Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: British journal of community nursing


While there is no proven cure for lipoedema, early detection is key as specialist treatments, complemented by self-management techniques, can improve symptoms and prevent progression. There is no universal approach as the correct treatment or treatments will depend on each patient’s particular circumstances; however, when chosen early and appropriately, interventions can provide huge benefits. The most common treatments in the management of lipoedema include compression, manual lymphatic drainage (MLD), tumescent liposuction, intermittent pneumatic compression therapy (IPC), kinesio taping, deep oscillation therapy, and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT).

Concepts: Medicine, Management, Lymphatic system, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Lymph, Manual lymphatic drainage


As populations rise and many global health policies point towards community care, it is important that health care delivery meets demand. In Ireland, a study was undertaken on the level and context of missed care in community nursing. The study used a survey to identify the quantity of, and reasons for, missed care; a reference group to develop possible health economic implications for missed care, and a small sample of semi-structured interviews to consider the macro-environment within which missed care occurred. This paper presents the findings of the health economics and qualitative data, and the study’s implications for community nursing.

Concepts: Health care, Health economics, Medicine, Public health, Health insurance, Health, Economics, Health science


The previous article in this law column considered a patient’s right to give a real consent before a district nurse could proceed with care and treatment. This article considers the district nurse’s rights and responsibilities when considering withdrawing or withholding clinically-assisted nutrition and hydration. It focuses on recent cases in the Court of Protection, M v A Hospital [2017] , and High Court, NHS Trust v Mr Y & Mrs Y [2017] , and on the need to bring such cases to court before treatment is withdrawn.

Concepts: Hospital, Law, Human rights, Concepts in ethics, National Health Service, Withdrawal, Rights, Civil and political rights


Oral disease can have a significant impact on the health and wellbeing of the housebound patient. The aetiology of oral conditions such as dental caries and periodontal disease have been well investigated and there is a solid evidence base in how to best prevent their progress. The Department of Health document Delivering better oral health: an evidence-based toolkit for prevention is a valuable resource that outlines the current best preventative evidence in the form of practical advice for clinicians and patients. This article aims to distil and present this advice for the benefit of community nurses. It will identify areas of particular importance for people with additional needs, particularly the elderly and infirm. Outlining how to best tailor preventative advice and treatment for this patient group.

Concepts: Health care provider, Medicine, The Canon of Medicine, Illness, Dental caries, Periodontitis, Dentistry, Halitosis


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an umbrella term used to describe respiratory diseases characterised by airway obstruction. COPD is now an established and significant chronic disease, killing over 30 000 people in the UK every year. According to the World Health Organization, COPD will become the third biggest killer in the world by 2020. The financial and human cost of the disease is huge. To appreciate the pathophysiology of obstructive pulmonary diseases, it is first necessary to understand a number of important lung concepts. This article discusses the pathophysiology of COPD, highlighting the main mechanisms involved, provides an outline of the associated signs, symptoms and treatment of COPD and explore how health care professionals in the community/residential care settings can help manage and improve the quality of life for patients with COPD.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Pulmonology, Asthma, Pneumonia, Tuberculosis, Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Obstructive lung disease


An initial literature search identified a deficit in the non-medical prescribing evidence base in relation to V150 community practitioner nurse prescribing. Nineteen V150 prescribers from eight professional roles, and prescribing for a variety of conditions, along with three NMP leads, participated in this evaluation. The evaluation used a mixed methodology of questionnaires and telephone interviews; 19 V150 prescribers participated, with all of them completing the online questionnaire. Two of these also consented to a follow-up telephone interview. Three NMP leads completed the online questionnaire. The findings suggested a benefit to the wider health organisation with regard to reduced attendance at walk-in centres, GP practices and the emergency department. It is anticipated that the findings from this study may be prove useful to NMP leads, NMP groups and commissioners, as well as V150 prescribers.


There have been two widely reported criminal cases where informal carers, including family members, have been found guilty of the gross negligence manslaughter of the vulnerable person in their care. In this article, Richard Griffith considers the duty on informal carers when caring for a person and the duty on district nurses to protect vulnerable persons from harm.


Quality patient education of how to care for their stoma improves patient outcomes and enhances quality of care and efficacy. There is a need for home visits to assist ostomates with rehabilitation of their stoma formation, as they often feel stigmatised and are likely to withdraw from social activities. It has previously been highlighted that community care is often the weakest link in rehabilitation, highlighting the need for effective teamwork and collaboration between stoma nurse specialists and community nurses. This article will focus on some of the more common complications of stomas which will be seen in the community setting, how to treat these conditions and when patients should be referred to the specialist stoma care nurse.


Identifying frail older people, and in particular, people who are psychologically frail in a community setting is difficult. This article investigates predictors of psychological frailty and constructs a short and effective pre-detection tool for highly psychologically frail older people. The Belgian Ageing Studies, a cross-sectional study (n=28.245) was used. Measures included four items of the Geriatric Depression Scale, the psychological domain of the Comprehensive Frailty Assessment Instrument. First bivariate analyses were used. Afterwards, Chi-squared automatic interaction detector (CHAID) analysis was applied to gain an insight into the hierarchical order of predictors for high psychological frailty. Findings indicate that the combination of hopelessness and life dissatisfaction predicts high psychological frailty in 68.4% of cases. Early detection of frailty offers opportunities to start early interventions, and can delay or reduce frailty. In order to detect older people who are psychologically frail, a simple two question pre-detection tool was developed. To conclude: if a patient answers ‘yes’ to feeling hopeless and ‘no’ to having life satisfaction, this predicts with great probability (68.4%) high psychological frailty.


This paper will review and address the pathological processes in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), including the prevalence of comorbidities and the implications of these factors for a common disabling COPD symptom, breathlessness. It will further consider non-pharmacological strategies that community nurses can use to support breathlessness relief in the context of holistic patient care.