SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: British journal of neurosurgery

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Abstract Implanted cortical stimulation is foreseen to facilitate functional poststroke recovery. Until now, no study has concluded on its pathophysiological mechanism. We report a case of a 58-year-old patient for whom cortical stimulation triggered a drastic enhancement of speech performances. The effects remain reversible after 6 years of stimulation, reflecting intra/inter-hemispheric modulation.

Concepts: 2002 albums, Illness

28

This report presents a fully thrombosed giant aneurysm of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) mimicking an intracranial tumour in a 9-year-old paediatric patient. Surgical clipping and aneurysmectomy were performed. Postoperative imaging studies confirmed the removal of the lesion and the patient was discharged with no neurological deficits. Our case shows that giant thrombosed aneurysms involving the PICA could be potentially misdiagnosed as neoplasms in children and great care must be exercised when managing such cases.

Concepts: Medicine, Atherosclerosis, Hypertension, Stroke, Thrombus, Cerebral aneurysm, Posterior inferior cerebellar artery, Anterior inferior cerebellar artery

28

Intracranial epidermoid cysts are uncommon lesions with typical radiological and operative findings. We report a midline cystic lesion in the pre-pontine cistern, with radiological features of an epidermoid, but intra-operatively yielding a thin-walled cyst with fluid contents. The cyst wall showed stratified squamous epithelium on histopathology.

Concepts: Squamous cell carcinoma, Squamous epithelium, Sebaceous cyst, Epithelial cells, Cyst, Epidermoid cyst

27

Nosocomial infections, pneumonia in particular, are well-known complications of traumatic brain injury (TBI), which are associated with a worse neurological outcome. This review aims to explore the role of vagus nerve activity in immunomodulation as a causative factor. A MEDLINE search revealed numerous reports published over the last decade describing the “cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway” between the vagus nucleus and leukocyte activity. Using a combination of lipopolysaccharide stimulation and vagotomy, it has been shown that the parasympathetic fibres terminating in the spleen reduce tumour necrosis factor production. Further pharmacological and receptor knockout studies have identified the α7 subtype of nicotinic receptors as the likely target for this. Vagal activity also induces changes in neutrophil chemotaxis through altered expression of the CD11b integrin which is abolished by splenectomy. By extrapolating this evidence we suggest a possible mechanism for immunosuppression following TBI which also has the potential to be targeted to reduce the incidence of pneumonia. Whilst there is strong supporting evidence for the role of vagal nerve overactivity in post-TBI pneumonia, there have yet to be any clinical investigations and further study is required.

Concepts: Inflammation, Nervous system, Pneumonia, Traumatic brain injury, Vagus nerve, Cranial nerves, Acetylcholine, Vagus nerve stimulation

27

Haemangioblastomas are hypervascularized tumours. Their surgical management requires a complete resectioning and a prompt handling of the vascular inlets and outlets. The use of intraoperative indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-VAG) depicts the precise vascular pattern for the surgeon. Its use is safe and easy, and the procedure can be repeated during the operation. Here we present a case of spinal haemangioblastoma treated with the aid of intraoperative ICG-VAG and the Flow 800 software. The use of the Flow 800 allowed the surgeon to detect, at a glance, minimal changes in the vascular supply during the dissection. The colour-coded images generated by the Flow 800 increase the ICG-CAG sensitivity, improving the capability to detect changes in vascular patterns.

Concepts: Surgery, Pattern, Indocyanine green

27

Introduction. There is a high rate of IDH1/2 mutations in low grade gliomas and in high grade gliomas deriving from them. IDH analysis of gliomas is a novel method of classification and an independent prognostic marker. We compared antibody and sequencing methods for the detection of IDH mutations. Method. 88 samples from 74 patients were identified. For immunohistochemistry: sections were stained with anti-IDH1R132H antibody. For sequencing: DNA was extracted from fresh, frozen tissue. Results. 28% (20/71) of cases were positive for the R132H IDH1 mutation by antibody. An IDH1 mutation was detected by molecular genetics in 37% (21/57) of cases and no IDH2 mutations were detected. 24% (5/21) had rare IDH1 mutations not detected by immunohistochemistry. Where sufficient tissue was available, immunohistochemistry and DNA analysis were fully concordant for the p.Arg132His mutation. Both Grade II gliomas and anaplastic astrocytomas showed a statistically different distribution of IDH1 mutation load compared to GBMs (p < 0.0001; p = 0.0021 respectively). Conclusion. A rationalised combined approach involving R132H antibody testing and sequencing of negative cases would be ideal for the detection of IDH1 mutations - antibody testing is cheaper than sequencing but sequencing demonstrates rare IDH1 mutations not detected by immunohistochemistry.

Concepts: Antibody, DNA, Genetics, Mutation, Evolution, Molecular biology, Glioma, Population genetics

25

Fifty-six human and animal studies of cauda equina syndrome (CES) were reviewed. The evidence from human studies was poor (level IV). Evidence from animal studies and limited evidence from human studies suggest that structural and functional neurological losses are a progressive, continuous process. The longer the cauda equina nerve roots are compressed the greater the harm and the poorer the extent of recovery. This should prompt diagnosis and surgery for all CES patients as soon as practicably possible.

Concepts: Medicine, Hospital, Poverty, The Canon of Medicine, Avicenna, Dustin Thomason, Cauda equina, Cauda equina syndrome

25

Our aim is to measure and compare the academic and research output of neurosurgical departments across the UK and Ireland.

Concepts: United Kingdom, Europe, English people, British Isles, London, Northern Ireland, Irish Sea, Isle of Man

25

The authors present a case of anterior sacral meningocoele demonstrating a clinical picture of cauda equina syndrome. To the best of our knowledge, such presentation has not yet been reported.

Concepts: Greatest hits albums, Greatest hits, Cauda equina, Cauda equina syndrome

25

Objective. The study investigated the effect of flurbiprofen on the development of anencephaly in early stage chicken embryos. Material and methods. We looked at four groups with a total of 36 embryos. There was a control group, a normal saline group, a normal-dose group and a high-dose group with ten, ten, eight and eight eggs with embryo respectively. Results. Two embryos in the control group, studied with light microscopy at 48 h, were consistent with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton System. They had open neural tubes. The other embryos in this group were considered normal. One embryo in the normal saline group was on the occlusion stage at 48 h. One embryo showed an open neural tube. They were compatible with 28-29 hours' incubation in the Hamburger-Hamilton system. The remaining eight embryos showed normal development. In the normal dose group, one embryo showed underdevelopment of the embryonic disc and the embryo was dead. In four embryos, the neural tubes were open. One cranial malformation was found that was complicated with anencephaly in one embryo. In two embryos the neural tubes were closed, as they showed normal development, and they reached their expected stages according to the Hamburger-Hamilton classification. There was no malformation or growth retardation. Four experimental embryos were anencephalic in the high dose group, and three embryos had open neural tubes. One embryo exhibited both anencephaly and a neural tube closure defect. None of the embryos in this group showed normal development. Conclusions. Even the usual therapeutic doses of flurbiprofen increased the risk of neural tube defect. Flurbiprofen was found to significantly increase the risk of anencephaly. The provision of improved technical materials and studies with larger sample sizes will reveal the stage of morphological disruption during the development of embryos.

Concepts: Brain, Embryo, Developmental biology, Embryology, Neural tube, Spina bifida, Neural tube defect, Anencephaly