Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: BMJ case reports


In this report, we present a novel technique of successful coil embolisation using temporary deployment of two Comaneci devices placed in Y configuration across a wide-neck ruptured basilar tip aneurysm. The placement of two devices across the wide aneurysm neck allowed optimal coverage for safe coil delivery, while maintaining parent vessel patency. This case highlights the unique and safe applicability of two crossed Comaneci devices in a ruptured aneurysm with unfavourable anatomy, ultimately resulting in complete aneurysm obliteration. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of double Comaneci usage in a wide-neck ruptured aneurysm. This technique can be potentially applied in challenging wide-neck bifurcation aneurysms, particularly when double antiplatelet therapy is of concern.


Spontaneous perforation of the pharynx is an unusual condition. Due to its non-specific presentation and general lack of awareness, diagnosis and intervention may be delayed resulting in potential complications. This case reports a rare spontaneous perforation of the pyriform sinus after a forceful sneeze, leading to cervical subcutaneous emphysema and pneumomediastinum.

Concepts: Subcutaneous emphysema, Pneumomediastinum


Isolated chondral defects have a limited capacity to heal and predispose to the development of osteoarthritis. Current surgical management can be unpredictable in outcome. Improved understanding of the action of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has seen renewed interest in their role in cartilage repair. A 26-year-old athlete presented with a post-traumatic, isolated patella chondral defect. The patient underwent an arthroscopy with removal of a chondral loose body. After failure to symptomatically improve 12 months following surgery, the patient received intra-articular autologous adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) therapy.

Concepts: Bone, Stem cell, Mesenchymal stem cell, Bone marrow, Stem cells, Osteoarthritis, Knee, Mesenchyme


This case series documents three patients referred to the Intensive Dietary Management clinic in Toronto, Canada, for insulin-dependent type 2 diabetes. It demonstrates the effectiveness of therapeutic fasting to reverse their insulin resistance, resulting in cessation of insulin therapy while maintaining control of their blood sugars. In addition, these patients were also able to lose significant amounts of body weight, reduce their waist circumference and also reduce their glycated haemoglobin level.


A patient presented with left upper eyelid swelling and ptosis. The MRI reported a cyst with proteinaceous content. On surgical excision of the cyst, a rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lens was found. The RGP lens was encapsulated within the upper eyelid soft tissue. It was later revealed that the patient experienced childhood trauma while wearing RGP contact lenses 28 years previously. The patient assumed that the RGP lens fell out and was lost; however, it can be inferred that the lens migrated into the eyelid and resided there asymptomatically for 28 years.


A previously healthy man aged 50 years presented with malaise, anorexia, abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, generalised jaundice, scleral icterus and dark urine. He was not on any prescription or over-the-counter medications, but reported drinking 4-5 energy drinks daily for 3 weeks prior to presentation. Physical examination revealed jaundice and right upper quadrant abdominal tenderness. Laboratory studies were remarkable for transaminitis and evidence of chronic hepatitis C infection. Ultrasound scan demonstrated an echogenic liver and diffuse gallbladder wall thickening. Liver biopsy showed severe acute hepatitis with bridging necrosis and marked cholestasis. The patient was treated supportively with complete resolution of his symptoms and marked improvement in his laboratory abnormalities. The development of acute hepatitis in this patient was likely secondary to excessive energy drink consumption. Energy drinks as well as other herbal/over-the-counter supplements should be considered by clinicians in the workup of patients with acute hepatitis, particularly once other aetiologies have been excluded.

Concepts: Cirrhosis, Hepatitis, Liver, Gastroenterology, Hepatology, Bilirubin, Hepatitis C, Jaundice


We present a case of Vibrio vulnificus septic shock and cellulitis in a patient with chronic liver disease that occurred after obtaining a leg tattoo with subsequent seawater exposure in the Gulf of Mexico. Initial suspicion for V. vulnificus was high and he was started on empiric doxycycline and ceftriaxone at admission. Blood and wound cultures grew oxidase positive and comma-shaped Gram-negative rods ultimately confirmed to be V. vulnificus. Despite aggressive initial treatment, the patient developed septic shock and died. This case highlights the association of chronic liver disease and high mortality associated with infections of V. vulnificus Health providers should remain vigilant for V. vulnificus infections in patients with chronic liver disease and raw oyster ingestion or seawater exposure.

Concepts: Death, Patient, Infection, Septic shock, Mexico, Gulf of Mexico, Vibrio vulnificus, Vibrio


An 84-year-old man presented to the emergency department following recurrent falls over several weeks and onset of new left-sided weakness. CT of the brain revealed a large air cavity (pneumatocoele) in the right frontal lobe thought to be secondary to an ethmoidal osteoma communicating through the cribriform plate allowing air to be forced into the skull under pressure. Subsequent MRI confirmed these findings and also revealed a small focal area of acute infarction in the adjacent corpus callosum. The patient had a prolonged hospital stay, declined neurosurgical intervention and was discharged home on secondary stroke prevention.

Concepts: Brain, Myocardial infarction, Hospital, Stroke, Cerebrum, Skull, Mind, Frontal lobe


Three unrelated patients attended the accident and emergency department with pain and blurred vision after ocular injury with a Nerf gun. Two were adults and one was a child, all of which presented within a 3 months' period. All three cases were found to have ≥1 mm of traumatic hyphema (pooling of blood in anterior chamber of the eye), indicating significant ocular trauma. The two adult patients had formed hyphema and uveitis. The 11-year-old child had formed hyphema, corneal oedema, anterior uveitis, localised angle recession and commotio retinae, which further highlight the severity of the ocular trauma. Significant Nerf gun ocular injuries are not reported in the literature, as far as we know. This case series serves to raise awareness of the seriousness of Nerf gun ocular injuries. It encourages further exploration of reasons for such injuries, as well as a review of protective measures against ocular trauma.

Concepts: Hospital, Eye, Ophthalmology


A 69-year-old man, previously independent and with a pre-existing metallic aortic valve, presented with a history of fevers, confusion and malaise and was diagnosed with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Blood cultures taken on presentation grew Streptococcus sanguinis and vegetations were confirmed on transoesophageal echocardiogram. He had had a dental procedure 10 days before presentation but had not received prophylactic antibiotics; he had been receiving antibiotic prophylaxis for dental treatment up until the change in NICE guidelines in 2008. He was treated with high dose antibiotics and was referred for cardiothoracic surgery, but developed a cerebrovascular event, thought to be embolic, and deteriorated and died. Given that the patient had a metallic aortic valve and poor dentition, and therefore was at increased risk of infective endocarditis, should the new guidelines have been followed so rigidly, particularly as American and European guidelines still recommend the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in this patient group?

Concepts: Bacteria, Stroke, Surgery, United Kingdom, Infective endocarditis, Valvular heart disease, Streptococcus sanguinis, Endocarditis