SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: BMC cancer

150

Most cases of colorectal cancer (CRC) are initiated by inactivation mutations in the APC gene, which is a negative regulator of the Wnt-β-catenin pathway. Patients with familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) inherit a germline mutation in one APC allele, and loss of the second allele leads to the development of polyps that will turn malignant if not removed. It is not fully understood which molecular mechanisms are activated by APC loss and when the loss of the second APC allele occurs.

Concepts: Evolution, Genetics, Stem cell, DNA, Cancer, Familial adenomatous polyposis, Embryonic stem cell, Colorectal cancer

121

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a deadly cancer mainly caused by previous exposure to asbestos. With a latency period up to 50 years the incidence of MM is still increasing, even in countries that banned asbestos. Secondary prevention has been established to provide persons at risk regular health examinations. An earlier detection with tumor markers might improve therapeutic options. Previously, we have developed a new blood-based assay for the protein marker calretinin. Aim of this study was the verification of the assay in an independent study population and comparison with the established marker mesothelin.

Concepts: Calretinin, Wittenoom, Western Australia, Asbestos and the law, Epidemiology, Asbestos, Oncology, Mesothelioma, Cancer

45

Short-term starvation prior to chemotherapy administration protects mice against toxicity. We undertook dose-escalation of fasting prior to platinum-based chemotherapy to determine safety and feasibility in cancer patients.

Concepts: Oncology, Chemotherapy

40

The current standard practice of lung lesion diagnosis often leads to inconclusive results, requiring additional diagnostic follow up procedures that are invasive and often unnecessary due to the high benign rate in such lesions (Chest 143:e78S-e92, 2013). The Percepta bronchial genomic classifier was developed and clinically validated to provide more accurate classification of lung nodules and lesions that are inconclusive by bronchoscopy, using bronchial brushing specimens (N Engl J Med 373:243-51, 2015, BMC Med Genomics 8:18, 2015). The analytical performance of the Percepta test is reported here.

Concepts: Standard, Solitary pulmonary nodule, Lesion

35

TSPYL5, a putative tumor suppressor gene, belongs to the nucleosome assembly protein family. The chromosomal location of the TSPYL5 gene is 8Q22.1, and its exact role in prostate cancer etiology remains unclear. Further TSPYL5 gene and protein expression in prostate carcinoma cells and diseased tissues including its susceptibility for epigenetic silencing is unknown. Also, not known is the variation in TSPYL5 protein expression with regards to progression of prostatic carcinoma and its possible role in drug sensitivity.

Concepts: BRCA1, Histone, Gene expression, Cell nucleus, Prostate cancer, Gene, DNA, Cancer

33

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to systematically review the evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and to conduct a meta-analysis of the effects of yoga on physical and psychosocial outcomes in cancer patients and survivors. METHODS: A systematic literature search in ten databases was conducted in November 2011. Studies were included if they had an RCT design, focused on cancer patients or survivors, included physical postures in the yoga program, compared yoga with a non-exercise or waitlist control group, and evaluated physical and/or psychosocial outcomes. Two researchers independently rated the quality of the included RCTs, and high quality was defined as >50% of the total possible score. Effect sizes (Cohen’s d) were calculated for outcomes studied in more than three studies among patients with breast cancer using means and standard deviations of post-test scores of the intervention and control groups. RESULTS: Sixteen publications of 13 RCTs met the inclusion criteria, of which one included patients with lymphomas and the others focused on patients with breast cancer. The median quality score was 67% (range: 22–89%). The included studies evaluated 23 physical and 20 psychosocial outcomes. Of the outcomes studied in more than three studies among patients with breast cancer, we found large reductions in distress, anxiety, and depression (d = -0.69 to -0.75), moderate reductions in fatigue (d = -0.51), moderate increases in general quality of life, emotional function and social function (d = 0.33 to 0.49), and a small increase in functional well-being (d = 0.31). Effects on physical function and sleep were small and not significant. CONCLUSION: Yoga appeared to be a feasible intervention and beneficial effects on several physical and psychosocial symptoms were reported. In patients with breast cancer, effect size on functional well-being was small, and they were moderate to large for psychosocial outcomes.

Concepts: Cancer, Gene V. Glass, Systematic review, Clinical research, Pharmaceutical industry, Randomized controlled trial, Effect size, Meta-analysis

31

Greater family size measured with total fertility rate (TFR) and with household size, may offer more life satisfaction to the family members. Positive psychological well-being has been postulated to decrease cancer initiation risk. This ecological study aims to examine the worldwide correlation between family size, used as the measure of positive psychological well-being, and total cancer incidence rates.

30

Prior studies have described a reduced risk of developing ovarian cancer with the use of oral contraceptives. In this context, we decided to examine if oral contraceptive use prior to a diagnosis of ovarian cancer is associated with better overall and progression-free survival.

Concepts: Birth control, Sexual intercourse, Vitamin D, Metastasis, Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer, BRCA2, Hormonal contraception, Combined oral contraceptive pill

25

Mapping of the motor cortex by navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) can be used for preoperative planning in brain tumor patients. Just recently, it has been proven to actually change outcomes by increasing the rate of gross total resection (GTR) and by reducing the surgery-related rate of paresis significantly in cohorts of patients suffering from different entities of intracranial lesions. Yet, we also need data that shows whether these changes also lead to a changed clinical course, and can also be achieved specifically in high-grade glioma (HGG) patients.

Concepts: Premotor cortex, Cerebrum, Brain, Tess Gaerthé, Anatomical pathology, Brain tumor, Transcranial magnetic stimulation, Change

23

The circadian clock is the basis for biological time keeping in eukaryotic organisms. The clock mechanism relies on biochemical signaling pathways to detect environmental stimuli and to regulate the expression of clock-controlled genes throughout the body. MAPK signaling pathways function in both circadian input and output pathways in mammals depending on the tissue; however, little is known about the role of p38 MAPK, an established tumor suppressor, in the mammalian circadian system. Increased expression and activity of p38 MAPK is correlated with poor prognosis in cancer, including glioblastoma multiforme; however, the toxicity of p38 MAPK inhibitors limits their clinical use. Here, we test if timed application of the specific p38 MAPK inhibitor VX-745 reduces glioma cell invasive properties in vitro.

Concepts: Biology, Cancer, Signal transduction, Cell, Brain tumor, Gene, Organism, DNA