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Journal: Birth (Berkeley, Calif.)


Spontaneous vaginal birth rates are decreasing worldwide, while cesarean delivery, instrumental births, and medical birth interventions are increasing. Emerging evidence suggests that birth interventions may have an effect on children’s health. Therefore, the aim of our study was to examine the association between operative and medical birth interventions on the child’s health during the first 28 days and up to 5 years of age.

Concepts: Cohort study, Childbirth, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Demography, Obstetrics, Vagina, Birth


Vaginal infection in early pregnancy is associated with preterm birth. This study evaluates long-term results after integrating an antenatal screen-and-treat program for asymptomatic vaginal infections into routine pregnancy care.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Childbirth, Infection, Cervix, Vagina, Candidiasis, Vaginitis


Out-of-hospital births have been increasing in the United States, although past studies have found wide variations between states. Our purpose was to examine trends in out-of-hospital births, the risk profile of these births, and state differences in women’s access to these births.


Perineal trauma affects large numbers of women who have a vaginal birth. This study explores the incidence, etiology and women’s experiences of wound infection/breakdown associated with spontaneous second degree tears.


Most research on women experiencing stillbirth relies on online user group surveys or qualitative interviews. The objective of this study was to investigate the experience of women who are at a higher risk of stillbirth, living in areas of greatest deprivation, and are commonly not well represented.

Concepts: Research methods, Experience


Out-of-hospital births are increasing in the United States. Our purpose was to examine trends in out-of-hospital births from 2004 to 2014, and to analyze newly available data on risk status and access to care.

Concepts: United States, United Kingdom, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, New York City, Humid subtropical climate


One in nine US infants is born before 37 weeks' gestation, incurring medical costs 10 times higher than full-term infants. One in three infants is born by cesarean; cesarean births cost twice as much as vaginal births. We compared rates of preterm and cesarean birth among Medicaid recipients with prenatal access to doula care (nonmedical maternal support) with similar women regionally. We used data on this association to mathematically model the potential cost-effectiveness of Medicaid coverage of doula services.

Concepts: Childbirth, Caesarean section


Despite the benefits of breastfeeding, rates in the United States are low. Shorter maternity leave is associated with lower initiation and shorter durations of breastfeeding; however, little is known about how paid maternity leave may influence breastfeeding rates.

Concepts: United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Family law, Parental leave, War on Terrorism, Women's rights, Maternity


There is inconsistent evidence about the effect of physical activity on the prevention and treatment of depression during the postnatal period. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of physical activity interventions during pregnancy and the postpartum period for controlling postpartum depressive symptoms.

Concepts: Childbirth, Randomized controlled trial, Postnatal


Water immersion during labor is an effective comfort measure; however, outcomes for waterbirth in the hospital setting have not been well documented. Our objective was to report the outcomes from two nurse-midwifery services that provide waterbirth within a tertiary care hospital setting in the United States.