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Journal: Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia


BACKGROUND: Nanotechnology is receiving enormous funding. Very little however is known about the health dangers of this technology so far. Chronic tonsillitis is one of a number of diseases called idiopathic. Among other factors, the tonsils are exposed to suspended particles in inhaled air including nano particles. The objective of this study was to detect and evaluate metallic particles in human tonsil tissue diagnosed with chronic tonsillitis and in amniotic fluid as a comparison. METHODS: Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used for identification of solid particles in a total of 64 samples of routinely analyzed biopsy and cytologic material. RESULTS: Almost all samples were found to contain solid particles of various metals. The most frequent, regardless of diagnosis, were iron, chromium, nickel and aluminium. The size, determined using SEM, varied from around 500 nm to 25 ┬Ám. The majority formed aggregates of several micrometers in size but there were a significant number of smaller (sub-micrometer or nano-sized) particles present. The incidence of metallic particles was similar in child and adult tissues. The difference was in composition: the presence of several metals in adults was due to occupational exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of metallic particles in pathologically altered tissues may signal an alternative causation of some diseases. The ethiopathogenic explanation of these diseases associated with the presence of nano-sized particles in the organism has emerged into a new field of pathology, nanopathology.

Concepts: Iron, Metal, Scanning electron microscope, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Tonsil, Tonsillectomy, Tonsillitis, Tonsillolith


The cutaneous silent period (CSP) is a spinal inhibitory reflex primarily mediated by A-delta fibers. Prolonged CSPs have been reported in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Dopaminergic medication normalizes the CSP, concurring with the effect of levodopa on CSPs. To date, CSPs have not been extensively studied in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). The purpose of this study was to confirm abnormal CSP findings in a group of MSA patients and to affirm the lack of influence of levodopa on CSPs during long-term treatment.

Concepts: Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, Neurotransmitter, Dopamine, Pramipexole, Ropinirole, Restless legs syndrome, Multiple system atrophy


An epidemiological study conducted over four years revealed increased prevalence of neurodegenerative parkinsonism in a small, isolated region (10 villages, with a combined population of 8664, with approx. 2927 over 50 years of age) of south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic. The aim of this study was to obtain more detailed information on the medical history of the relatives of individuals with confirmed parkinsonism in an isolated rural population in south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Gregor Mendel, Czechoslovakia, Czech language, Moravia, Czechs


Thromboembolic disease is the third most common cardiovascular disorder and deep vein thrombosis carries the risk of pulmonary embolism (PE). Questions related to reperfusion after PE remain, especially risk factors. Incomplete reperfusion after PE is closely related to the development of chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. The aim of this study was to determine the relation between reperfusion after PE in the long term over a period of 24 months, laboratory results and clinical risk factors found during the initial PE event.

Concepts: Stroke, Thrombosis, Pulmonary embolism, Hematology, Vein, Deep vein thrombosis, Deep vein


Obstructive sleep apnoea is a potentially serious sleep disorder associated with the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is treated with continuous airway pressure (CPAP) but this is not always successful. Unsuccessful cases should be treated by bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP). The aim of this study was to determine whether common respiratory parameters and/or body mass index (BMI) can be used to predict the probability CPAP failure and hence start such patients on BiPAP from the outset.

Concepts: Sleep, Sleep apnea, Polysomnography


Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic and relapsing functional gastrointestinal disorder that affects 9-23% of the population across the world. Patients with IBS are often referred to gastroenterology, undergo various investigations, take various medicines, take time off work and have a poor quality of life. The pathophysiology of IBS is not yet completely understood and seems to be multifactorial. Many pathogenetic factors, in various combinations, and not all necessarily present in each patient, can play an important role. Discomfort or abdominal pain relieived by defacation, asociated with a change in stool form, is a typical clinical manifestation of IBS. Many factors, such as emotional stress and eating, may exacerbate the symptoms. A timely diagnosis of IBS is important so that treatment which will provide adequate symptomatic relief (diarrhoea, constipation, pain and boaring) can be introduced. The diagnosis of IBS is not confirmed by a specific test or structural abnormality. It is made using criteria based on clinical symptoms such as Rome criteria, unless the symptoms are thought to be atypical. Today the Rome Criteria IV is the current gold-standard for the diagnoses of IBS. Treatment of patients with IBS requires a multidisciplinary approach. Some patients respond well to non-pharmacological treatment, while others also require pharmacological treatment. This review will provide a summary of pathophysiology, diagnostic criteria and therapies for IBS.

Concepts: Medicine, Medical terms, Diagnosis, Abdominal pain, Constipation, Gastroenterology, Irritable bowel syndrome, General practice


Crohn’s disease is a multifactorial inflammatory disease affecting mainly the gastrointestinal tract. The genetic factors that are involved in the disease include mainly three mutations of the gene NOD2/CARD15 (R702W, G908R, 3020insC). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the presence of these variants and disease phenotype.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Genotype, Evolution, Gastroenterology, Small intestine, Abscess


Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a leading cause of death in developed industrial countries. The global worldwide average of OHCA incidence in adults is 95.9/100,000/year. European incidences vary according to source from 16 to 119/100,000/year. The aim of this study was to provide an overview of current information on OHCA. The incidences in various populations are discussed, along with the factors affecting the prognosis and outcome of these patients. The etiology and pathophysiological mechanisms are also described, especially in relation to the most common causes - acute and chronic forms of coronary artery disease and cardiomyopathies. Measures that could improve survival rates are discussed, with emphasis on the role of the general public and deployment of automatic external defibrillators.

Concepts: Coronary artery disease, Cardiology, Heart, Cardiac arrest, Artery, Coronary circulation, Automated external defibrillator


The role of gut microbiota in the development of sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) is supported by a number of studies, however, the conclusiveness of published metagenomic studies is questioned by technical pitfalls and limited by small cohort sizes. In this review, we evaluate the current knowledge critically and outline practical solutions. We also list candidate CRC risk markers that are - in our opinion - well supported by available data and thus deserve clinical validation. Last but not least, we summarise available knowledge useful for improving care for patients immediately.

Concepts: Cancer, Bacteria, Gut flora, Critical thinking, Epistemology, Colorectal cancer, Colon, The Current


The presence of gasping in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients predicts short-term prognosis. We performed a retrospective study to evaluate whether the presence of gasping at the time of Emergency Medical Service (EMS) arrival in the case OHCA patients of presumed cardian origin has any impact on six-month survival and/or sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC).

Concepts: Time, Medicine, Heart, Retrospective, Cardiac arrest, Illness, Term, Emergency medical services