SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia

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BACKGROUND: Nanotechnology is receiving enormous funding. Very little however is known about the health dangers of this technology so far. Chronic tonsillitis is one of a number of diseases called idiopathic. Among other factors, the tonsils are exposed to suspended particles in inhaled air including nano particles. The objective of this study was to detect and evaluate metallic particles in human tonsil tissue diagnosed with chronic tonsillitis and in amniotic fluid as a comparison. METHODS: Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used for identification of solid particles in a total of 64 samples of routinely analyzed biopsy and cytologic material. RESULTS: Almost all samples were found to contain solid particles of various metals. The most frequent, regardless of diagnosis, were iron, chromium, nickel and aluminium. The size, determined using SEM, varied from around 500 nm to 25 ┬Ám. The majority formed aggregates of several micrometers in size but there were a significant number of smaller (sub-micrometer or nano-sized) particles present. The incidence of metallic particles was similar in child and adult tissues. The difference was in composition: the presence of several metals in adults was due to occupational exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of metallic particles in pathologically altered tissues may signal an alternative causation of some diseases. The ethiopathogenic explanation of these diseases associated with the presence of nano-sized particles in the organism has emerged into a new field of pathology, nanopathology.

Concepts: Iron, Metal, Scanning electron microscope, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Tonsil, Tonsillectomy, Tonsillitis, Tonsillolith

162

The cutaneous silent period (CSP) is a spinal inhibitory reflex primarily mediated by A-delta fibers. Prolonged CSPs have been reported in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Dopaminergic medication normalizes the CSP, concurring with the effect of levodopa on CSPs. To date, CSPs have not been extensively studied in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). The purpose of this study was to confirm abnormal CSP findings in a group of MSA patients and to affirm the lack of influence of levodopa on CSPs during long-term treatment.

Concepts: Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, Neurotransmitter, Dopamine, Pramipexole, Ropinirole, Restless legs syndrome, Multiple system atrophy

2

An epidemiological study conducted over four years revealed increased prevalence of neurodegenerative parkinsonism in a small, isolated region (10 villages, with a combined population of 8664, with approx. 2927 over 50 years of age) of south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic. The aim of this study was to obtain more detailed information on the medical history of the relatives of individuals with confirmed parkinsonism in an isolated rural population in south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Gregor Mendel, Czechoslovakia, Czech language, Moravia, Czechs

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The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of maternal hypothyroidism in the first trimester from 11 to 14 weeks of gestation according to the American Thyroid Association (ATA) guidelines from 2017 and to compare the rates for singleton and twin pregnancies.

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The complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS) is a rare genetic disorder causing insensitivity to androgens in a person with female phenotype and 46,XY karyotype due to a mutation in the androgen receptor gene located on chromosome X. These children are born with female external genitalia, and females are transmitters.

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The treatment of relapsed and refractory multiple myeloma (RRMM) remains challenging. The outcomes in highly pretreated populations are unsatisfactory and there is urgent need for novel and safe therapeutic approaches. Recently, daratumumab has been approved for RRMM with promising results even in monotherapy. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of single agent daratumumab outside a clinical trial.

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One of the most significant challenges of current medicine is the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide that is accompanied by a wide range of chronic health complications and increased mortality. White adipose tissue actively contributes to metabolic regulation by production of a variety of hormones and cytokines, commonly referred to as adipokines. The spectrum and quantity of adipokines produced by the adipose tissue of obese patients is directly or indirectly involved in much obesity-related pathology (type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory response). One of the underlying mechanisms linking obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular complications is subclinical inflammation, primarily arising in visceral adipose tissue. Adipocyte size, number and polarization of lymphocytes and infiltrated macrophages are closely related to metabolic and obesity-related diseases. The storage capacity of hypertrophic adipocytes in obese patients is limited. This results in chronic energy overload and leads to increased apoptosis of adipocytes that in turn stimulates the infiltration of visceral adipose tissue by immune cells, in particular macrophages. These cells produce many proinflammatory factors; while the overall production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and adipokines is decreased. The constant release of proinflammatory factors into the circulation then contributes to a subclinical systemic inflammation, which is directly linked to the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of obesity.

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To evaluate the results of the fluctuations of intraocular pressure (IOP) and calculated mean ocular perfusion pressure (MOPP) during the usual steps of standard phacoemulsification.

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While there have been a number of studies reporting the incidence and implications of elevated troponin levels after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI), the body of information about the incidence, associations, and implications of elevated troponin levels following coronary angiography (CAG) is limited.

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Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is usually considered a better option for pain management compared to conventional analgesia. The beneficial effect of PCA has been assessed in a number of studies; however, the results are inconsistent. The goal of this study was to compare of patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) to conventional epidural analgesia after total hip replacement (THR).