated with various candida geniuses in samples which have been collected from the intensive care unit. In this cross-sectional study, various clinical specimens have been collected from patients which hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of Milad hospital, Tehran, Iran. The species of candida has been determined by CHROM agar. Finally, adherence factors genes and proteinase gene have been detected by PCR. In this research, 100 samples have been collected from patients that colonized with candida. C. albicans (63%) and C.glabrata (19.4%) are the most identified species, respectively. The species of four specimens have been not detected according to the color of CHROM agar candida medium and two different genus of candida has been isolated from 7 patients. The frequency of Als1, Als3, HWP1 and SAP1 genes among C. albicans was (92%), (94%), (95%) and (88%), respectively. The most detected virulence factor was HWP1 and SAP4 was the lowest one. At least two virulence factors have been detected in 95% of different Candida species that can cause invasive fungal properties. These results are important for infection control committee in the hospital because invasive fungal diseases can make a serious problem for patients that hospitalized in ICU.

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In recent years, most related studies have found that chronic hepatitis B virus infection is the main cause of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but the specific pathogenesis is still unclear. To investigate the function of HDAC in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), this study used qRT-PCR to determine the expression levels of miR-376a and HDAC9 mNRA in HCC and para-cancerous tissues. The clinical significance of HDAC9 in HCC was assessed in a study cohort containing 37 patients with HCC using immunohistochemistry. The expression level of miR-376a in liver cancer tissues was significantly lower than that in para-cancerous tissues, while the expression level of HDAC9 mRNA in liver cancer tissue was significantly higher than that in para-cancerous tissues. The expression of HDAC9 occurred mainly in the nucleus. There was a significant correlation between tumor differentiation and HDAC9. Survival analysis showed that HCC patients with higher HDAC9 expression had poorer prognosis, and subsequent multivariate analysis showed that HDAC9 expression level was an independent predictor. There was a definite correlation between HDAC9 and the expressions of AFP and Ki67. These results suggest that the expression level of HDAC9 in HCC is abnormally high while the expression level of miR-376a is significantly decreased, indicating that HDAC9 may be a potential prognostic indicator of HCC.

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Concerns about nanoparticles environmental pollution risk have been increased globally due to an increase in the production of nanoparticles in recent years and their use in diverse cases. The purpose of this experiment was to study the alleviation effect of humic acid on nanoparticles toxicity in greenhouse conditions. Thus two separate experiments were conducted at the rosette growing stages of rapeseed in a factorial experiment as a completely randomized design with three replications. The first factor was copper and zinc oxide nanoparticle in five concentrations of 0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 mg.L-1 in each of experiments and the second factor was humic acid in two concentrations of 0 and 100 mg.L-1 in both experiments. The results showed that simultaneously application of humic acid and the nanoparticles resulted in increasing of chlorophyll, protein contents, and antioxidants enzymes activity. For example, the maximum activity of catalase was 170.72 and 296.82 µmol.min-1.mg-1 proteins when CuO nanoparticle was utilized alone and together with humic acid respectively. Also increasing the concentration of CuO nanoparticle reduced protein content from 2.44 to 1.88 (mg.gr-1 Fresh leaf weight), while its range was 2.86 and 2.49 (mg.gr-1 Fresh leaf weight) when adding the humic acid. Transmission electron microscopy images of root tissue confirm the decreasing of nanoparticles entrance to plant cell and tissue by humic acid. In general, application of humic acid alleviated the nanoparticles toxicity, due to the high adsorption capacity that is able to get out the metals from plants or like-hormonal activity probably.

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The immune system is an important physiological defense system. Its balance and stability are closely related to the body’s health. Once the immune system loses its dynamic balance, the immune response will be blocked, which will lead to the occurrence of various diseases. Hesperetin is a kind of natural flavonoids extracted from citrus fruits of Rutaceae and it has many pharmacological activities. However, its water solubility and liposolubility are poor, and it is easy to be quickly metabolized in vivo, so it is difficult to maintain high blood drug concentration. Therefore, its derivative (HES) was found by structural modification. In this study, THP-1 cells were used as experimental model to investigate the immunomodulatory effect of HES in vitro. The results showed that HES participates in immune response by enhancing phagocytosis of macrophages to promote the release of NO, IL-6 and IL-1β, and enhancing immunity by up-regulating the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL proteins. This study provides a theoretical and practical basis for the development of HES as an immunomodulator in the future.

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Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths. Compound K, an active metabolite of ginsenosides, is reported to exhibit anti-cancer property in various types of human malignancies. The present study investigated the role of compound K on glucose metabolism in NSCLC cells and its underlying mechanism. Our study found that compound K dose-dependently inhibited the cell viability of NSCLC cells. Moreover, administration with compound K decreased glucose uptake and lactate secretion under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Consistently, the expression of key enzymes (HK II, PDK1 and LDHA) involved in glucose metabolism were inhibited in compound K-treated tumor cells. In addition, compound K inhibited the expression of HIF-1α and its downstream gene GLUT1. On the contrary, overexpression of HIF-1α elevated metabolic reactions and partly attenuated the inhibitory role of compound K on NSCLC cell growth. These results demonstrate that compound K suppresses NSCLC cell growth via HIF-1α mediated metabolic alteration, contributing to novel anticancer therapy by targeting glucose metabolism.

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Thyroid hormones regulate the development and maturation of the brain by maintaining levels of neurotransmitters and their related metabolites. The present work emphasizes the neural dysfunction in the brain caused by hypothyroidism and the potential role of Hordeum vulgare (water soluble barley, (B)) in ameliorating these effects. The study was conducted on euothyroid and hypothyroid adult female rats. The induction of hypothyroidism was conducted by oral-administration of neo-mercazole (5.0 mg.kg-1) daily for thirty days prior the study and terminated at the end of the study. The groups were assigned as; euthyroid (EU) and hypothyroid (H) groups and other two groups were treated with 100 mg.kg-1 water soluble barley; daily for one month and assigned as (EU+B) and (H+B) groups. Compared with EU and EU+B groups, a reduction in fT4, and ERK1/2 levels and elevation in TSH in brain tissue, Moreover, a  significant elevation in 8-OH deoxyguanosine and caspase-3 levels, confirmed with increase percentage DNA-damage in the brain and thyroid tissues in hypothyroid control rats. Furthermore, a significant decrease in all monoamines levels in different brain areas and downregulation of dopamine and 5-hydroxytreptamin receptors transcription, with a significant increase in excitatory amino acids and no significant change in the levels inhibitory amino acids were recorded in control hypothyroid group. Treatment of hypothyroid group with Hordeum vulgare improved the above-mentioned adverse impact by ameliorating the thyroid hormone levels with depleting the DNA-degradation and elaborating the levels of neurotransmitters with related receptors and amino acids in brain areas.  Water soluble Hordeum vulgare as a phytonutrient, is safe and efficient agent in ameliorating the neural dysfunction resulting from hypothyroidism status in adult female rats.

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To investigate the expressions and roles of semaphorin3A (Sema3A) and vascular endothelial growth factor 165 (VEGF165) in cultured rat cortical neurons and vascular endothelial cells after oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) stimulation. Cultured cortical neurons (NC) and vascular endothelial cells (VEC) of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats (SPF grade) were randomly divided into control group and OGD treatment group. Western blot assay, immunofluorescent staining and immunohistochemical methods were used to determine the expressions of VEGF165, Sema3A and neuropilin-1 (Nrp-1) protein. Cell migration was determined by Transwell, while TUNEL assay was used to measure apoptosis. The expressions of Sema3A, Nrp-1 and VEGF165 in NC and VEC cells after OGD treatment were up-regulated, when compared with the control group. With transfection of Sema3A shRNA, apoptosis of neurons decreased significantly after 2 h of OGD treatment, but the apoptosis of VEC cells was not obvious. The migration rate of VEC cells in the treatment group was significantly increased, relative to that of the control group. Stimulation with OGD induces neuronal expression of VEGF165 and regulates the migration of vascular endothelial cells, thereby enhancing their participation in angiogenesis, which may involve Sema3A.

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Effect of ginkgetin on proliferation of human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells and the underlying mechanism   were investigated. Human cervical cancer (HeLa) cells were cultured at 37 °C in 10 % fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplemented RPMI 1640 medium in a humidified incubator containing 5 % CO2. Cell proliferation was determined using MTT assay, while real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were used to determine the levels of expression of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 8 (IL-8). The expressions of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38 MAPK) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF- κB) were determined using Western blotting. Treatment of HeLa cells with ginkgetin significantly and time- and dose-dependently inhibited their proliferation (p < 0.05). The invasion of the cells were also significantly and dose-dependently decreased, when compared with control cells (p < 0.05). The expressions of p-p38 and p-NF-κB were significantly and dose-dependently down-regulated, relative to control group (p < 0.05). However, the expressions of p38 and NF-κB in ginkgetin-treated cells were not significantly different from those of control group (p > 0.05). The results of qRT-PCR and ELISA showed that the levels of expression of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-8 mRNAs were significantly and dose-dependently reduced in HeLa cells after 48 h of treatment with ginkgetin, when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The anti-proliferative effect of ginkgetin on HeLa cells is exerted via a mechanism involving the p38/NF-κB pathway.

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Seed priming improves seed performance in many crop species. In this study, the influence of hydrothermal priming on seed parameters of sugar beet is investigated in both laboratory and field conditions. In the laboratory, the treatments consist of a combination of cultivars (Arya and Shokoofa), hydro-priming at two temperatures (10 and 15 °C) for 6, 10, 14, 18, 22 hours. Germination traits and seedling growth were measured for determination of optimum hydro-thermal priming. Also, the protein pattern in the optimum hydro-thermal priming treatments and unprimed seeds were compared by electrophoresis. In the field experiment, the percentage and rate of emergence of primed and unprimed seeds were measured. Results showed that hydro-thermal priming had a positive effect on final germination percentage, mean germination time and uniformity of germination. Optimum hydro-thermal priming time and the temperature were 6 and 10 hours at 15 °C for Shokoofa and Arya cultivars respectively. Hydro-thermal priming increased the seed emergence percentage in the field by 15%. There was no significant difference in protein pattern between primed and unprimed seeds. In general, hydro-thermal priming not only increases sugar beet seed germination in the laboratory but also has a more positive effect on the emergence in the field condition.

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To study the effect of all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and arsenic trioxide (ATO) combination treatment on apoptosis of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells (NB4), inflammation and prognosis. The effect of ATRA - ATO combination on the proliferation of NB4 was determined using MTT assay. Apoptosis of NB4 cells was assessed with TUNEL assay. The effect of ATRA-As2O3 combination on the expressions of IL-6 and TNF-α in NB4 cells was determined using ELISA kits, while its effect on the quality of life of 25 acute promyelocytic leukemia patients admitted to our hospital was scored, as an index of prognosis. The combination treatment with ATRA and ATO significantly inhibited the proliferation of NB4 cells and promoted their apoptosis, relative to the model group. In addition, the combination treatment reduced serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia, and improve their quality of life and survival. Combination treatment with ATRA and ATO significantly inhibits the proliferation of NB4 cells and promotes their apoptosis, and reduces inflammatory responses in patients with acute promyelocytic leukemia, while improving their quality of life and prognosis.