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Journal: BMC medical imaging


BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is increasingly used in various diseases as a clinical tool for assessing the integrity of the brain’s white matter. Reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and an increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) are nonspecific findings in most pathological processes affecting the brain’s parenchyma. At present, there is no gold standard for validating diffusion measures, which are dependent on the scanning protocols, methods of the softwares and observers. Therefore, the normal variation and repeatability effects on commonly-derived measures should be carefully examined. METHODS: Thirty healthy volunteers (mean age 37.8 years, SD 11.4) underwent DTI of the brain with 3T MRI. Region-of-interest (ROI) -based measurements were calculated at eleven anatomical locations in the pyramidal tracts, corpus callosum and frontobasal area. Two ROI-based methods, the circular method (CM) and the freehand method (FM), were compared. Both methods were also compared by performing measurements on a DTI phantom. The intra- and inter-observer variability (coefficient of variation, or CV%) and repeatability (intra-class correlation coefficient, or ICC) were assessed for FA and ADC values obtained using both ROI methods. RESULTS: The mean FA values for all of the regions were 0.663 with the CM and 0.621 with the FM. For both methods, the FA was highest in the splenium of the corpus callosum. The mean ADC value was 0.727 x10-3 mm2/s with the CM and 0.747 x10-3 mm2/s with the FM, and both methods found the ADC to be lowest in the corona radiata. The CV percentages of the derived measures were < 13% with the CM and < 10% with the FM. In most of the regions, the ICCs were excellent or moderate for both methods. With the CM, the highest ICC for FA was in the posterior limb of the internal capsule (0.90), and with the FM, it was in the corona radiata (0.86). For ADC, the highest ICC was found in the genu of the corpus callosum (0.93) with the CM and in the uncinate fasciculus (0.92) with FM. CONCLUSIONS: With both ROI-based methods variability was low and repeatability was moderate. The circular method gave higher repeatability, but variation was slightly lower using the freehand method. The circular method can be recommended for the posterior limb of the internal capsule and splenium of the corpus callosum, and the freehand method for the corona radiata.

Concepts: Brain, Neuroimaging, Magnetic resonance imaging, Cerebrum, Diffusion, Diffusion MRI, Corpus callosum, Atomic diffusion


A bone scan is a common method for monitoring bone metastases in patients with advanced prostatecancer. The Bone Scan Index (BSI) measures the tumor burden on the skeleton, expressed as apercentage of the total skeletal mass. Previous studies have shown that BSI is associated withsurvival of prostate cancer patients. The objective in this study was to investigate to what extentregional BSI measurements, as obtained by an automated method, can improve the survival analysisfor advanced prostate cancer.

Concepts: Bone, Vitamin D, Cancer, Metastasis, Oncology, Prostate cancer, Human skeleton, Skeleton


This study was performed to assess changes in diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) over time in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).


Functional transcanial Doppler ultrasound (fTCD) is a convenient approach to examine cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in major cerebral arteries.

Concepts: Medical ultrasound, Hematology, Middle cerebral artery, Anterior cerebral artery, Medical ultrasonography, Cerebral blood flow


The diagnosis of hip pain after total hip replacement (THR) represents a highly challenging question that is of increasing concern to orthopedic surgeons. This retrospective study assesses bone scintigraphy with Hybrid SPECT/CT for the diagnosis of painful THR in a selected cohort of patients.

Concepts: Hip replacement, Hip, Pelvis, Orthopedic surgery, Joint replacement, John Charnley


Concerns have been raised regarding growth in advanced diagnostic imaging use. This study evaluated trends in national outpatient MRI/CT utilization rates during 2000-2009 and factors associated with utilization.

Concepts: Utilization, Capacity utilization


The inflammation reaction in the brain may stimulate damage repair or possibly lead to secondary brain injury. It is often associated with activated microglia, which would overexpress 18-kDa translocator protein (TSPO). In this study, we successfully developed a new TSPO radioligand, [18F]-2-(4-fluoro-2-(p-tolyloxy)phenyl)-1,2-dihydroisoquinolin-3(4H)-one ([18F]FTPQ), and evaluate its potential to noninvasively detect brain changes in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease (PD).


Myxoid tumors pose diagnostic challenges for radiologists and pathologists. All myxoid tumors can be differentiated from each other using fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) or immunohistochemical markers, except for myxomas and myxofibrosarcomas. Myxomas and myxofibrosarcomas are rare tumors. Myxomas are benign and histologically bland, whereas myxofibrosarcomas are malignant and histologically heterogenous. Because of the histological heterogeneity, low grade myxofibrosarcomas may be mistaken for myxomas on core needle biopsies. We evaluated the performance of T1-weighted signal intensity (T1SI), tumor volume, and radiomic features extracted from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to differentiate myxomas from myxofibrosarcomas.


Assessing a plan for user testing and evaluation of the assisting software developed for radiologists.

Concepts: Learning, Project management


With a wide array of multi-modal, multi-protocol, and multi-scale biomedical data being routinely acquired for disease characterization, there is a pressing need for quantitative tools to combine these varied channels of information. The goal of these integrated predictors is to combine these varied sources of information, while improving on the predictive ability of any individual modality. A number of application-specific data fusion methods have been previously proposed in the literature which have attempted to reconcile the differences in dimensionalities and length scales across different modalities. Our objective in this paper was to help identify metholodological choices that need to be made in order to build a data fusion technique, as it is not always clear which strategy is optimal for a particular problem. As a comprehensive review of all possible data fusion methods was outside the scope of this paper, we have focused on fusion approaches that employ dimensionality reduction (DR).

Concepts: Scientific method, Prediction, Logic, Modality