SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers

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To analyze the expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1A) and its correlation with clinical outcome in men with localized prostate cancer (PC) treated with dose escalation radiotherapy (RT) and androgen deprivation (AD).

Concepts: Medicine, Cancer, Ionizing radiation, Proton therapy, Chemotherapy, Prostate cancer, Radiation therapy, Hormonal therapy

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The BRCA1 mutations that are endemic to the Slavic population of Russia have not been identified among indigenous peoples, including the Buryats, Tuvinians and Altaians with hereditary breast cancer.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Biology, BRCA2, BRCA1, Russia, Indigenous peoples, Shamanism

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Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is the standard treatment for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Pathological complete response (pCR) is commonly used as a valid predictor of NCT long-term outcomes. Blood-based tumor biomarkers have the potential to predict response to NCT at early stage non-invasively. We believed plasma CCL5 could be a potential marker to predict NCT of LABC. Its efficiency and possible mechanism was studied in this work. Human Cytokine Antibody Microarray was applied to screen different cytokine concentration in plasma between low histological regression (Low-R) and high histological regression (High-R) patients. LABC patients were divided into two groups according to pathological reactivity. The concentration of plasma CCL5 in different groups was determined by ELISA analysis. CCK8 assay was performed to analyze epirubicin susceptibility of breast cancer cells. Transwell assay was performed to determine the effect of CCL5 on breast cancer cells' migration and invasion. qRT-PCR and western blot were used to verify the EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) markers in CCL5-treated and epirubicin-treated breast cancer cells. The concentration of plasma CCL5 of Low-R group was higher than High-R group before NCT. The plasma levels of CCL5 were significantly reduced after NCT in the group of high histological regression (High-R). Epirubicin susceptibility decreased in the breast cancer cells treated by recombinant CCL5. Migration and invasion were significantly enhanced in breast cancer cells treated by recombinant CCL5. E-cadherin expression was decreased whereas vimentin increased significantly in CCL5-treated breast cancer cells. The phosphorylation of ezrin in Y-567 and its downstream protein cortactin increased significantly in CCL5-treated breast cancer cells. Plasma CCL5 level could be a promised candidate to predict chemotherapy response of breast cancer. Plasma CCL5 plays an important role in EMT process of breast cancer.

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Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor (MPNST) is rare, aggressive soft tissue sarcoma which may affect children.

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Abnormally expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) contribute widely to human cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), by regulating their downstream targets. MiR-223 has been proved to be up-regulated in both gastric cancer and ovarian cancer. However, the effect of miR-223 on OSCC is still unclear. Here, we showed that miR-223 was over-expressed in OSCC tissues using qRT-PCR. Next, we investigated the biological mechanism of miR-223 in OSCC. The results demonstrated that miR-223 facilitated the cell proliferation and migration of OSCC using MTT assay and Transwell assay. Furthermore, we stated that the FBXW7 expression was decreased in OSCC and re-expression of FBXW7 inhibited the proliferation and migration of OSCC. In addition, FBXW7 mimic inversed the promotion effect of miR-223 in regulating of OSCC cells. In short, miR-223 promoted OSCC cell proliferation and migration by downregulating FBXW7, which provided a novel therapeutic strategy for OSCC.

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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent cancers and microRNAs are involved in colorectal carcinogenesis and progression. The role of our candidate microRNAs (miR-143-3p, -424-5p, -212-3p and -34a-3p) have been investigated in various cancers.

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Multiple myeloma (MM) is a common hematological malignancy that is often associated with osteolytic lesions, anemia and renal impairment. Deregulation of miRNA has been implicated in the pathogenesis of MM. It was found in our study that miR-19b and miR-20a as members of crucial oncogene miR-17-92 cluster were differentially expressed between patients with MM and normal controls by genechip microarray, and this result was further confirmed in sera of patients with MM by qRT-PCR. The functional effect of miR-19b/20a was analyzed and results showed that miR-19b/20a promoted cell proliferation and migration, inhibited cell apoptosis and altered cell cycle in MM cells. PTEN protein expression was reduced after transfection of miR-19b/20a, suggesting that PTEN was a direct target of miR-19b/20a. In addition, over-expression of miR-19b/20a reversed the anti-proliferation and pro-apoptosis effect of PTEN in MM cells. Finally, our in vivo experiment demonstrated that lentivirus-mediated delivery of miR-20a promoted tumor growth in murine xenograft model of MM, which provide evidence that miR-20a inhibitor exerts therapeutic activity in preclinical models and supports a framework for the development of miR-19b/20a-based treatment strategies for MM patients.

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Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein-coding transcripts that play important roles in tumorigenesis and tumor progression. Our study aimed to explore the role of lncRNA MAGI2-AS3 in breast cancer metastatic progression. In the present study, our results showed that MAGI2-AS3 can inhibit the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells. In addition, an increase in MAGI2-AS3 can inhibit microRNA-374a (miR-374a) expression in breast cancer cells. Bioinformatic analysis predicted the correlation between MAGI2-AS3 and miR-374a. Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) was found to be an novel mRNA target of miR-374a. MAGI2-AS3 upregulation inhibited breast cancer metastatic progression by decreasing miR-374a and enhancing PTEN expression. Together, our data revealed that lncRNA MAGI2-AS3 is involved in breast cancer cell progression by regulating the miR-374a-PTEN axis. These findings offer new insight into treatment strategies for breast cancer.

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Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common malignant disease worldwide and thus new therapeutic approaches are needed. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) remains the most widely used agent to treat colorectal cancer (CRC). However, its clinical efficacy is currently limited by the development of drug resistance. Esculetin (EST), a coumarin, was found to have anti-proliferative and anti-migration activity in cancer.

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Bladder cancer is one of the most common genitourinary malignancies, with a high rate of recurrence and progression. The prognosis for patients with bladder cancer, especially muscle-invasive bladder cancer, remains poor despite systemic therapy.