SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Cardiovascular & hematological agents in medicinal chemistry

25

The efficacy and safety of fondaparinux, an emerging therapeutic option for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT), remain unclear in cardiac surgery patients with HIT.

Concepts: Medicine

25

The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is one of the major causes of overall mortality. It kills almost 18-19 million individuals annually. There are a number of synthetic drugs departures but the major effects are hemorrhagic impact, immunogenicity, and high price, due to restricted applications. Actinomycetes are the most economically and biotechnologically valuable prokaryotes. As well-known responsible for the production and successfully exploited as a source of secondary metabolites, and found abundant and active in marine sediments. Natural thrombolytic drugs are increasingly reported as safer, more fascinating and less costly. Actinokinase is a serine protease which cleaves α-chain, β-chains and γ-chains of fibrinogen. Hence such its mechanistic property makes actinokinase an interesting feature. These microbial fibrinolytic proteases are used for therapeutic approach of medical interest and have biotechnological applications to treat cardiovascular diseases.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Disease, Microbiology, Cardiovascular disease, Fibrinolysis, Serine protease, Protease

25

Prolylcarboxypeptidase (PRCP) regulates plasma prekallikrein/high molecular weight kininogen/bradykinin axis. It also modulates angiotensin II (Ang II), angiotensin III (Ang III), and alpha-stimulating hormone (a-MSH) physiological effects. Study suggests that increased plasma PRCP level is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, such as atherosclerosis, inflammation, and diabetes. Since expression pattern of PRCP in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rat vascular tissue remain unproved, we aimed to study its expression in the heart and kidney. The purpose of the present study was also to obtain systemic information of inflammation status with regard to PRCP expression and function in a high-fat diet (HFD)-fed ZDF rats. The ZDF rats were divided into 2 groups, which were fed a high-fat diet for 16 weeks or 32 weeks. Differential expression and pathological significance of PRCP expression during the consecutive stages of renal disease development were identified. After 16 weeks, ZDF rats exhibited early transiently altered expression in PRCP in the heart and kidneys. After 32 weeks, ZDF rats showed continuously altered expression in PRCP and inflammatory markers, which was linked to severe hyperglycemia and nephropathy. Altered expression of PRCP associated with inflammatory mediators was illustrated to be functionally relevant. In further support of an important role of PRCP, we found PRCP protein to be highly elevated in rat plasma and in human plasma and the anti-diabetic agents reversed it. These findings indicate that impairment of tissues within cardiovascular system influences PRCP expression and suggest pathogenic mechanisms of deregulated PRCP expression warrant further investigation.

Concepts: Inflammation, Kidney, Blood, Blood pressure, Cardiovascular system, Angiotensin, Renin-angiotensin system, Endocrine system

0

Pioglitazone (PG) is used to control high blood sugar in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. PG acts as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist. In addition to the insulin-sensitizing effect, PG possesses anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, the protective effect of PG was evaluated against DNA damage induced by ionizing radiation in human healthy lymphocytes.

0

In this era of potent medications and interventional cardiovascular (CV) procedures, the importance of beginning with and including therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC) is frequently forgotten. A major goal of this review article is to show and emphasize that modification of CV risk with nonmedication approaches makes an essential contribution to CV risk reduction. Available information on TLC and modifiable CV risk factors was reviewed and assessed. Modifiable major CV risk factors include diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, tobacco abuse, obesity, stress, and sedentary lifestyle. Age as a major CV risk factor is, of course, not susceptible to modification. A contribution to the control of CV risk factors can occur without the start of medications and there is proof of benefit for beginning with a nonpharmacological approach. TLC can benefit all of the major modifiable CV risk factors and there is good evidence for the additional benefit of supervised and group TLC. TLC includes physical activity, diet, and smoking cessation. Evidence for the benefit of TLC in reducing CV disease events is well established. However, medications must be added in those patients with higher CV risk to obtain maximum cholesterol reduction (lower is better for the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol) and good blood pressure control. The benefit of TLC is frequently forgotten in this era of potent medications and invasive procedures. The benefits of diet and physical activity are emphasized with supporting data. Many motivated patients can prolong their lives significantly by dedication to TLC. •Therapeutic lifestyle change (TLC) especially encompasses increased physical activity, healthy diet, and smoking cessation. •There is extensive proof for the benefit of TLC in contributing to cardiovascular (CV) disease prevention. •CV disease has strong metabolic and inflammatory components, both of which can be improved by TLC.

0

In recent years, over use of antibiotics has been raising its head to a serious problem all around the world as pathogens become drug resistant and create challenges to the medical field. This failure of most potent antibiotics that kill pathogens increases the thirst for research to look further way of killing pathogens. It has been led to the findings of antimicrobial peptide which is the most potent peptide to destroy pathogens. This review gives special emphasis to the usage of marine bacteria and other microorganisms for antimicrobial peptide (AMP) which are eco friendly as well as a developing class of natural and synthetic peptides with a wide spectrum of targets to pathogenic microbes. Consequently, a significant attention has been paid mainly to (i) the structure and types of anti microbial peptides and (ii) mode of action and mechanism of antimicrobial peptide resistance to pathogens. In addition to this, the designing of AMPs has been analysed thoroughly for reducing toxicity and developing better potent AMP. It has been done by the modified unnatural amino acids by amidation to target the control of biofilm and persister cell.

0

Aromatherapy products, hydrosol beverages and distillates containing essential oils are widely used for cardiovascular conditions. Investigation of the possible activity of their major constituents with the cardiovascular related receptors may lead to develop new therapeutics. It also, may prevent unwanted side effects and drug-herb interactions.

0

Anemia is a common complication of heart failure and chronic kidney disease (CKD). Sacubitril-valsartan is a novel therapy for the treatment of chronic heart failure with a reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). We have evaluated the short-term effects of sacubitril-valsartan on the anemia of CRS.

0

0

Diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM) as an imperative menace to health takes place without or with coexistence of vascular diseases. Even though numerous pathological mechanisms are accountable for DCM have been estimated, oxidative stress is extensively well thought-out as a foremost key cause for the pathogenesis of the DCM. In this review we focused on role of bioactive compounds using different sources like plant and marine products in cardiomyopathy. Natural products and their related constituents have traditionally been implausible as a resource of curative agents. In last few decades, studies into natural products in the pharma field has condensed, still to pay to problems such as the requirement of compatibility of conventional natural product extract libraries with high‒throughput selection. From ancient time documented that natural product structures have the characteristics of high chemical variety, biochemical specificity and other molecular properties that make them favorable as direct structures for drug invention, and which provide to distinguish them from libraries of combinatorial and synthetic compounds. Consequently, the aim of this review is to provide an overview on the recent progress and development in the bio-active compounds in DCM and also to focus on the cellular mechanisms underlying cardiomyocyte dysfunction for their therapeutic targets.