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Journal: BMC immunology


BACKGROUND: S100A9 has been shown to be important for the function of so called Myeloid Derived Suppressor Cells (MDSC). Cells with a similar phenotype are also involved in pro-inflammatory processes, and we therefore wanted to investigate the gene expression and function of these cells in animals that were either subjected to chronic inflammation, or inoculated with tumors. METHODS: CD11b+Ly6C++ and Ly6G+ cells were isolated from spleen, tumor tissue or inflammatory granulomas. S100A9, Arginase 1 and iNOS gene expression in the various CD11b+ cell populations was anayzed using Q-PCR. The suppressive activity of the CD11b+ cell populations from different donors was studied in co-culture experiments. RESULTS: S100A9 was shown to be expressed mainly in splenic CD11b+Ly6C+G+ cells both at the RNA and protein level. Arginase I and iNOS expression could be detected in both CD11b+Ly6C+Ly6G+ and CD11b+Ly6C+G-/C++G- derived from tumors or a site of chronic inflammation, but was very low in the same cell populations isolated from the spleen. CD11b+ cells isolated from mice with peritoneal chronic inflammation were able to stimulate T lymphocytes, while CD11b+ cells from mice with peritoneal tumors suppressed T cell growth. CONCLUSION: An identical CD11b+Ly6C++G- cell population appears to have the ability to adopt immune stimulatory or immune suppressive functions dependent on the presence of a local inflammatory or tumor microenvironment. Thus, there is a functional plasticity in the CD11b+Ly6C++G- cell population that cannot be distinguished with the current molecular markers.

Concepts: White blood cell, DNA, Gene, Genetics, Cell nucleus, Gene expression, Bacteria, Organism


Abnormal immune function is often an underlying component of illness pathophysiology and symptom presentation. Functional and phenotypic immune-related alterations may play a role in the obscure pathomechanism of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome/Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME). The objective of this study was to investigate the functional ability of innate and adaptive immune cells in moderate and severe CFS/ME patients. The 1994 Fukuda criteria for CFS/ME were used to define CFS/ME patients. CFS/ME participants were grouped based on illness severity with 15 moderately affected (moderate) and 12 severely affected (severe) CFS/ME patients who were age and sex matched with 18 healthy controls. Flow cytometric protocols were used for immunological analysis of dendritic cells, monocytes and neutrophil function as well as measures of lytic proteins and T, natural killer (NK) and B cell receptors.

Concepts: Immune system, Monocyte, Antibody, Protein, Medicine, Cell biology, Adaptive immune system, Neutrophil granulocyte


Validation of biomarkers for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) across data sets has proven disappointing. As immune signature may be affected by many factors, our objective was to explore the shift in discriminatory cytokines across ME/CFS subjects separated by duration of illness.

Concepts: Syndromes, Fibromyalgia, Fatigue, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Common cold, Chronic illness, Malaise, Shift key


Though potentially linked to the basic physiology of stress response we still have no clear understanding of Gulf War Illness (GWI), a debilitating condition presenting complex immune, endocrine and neurological symptoms. Here we compared male (n = 20) and female (n = 10) veterans with GWI separately against their healthy counterparts (n = 21 male, n = 9 female) as well as subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome/ myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME) (n = 12 male, n = 10 female).

Concepts: Medicine, Syndromes, Fibromyalgia, Fatigue, Gulf War, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Neurological disorders, 2003 invasion of Iraq


A vast diversity of microbes colonizes in the human gastrointestinal tract, referred to intestinal microbiota. Microbiota and products thereof are indispensable for shaping the development and function of host innate immune system, thereby exerting multifaceted impacts in gut health.

Concepts: Immune system, Medicine, Bacteria, Metabolism, Innate immune system, Digestive system, Gastroenterology, Human gastrointestinal tract


As immunology continues to become more quantitative, increasingly sophisticated computational tools are commonly used. One useful toolset are simulation models. Becoming familiar with such models and their uses generally requires writing computer code early in the learning process. This poses a barrier for individuals who do not have prior coding experience.


We sought to compare Pneumovax®23 responses in adults with subnormal IgG subclass concentrations. We studied adults with normal total IgG, frequent/severe respiratory infection, and subnormal IgG1, IgG3, or IgG1 + IgG3 before and after Pneumovax®23. We defined response as serotype-specific IgG > 1.3 μg/mL and aggregate response as IgG > 1.3 μg/mL for ≥70% of all serotypes tested. We compared patients with and without serotype-specific responses and performed logistic regression on aggregate responses using: age; male sex; body mass index; autoimmune condition(s); atopy; other allergies; subnormal IgGSc immunophenotypes; IgA; and IgM.


The role of pathogen specific cellular immune responses against the eliciting pathogen in development of post-infectious chronic fatigue syndrome (PI-CFS) is not known and such studies are difficult to perform. The aim of this study was to evaluate specific anti-Giardia cellular immunity in cases that developed CFS after Giardia infection compared to cases that recovered well. Patients reporting chronic fatigue in a questionnaire study three years after a Giardia outbreak were clinically evaluated five years after the outbreak and grouped according to Fukuda criteria for CFS and idiopathic chronic fatigue. Giardia specific immune responses were evaluated in 39 of these patients by proliferation assay, T cell activation and cytokine release analysis. 20 Giardia exposed non-fatigued individuals and 10 healthy unexposed individuals were recruited as controls.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Virus, Vaccination, Immunology, Humoral immunity, Chronic fatigue syndrome, Cell-mediated immunity


The spleen is an important site for hematopoiesis. It supports development of myeloid cells from bone marrow-derived precursors entering from blood. Myeloid subsets in spleen are not well characterised although dendritic cell (DC) subsets are clearly defined in terms of phenotype, development and functional role. Recently a novel dendritic-like cell type in spleen named ‘L-DC’ was distinguished from other known dendritic and myeloid cells by its distinct phenotype and developmental origin. That study also redefined splenic eosinophils as well as resident and inflammatory monocytes in spleen.

Concepts: Immune system, White blood cell, Monocyte, Protein, Gene, Hematology, Dendritic cell, Spleen


Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a clinically heterogeneous chronic condition that affects many veterans of the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War. One of the most prevalent and debilitating symptoms of GWI is abnormal fatigue. The mechanisms underlying GWI generally, and fatigue symptoms specifically, have yet to be conclusively identified, although immune system abnormalities are suspected to be involved. The first goal of this immune monitoring study was to determine if GWI is associated with higher absolute levels and daily variability of pro-inflammatory immune factors. The second goal was to explore the relationship between day-to-day immune marker fluctuations and daily self-reported fatigue severity.

Concepts: United Arab Emirates, Gulf War, Persian Gulf, Iraq War, 2003 invasion of Iraq, Iraq, Gulf War syndrome, Depleted uranium