SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Cellular and molecular biology (Noisy-le-Grand, France)

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Chromium (Cr) is one of the most serious pollutants in aquatic systems. This study was performed to understand the effect of Cr (VI) on halophilic algal strains of D. salina and D. tertiolecta. The results revealed good tolerance of D. salina towards chromium (VI) up to 8 ppm concentration, whereas tolerance level in D. tertiolecta was up to 2 ppm concentration. Cr (VI) not only inhibited the growth of D. tertiolecta, but also showed increased inhibition in the level of photosynthetic pigments, protein and carbohydrate. Results have revealed that chromium (VI) induced higher increase in lipid peroxidation and H2O2 production in D. tertiolecta than the D. salina, particularly at higher concentration of chromium (VI). Chromium (VI) induced increase in the rate of RNO bleaching, loss of pigments and thiol (—SH) group was relatively higher in D. tertiolecta than the D. salina, which is indicating that D. tertiolecta was prone to Cr (VI) induced oxidative stress. Results on RNO bleaching in the presence of radical quenchers suggested that OHdeg radical played an important role in the chromium (VI)—induced general oxidative stress in D. tertiolecta.

Concepts: Algae, Photosynthesis, Oxidative stress, Vitamin C, Chromium, Halophile, Dunaliella, Dunaliella salina

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The present study was conducted to establish a Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique for the rapid detection of B. mallei the etiologic agent of glanders, a highly contagious disease of equines. A set of six specific primers targeting integrase gene cluster were designed for the LAMP test. The reaction was optimized using different temperatures and time intervals. The specificity of the assay was evaluated using DNA from B.pseudomallei and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The LAMP products were analyzed both visually and under UV light after electrophoresis. The optimized conditions were found to be at 63ºC for 60 min. The assay showed high specificity and sensitivity. It was concluded that the established LAMP assay is a rapid, sensitive and practical tool for detection of B. mallei and early diagnosis of glanders.

Concepts: DNA, Time, Infectious disease, Type I and type II errors, Sensitivity and specificity, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia

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Recombinant therapeutic proteins have changed the face of modern medicine in the present trend and they continue to provide innovative therapies for deadly diseases. This study describes the development of a novel stable expression system for rapid amplification of genes in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells. The expression system consists of a host CHO cell line and an expression vector (pUB-PyOri-D-C) which encodes for Polyomavirus (Py) Origin of Replication (PyOri) for amplification of integrated genes in the presence of Py Large T Antigen (PyLT) and Dihydrofolate Reductase (DHFR) selectable marker gene for selection in the presence of Methotrexate (MTX). Use of both PyOri/PyLT and DHFR can reduce the number of rounds of selection and amplification required for isolation of high producing clones. The efficiency of pUB-PyOri-D-C was compared with that of pUB-D-C plasmid using Green fluorescent protein (GFP) and Erythropoietin (EPO) as reporter proteins. Our results showed that pUB-PyOri-D-C-EPO can help development of high expressing clone in one round of selection/amplification as compared to multiple rounds of selection/amplification with pUB-D-C-EPO plasmid. CHO-DG44/EPO clone generated using pUB-PyOri-D-C-EPO gave a productivity of 119 mg/L in shake flask.

Concepts: DNA, Protein, Gene, Cell, Molecular biology, Enzyme, Green fluorescent protein, Chinese hamster ovary cell

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Despite excellent published results, the lack of well-designed, multicentre, randomized clinical trials results in an absence of general consensus on the efficacy of autologous endometrial cells coculture (AECC) in Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART). An open, multicentre, prospective, randomized controlled trial was designed to compare the pregnancy rate (PR) after the transfer of one blastocyst on day 5 after AECC to the transfer of one embryo on day 3 (control group). Patients were women aged 18 to 36, undergoing an ART cycle with no more than 1 embryo transfer failure. Sample size was calculated at 720 for a superiority trial involving an intermediate analysis at 300 patients. We present the results of the intermediate analysis that resulted in the study ending considering the observed difference. Three hundred thirty nine patients were randomized: 170 in the AECC group and 169 in the control group. The clinical PR per transfer was 53.4% with AECC and 37.3% in the control group (p=0.025). The quality of embryos was improved with AECC. These results suggest that implementation of the AECC technique to a large number of In-Vitro Fertilization (IVF) centres could lead to a substantial improvement in the proportion of successful assisted reproduction. The study was supported by the Laboratoires Genévrier, France.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Reproduction, Embryo, Randomized controlled trial, In vitro fertilisation, Preimplantation genetic diagnosis, Artificial insemination, Embryo transfer

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In Algeria, many salt lakes are to be found spread from southern Tunisia up to the Atlas Mountains in northern Algeria. Oum Eraneb and Ain El beida sebkhas (salt lakes), are located in the Algerian Sahara. The aim of this study was to explore the diversity of the halobacteria in this type of habitats. The physicochemical properties of these shallow saline environments were examined and compared with other hypersaline and marine ecosystems. Both sites were relatively alkaline with a pH around 8.57- 8.74 and rich in salt at 13% and 16% (w/v) salinity for Oum Eraneb and Ain El beida, respectively, with dominant ions of sodium and chloride. The microbial approach revealed the presence of two halophilic archaea, strains JCM13561 and A33T in both explored sebkhas. Growth occurred between 10 and 25% (w/v) NaCl and the isolates grow optimally at 20% (w/v) NaCl. The pH range for growth was 6 to 9.5 with an optimum at pH 7.5 for the first strain and 7 to 9.5 with an optimum pH at 8.5-9 for the second strain. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strains JCM13561 and A33T were most closely related to Halorubrum litoreum and Natronorubrum bangense (99% and 96% similarity, respectively).

Concepts: Archaea, Ribosomal RNA, Sahara, 16S ribosomal RNA, Sodium chloride, Salt, Algeria, Halophile

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Endometrium cancer is the most common invasive gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Succinic acid (CO2HCH2-CH2CO2H) is a type of dibasic acid that has uncolored crystal. Succinic acid is used in bakery products and aromatized products. It is naturally found in some vegetables. Succinic acid has no adverse effects because it is metabolized by body cells and has a role in the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA) as a cycle media component. The TCA cycle and its enzyme components have some crucial roles for basal cell metabolism. Any mistakes, concentration differences in product, or enzyme deficiencies are important within the cell this cycle. In this proposal project, we aimed to investigate the effect of succinic acid at different doses and at different times in an endometrial cancer cell line. The study was performed using methods that determine for apoptosis (for cytotoxicity, WST-1, for caspase enzyme activity, Caspase 3/BCA; apoptotic determination using flow cytometry; Annexin V; to understand mitochondrial membrane potential; JC-1). The results showed that 5 and 10 µM concentration of succinic acid resulted in apoptosis in endometrium cancer; no such effect was seen in the control cell line, which comprised healthy lung cells.  According to our results, it is thought that succinic acid would be effective for the treatment of endometrial cancer cell lines, thus providing new data for other areas of cancer research.

Concepts: Protein, Cell, Cancer, Metabolism, Adenosine triphosphate, Mitochondrion, Cellular respiration, Citric acid cycle

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Inflammation and insomnia are two types of symptoms very likely occur in life, seriously perplexing people’s work and life. How to alleviate these symptoms is an urgent medical problem. Lucidone D (LUC) is a terpene from the ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body. Triterpenoids are also the main pharmacological components of Ganoderma lucidum. In recent years, people pay more and more attention to its anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, LPS induced RAW264.7 macrophage inflammatory response model was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of LUC. The results showed that LUC could significantly inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators NO, which may play a role by down-regulating the expression level of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Meanwhile, the production of TNF-α and IL-6 was significantly inhibited. These results indicate that LUC has obvious anti-inflammatory activity. Writhing and sedation tests in ICR male mice showed that LUC showed significant analgesic and sedative effects. In conclusion, these results suggest the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and sedative effects of LUC in vitro and in vivo.

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Objective of this study was to investigate the sedative and hypnotic effects of palmatine and to observe whether its mechanism is related to 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and GABA. The sedative and hypnotic effects of palmatine on mice were observed with mouse autonomic activity test, direct sleep test, pentobarbital sodium in suprathreshold and subthreshold dose sleep test. The content of GABA and 5-HT in brain homogenate was determined by ELISA  method. Mouse brain specimens were observed by immunohistochemistry for 5-HT expression in the nucleus of mouse brain. Palmatine could reduce spontaneous activities of mice, prolong the sleep time of mice induced by pentobarbital sodium in suprathreshold dose and shorten the sleep latency.  And it could increase the number of mice falling asleep induced by pentobarbital sodium in subthreshold dose and the incidence of falling asleep, but with no direct sleep effect. In addition, it enhanced the 5-HT content in brain, but had no effect on GABA content, and had no toxicity to PC12 cells. Palmatine plays a significant role in sedation and hypnosis, which may be associated with the increase of intra-cerebral 5-HT.

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Human amniotic fluid stem cells (hAFSCs) have the ability to self-renew, and multipotent differentiation into three germ layer cells. We obtained 5 ml amniotic fluid from ten 16-20 week pregnant women undergoing amniocentesis. hAFSCs were isolated from all samples, co-cultured with T47D breast cancer cell line and characterized using flow cytometry and RT-PCR. After 3, 4 and 5 days, T47D and HSFCs viability were evaluated with MTT assay. After 5 days of co-culture T47D cells viability were decreased. Our findings showed that hAFSCs can release soluble factors in cell culture, causing an efficient anticancer effect.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Stem cell, Bone marrow, Cell biology, Chemotherapy, Amniotic fluid