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Journal: Cancer biomarkers : section A of Disease markers

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Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT) is the standard treatment for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). Pathological complete response (pCR) is commonly used as a valid predictor of NCT long-term outcomes. Blood-based tumor biomarkers have the potential to predict response to NCT at early stage non-invasively. We believed plasma CCL5 could be a potential marker to predict NCT of LABC. Its efficiency and possible mechanism was studied in this work. Human Cytokine Antibody Microarray was applied to screen different cytokine concentration in plasma between low histological regression (Low-R) and high histological regression (High-R) patients. LABC patients were divided into two groups according to pathological reactivity. The concentration of plasma CCL5 in different groups was determined by ELISA analysis. CCK8 assay was performed to analyze epirubicin susceptibility of breast cancer cells. Transwell assay was performed to determine the effect of CCL5 on breast cancer cells' migration and invasion. qRT-PCR and western blot were used to verify the EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition) markers in CCL5-treated and epirubicin-treated breast cancer cells. The concentration of plasma CCL5 of Low-R group was higher than High-R group before NCT. The plasma levels of CCL5 were significantly reduced after NCT in the group of high histological regression (High-R). Epirubicin susceptibility decreased in the breast cancer cells treated by recombinant CCL5. Migration and invasion were significantly enhanced in breast cancer cells treated by recombinant CCL5. E-cadherin expression was decreased whereas vimentin increased significantly in CCL5-treated breast cancer cells. The phosphorylation of ezrin in Y-567 and its downstream protein cortactin increased significantly in CCL5-treated breast cancer cells. Plasma CCL5 level could be a promised candidate to predict chemotherapy response of breast cancer. Plasma CCL5 plays an important role in EMT process of breast cancer.

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Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the urological malignancy with the highest mortality rate and is increasing in incidence. The prognostic and predictive biomarkers are highly desired. This study aims to investigate the significance of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) as a clinical biomarker in patients with renal cell carcinomas.

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Oral squamous cell carcinoma is a malignant tumor which is particularly common in the developing world, mostly in older males.

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Postoperative recurrence for papillary renal cell carcinoma (PRCC) remains a tough problem in clinic. Previous studies have shown that general control nonderepressible kinase 2 (GCN2) was critically involved in tumour development. However, its function and clinical significance in renal cancer remain unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of GCN2 in PRCC. GCN2 silencing suppressed the viability and proliferation, promoted apoptosis of renal cancer cells. We found that the protein level of GCN2 was increased in PRCC tissues. Immunohistochemistry was performed in 84 patients with PRCC to explore the association of GCN2 level with clinical significance. High GCN2 protein level was observed to be significantly correlated with adverse clinicopathological parameters, such as larger tumor size, higher TNM stage, higher Fuhurman Grade, and lymph node metastasis. We evaluated patient outcomes according to various clinical parameters as well as GCN2 expression by Kaplan-Meier curves. Multivariate analysis revealed that GCN2 overexpression can be a predictive factor correlated with reduced OS and PFS of postoperative PRCC patients. Collectively, GCN2 is potentially to play crucial roles in PRCC progression, and its overexpression may be used to predict poor prognosis and promising therapeutic strategy for PRCC patients.

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Targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2) is a microtubule-associated proteinrequired for mitosis and spindle assembly. It has been revealed that TPX2 is overexpressedin various human cancers and promotes cancer progression.

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Protocadherin8 (PCDH8), an integral membrane protein, was reported to be a tumor suppressor involved in tumorigenesis in cancers. We aimed to investigate the expression of PCDH8 and its clinicopathological significance in hypopharyngeal carcinoma. We also examined the possible inactivation mechanism of PCDH8. A total of 80 pairs of hypopharyngeal carcinoma tumor tissues and non-tumor tissues were investigated to examine the immunohistochemical expression of PCDH8. Prognostic value and clinicopathological significance of PCDH8 expression were examined by Kaplan-Meier and log-rank test and Cox’s ones. Ten pairs of tumor tissues and non-tumor tissues were analyzed by RT-PCR and 4 pairs by Western blot respectively. Promoter methylation of PCDH8 was observed in 14 pairs of tumor tissues and non-tumor tissues by methylation-specific PCR (MSP). The expression of PCDH8 in tumor tissues was depressed immunohistochemically when compared with non-tumor tissues and was significantly lower in the advanced pathological stage. Meanwhile, the expression of PCDH8 served as an independent prognostic risk factor for overall survival of hypopharyngeal carcinoma. The mRNA and protein levels of PCDH8 in tumor tissues was also down-regulated than in non-tumor tissues. Moreover, aberrant promoter methylation of PCDH8 occurred frequently in tumor tissues, rather than in non-tumor tissues. For the first time, our study demonstrates the tumor-suppressive function of PCDH8 and its epigenetic inactivation by promoter methylation in hypopharyngeal carcinoma. It suggests that PCDH8 may serve as a useful prognostic biomarker and a potential therapeutic target for hypopharyngeal carcinoma patients.

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Data about the molecular pathogenesis of hepatitis C-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are still challenging.

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Spindle and kinetochore-associated protein 1 (SKA1) is a component of SKA, which is essential for proper chromosome segregation. Recently, SKA1 was found to be over-expressed in several types of human cancers. However, reports on the relationship between SKA1 expression and the prognosis of bladder cancer, in particular, are lacking.

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MicroRNA (miR-221/222) is frequently overexpressed in many cancers and is associated with poor prognosis. However, the role of miR-221/222 in retinoblastoma (RB) remains unclear. This study aimed to detect the clinical significance of miR-221/222 in RB patients and explore its role in RB cells in vitro.

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Aberrant expression of long non-coding RNAs is involved in the progression of ovarian cancer. However, the clinical significance and biological functions of SNHG3 expression was little known in ovarian cancer (OC).