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Journal: Cardiovascular diabetology

176

Type 1 diabetes is associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD). Decreased endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) number plays a pivotal role in reduced endothelial repair and development of CVD. We aimed to determine if cardioprotective effect of metformin is mediated by increasing circulating endothelial progenitor cells (cEPCs), pro-angiogenic cells (PACs) and decreasing circulating endothelial cells (cECs) count whilst maintaining unchanged glycemic control.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Blood vessel, Diabetes, Endothelial progenitor cell, Insulin resistance

167

BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that clinical factors other than glycemic control may influence abnormal cardiac function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). We aimed to investigate the independent factors for abnormal cardiac function among clinical factors in T2DM. METHODS: We studied 148 asymptomatic patients with T2DM without overt heart disease. Echocardiographic findings were compared between diabetic patients and 68 age-matched healthy subjects. Early (E) and late (A) diastolic mitral flow velocity and early diastolic mitral annular velocity (e') were measured for assessing left ventricular (LV) diastolic function. We evaluated insulin resistance, non-esterified fatty acid, high-sensitive CRP, estimated glomerular filtration rate, waist/hip ratio, abdominal visceral adipose tissue (VAT), subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) and other clinical characteristics in addition to glycemic control. VAT and SAT were quantified by computed tomography. RESULTS: In T2DM, E/A and e' were significantly lower, and E/e', left atrial volume and LV mass were significantly greater than in control subjects. In multivariate liner regression analysis, VAT was an independent determinant of left atrial volume (beta =0.203, p=0.011), E/A (beta =-0.208, p=0.002), e' (beta =-0.354, p<0.001) and E/e' (beta=0.220, p=0.003). Age was also an independent determinant, whereas fasting plasma glucose and hemoglobin A1c levels were not. In addition to systolic blood pressure, waist-hip ratio (beta=0.173, p=0.024) and VAT/SAT ratio (beta=0.162, p=0.049) were independent determinants of LV mass. CONCLUSION: Excessive visceral fat accompanied by adipocyte dysfunction may play a greater role than glycemic control in the development of diastolic dysfunction and LV hypertrophy in T2DM.

Concepts: Blood, Hypertension, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Diabetes, Insulin resistance, Adipose tissue

121

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death among adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). We recently reported that glycemic control in patients with T2D can be significantly improved through a continuous care intervention (CCI) including nutritional ketosis. The purpose of this study was to examine CVD risk factors in this cohort.

33

Blood glucose variability is receiving considerable attention as a new risk factor for coronary artery disease. This study aimed to investigate the association between blood glucose variability and coronary plaque tissue characteristics.

Concepts: Blood, Angina pectoris, Coronary artery disease, Heart, Artery, Coronary circulation

28

BACKGROUND: Far infra-red (IFR) therapy was shown to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular system, but effects of IFR on endothelial progenitor cell (EPC) and EPC-related vasculogenesis remain unclear. We hypothesized that IFR radiation can restore blood flow recovery in ischemic hindlimb in diabetic mice by enhancement of EPCs functions and homing process.Materials and methodsStarting at 4 weeks after the onset of diabetes, unilateral hindlimb ischemia was induced in streptozotocine (STZ)-induced diabetic mice, which were divided into control and IFR therapy groups (n = 6 per group). The latter mice were placed in an IFR dry sauna at 34[DEGREE SIGN]C for 30 min once per day for 5 weeks. RESULTS: Doppler perfusion imaging demonstrated that the ischemic limb/normal side blood perfusion ratio in the thermal therapy group was significantly increased beyond that in controls, and significantly greater capillary density was seen in the IFR therapy group. Flow cytometry analysis showed impaired EPCs (Sca-1+/Flk-1+) mobilization after ischemia surgery in diabetic mice with or without IFR therapy (n = 6 per group). However, as compared to those in the control group, bone marrow-derived EPCs differentiated into endothelial cells defined as GFP+/CD31+ double-positive cells were significantly increased in ischemic tissue around the vessels in diabetic mice that received IFR radiation. In in-vitro studies, cultured EPCs treated with IFR radiation markedly augmented high glucose-impaired EPC functions, inhibited high glucose-induced EPC senescence and reduced H2O2 production. Nude mice received human EPCs treated with IFR in high glucose medium showed a significant improvement in blood flow recovery in ischemic limb compared to those without IFR therapy. IFR therapy promoted blood flow recovery and new vessel formation in STZ-induced diabetic mice. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of IFR therapy promoted collateral flow recovery and new vessel formation in STZ-induced diabetic mice, and these beneficial effects may derive from enhancement of EPC functions and homing process.

Concepts: Blood, Angiogenesis, Heart, Blood vessel, Capillary, Endothelial progenitor cell, Flow cytometry, Cardiovascular system

28

BACKGROUND: Increased ferritin concentrations are associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS). The association between ferritin as well as hemoglobin level and individual MetS components is unclear. Erythropoietin levels in subjects with MetS have not been determined previously. The aim of this study was to compare serum erythropoietin, ferritin, haptoglobin, hemoglobin, and transferrin receptor (sTFR) levels between subjects with and without MetS and subjects with individual MetS components. METHODS: A population based cross-sectional study of 766 Caucasian, middle-aged subjects (341 men and 425 women) from five age groups born in Pieksamaki, Finland who were invited to a health check-up in 2004 with no exclusion criteria. Laboratory analyzes of blood samples collected in 2004 were done during year 2010. MetS was defined by National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. RESULTS: 159 (53%) men and 170 (40%) women of study population met MetS criteria. Hemoglobin and ferritin levels as well as erythropoietin and haptoglobin levels were higher in subjects with MetS (p < 0.001, p = 0.018). sTFR level did not differ significantly between subjects with or without MetS. Hemoglobin level was significantly higher in subjects with any of the MetS components (p < 0.001, p = 0.002). Ferritin level was significantly higher in subjects with abdominal obesity or high TG or elevated glucose or low high density cholesterol component (p < 0.001, p = 0.002, p = 0.02). Erythropoietin level was significantly higher in subjects with abdominal obesity component (p = 0.015) but did not differ significantly between subjects with or without other MetS components. Haptoglobin level was significantly higher in subjects with blood pressure or elevated glucose component o MetS (p = 0.028, p = 0.025). CONCLUSION: Subjects with MetS have elevated hemoglobin, ferritin, erythropoietin and haptoglobin concentrations. Higher hemoglobin levels are related to all components of MetS. Higher ferritin levels associate with TG, abdominal obesity, elevated glucose or low high density cholesterol. Haptoglobin levels associate with blood pressure or elevated glucose. However, erythropoietin levels are related only with abdominal obesity. Higher serum erythropoietin concentrations may suggest underlying adipose tissue hypoxemia in MetS.

Concepts: Hemoglobin, Protein, Nutrition, Atherosclerosis, Red blood cell, Obesity, Adipose tissue, Anemia

24

Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). To identify the most effective treatment for CVD, it is paramount to understand the mechanism behind cardioprotective therapies. Although metformin has been shown to reduce CVD in Type-2 DM clinical trials, the underlying mechanism remains unexplored. CD34(+) cell-based therapies offer a new treatment approach to CVD. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of metformin on the angiogenic properties of CD34(+) cells under conditions mimicking acute myocardial infarction in diabetes.

Concepts: Gene, Clinical trial, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Stroke

18

Newer oral antidiabetic drug classes are expanding treatment options for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, concerns remain. The objective was to assess relative risk of heart failure hospitalization of sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors in T2DM patients.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus, Thiazolidinedione

15

Diastolic dysfunction (DD), a hallmark of obesity and primary defect in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction, is a predictor of future cardiovascular events. We previously reported that linagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, improved DD in Zucker Obese rats, a genetic model of obesity and hypertension. Here we investigated the cardioprotective effects of linagliptin on development of DD in western diet (WD)-fed mice, a clinically relevant model of overnutrition and activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system.

Concepts: Nutrition, Myocardial infarction, Hypertension, Cardiology, Heart failure, Ejection fraction, Obesity, Cardiovascular diseases

11

We have previously shown that a Palaeolithic diet consisting of the typical food groups that our ancestors ate during the Palaeolithic era, improves cardiovascular disease risk factors and glucose control compared to the currently recommended diabetes diet in patients with type 2 diabetes. To elucidate the mechanisms behind these effects, we evaluated fasting plasma concentrations of glucagon, insulin, incretins, ghrelin, C-peptide and adipokines from the same study.

Concepts: Nutrition, Insulin, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Cardiovascular disease, Hypoglycemia, Glycogen