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Journal: Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia


BACKGROUND: Nanotechnology is receiving enormous funding. Very little however is known about the health dangers of this technology so far. Chronic tonsillitis is one of a number of diseases called idiopathic. Among other factors, the tonsils are exposed to suspended particles in inhaled air including nano particles. The objective of this study was to detect and evaluate metallic particles in human tonsil tissue diagnosed with chronic tonsillitis and in amniotic fluid as a comparison. METHODS: Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used for identification of solid particles in a total of 64 samples of routinely analyzed biopsy and cytologic material. RESULTS: Almost all samples were found to contain solid particles of various metals. The most frequent, regardless of diagnosis, were iron, chromium, nickel and aluminium. The size, determined using SEM, varied from around 500 nm to 25 µm. The majority formed aggregates of several micrometers in size but there were a significant number of smaller (sub-micrometer or nano-sized) particles present. The incidence of metallic particles was similar in child and adult tissues. The difference was in composition: the presence of several metals in adults was due to occupational exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of metallic particles in pathologically altered tissues may signal an alternative causation of some diseases. The ethiopathogenic explanation of these diseases associated with the presence of nano-sized particles in the organism has emerged into a new field of pathology, nanopathology.

Concepts: Iron, Metal, Scanning electron microscope, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Tonsil, Tonsillectomy, Tonsillitis, Tonsillolith


The cutaneous silent period (CSP) is a spinal inhibitory reflex primarily mediated by A-delta fibers. Prolonged CSPs have been reported in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Dopaminergic medication normalizes the CSP, concurring with the effect of levodopa on CSPs. To date, CSPs have not been extensively studied in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). The purpose of this study was to confirm abnormal CSP findings in a group of MSA patients and to affirm the lack of influence of levodopa on CSPs during long-term treatment.

Concepts: Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, Neurotransmitter, Dopamine, Pramipexole, Ropinirole, Restless legs syndrome, Multiple system atrophy


An epidemiological study conducted over four years revealed increased prevalence of neurodegenerative parkinsonism in a small, isolated region (10 villages, with a combined population of 8664, with approx. 2927 over 50 years of age) of south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic. The aim of this study was to obtain more detailed information on the medical history of the relatives of individuals with confirmed parkinsonism in an isolated rural population in south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Gregor Mendel, Czechoslovakia, Czech language, Moravia, Czechs


The palatine tonsil is a significant part of the secondary immune system. Tonsillitis and idiopathic tonsillar hypertrophy (ITH) are the most common pathologies of this component. Although there are studies on their pathogenesis, there is insufficient study of the role of antioxidant agents. Glutathione S-transferase (GST) isozymes contribute to the antioxidation reactions in the tissue via the glutathione pathway. The purpose in this study was to reveal the levels of the GST enzyme activity and protein expression of GSTP1 and GSTA1 isozymes in patients with tonsillitis and tonsil hypertrophy, and to investigate their role in the pathogenesis of these diseases.


There is increased prevalence of inguinal hernia (ΙΗ) in patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). As there is limited data on AAA in patients with ΙΗ our objective was to examine the prevalence of AAA in such patients.


Paramyotonia congenita is a non-dystrophic myotonia, in which muscle relaxation is delayed after voluntary or evoked contraction. This condition cannot be distinguished on the basis of symptoms and signs alone. It requires consideration of genetics as more than 100 mutations in the CLCN1 gene and at least 20 mutations in the SCN4A gene are associated with the clinical features of the non-dystrophic myotonias. Only a few families with the described features but no genetic testing have been reported in Slovakia. This prompted us to investigate genetic mutations in the SCN4A gene in 3 Slovak families clinically diagnosed with paramyotonia.


Medication - related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) is a rare but serious complication of antiresorptive and/or antiangiogenic therapy. It mainly affects oncological patients, however, it can occur in patients with metabolic bone diseases, although this is less frequent. These lesions not only significantly impair the quality of life but can also have impact on the treatment of any underlying disease. In some rare cases MRONJ can be life-threatening. There is still no ideal consensus for treatment, though surgical therapy has been mostly preferred in recent years.


Enteroviruses (EVs) are the most common agents of aseptic meningitis. Some serotypes can cause serious neuroinfection leading to death. The aim of this study was to determine the representation of EVs in the etiology of aseptic meningitis in children and to analyze the demographic, clinical, laboratory, and epidemiological characteristics of patients with EV meningitis.


Temporomandibular disorders (TMD) refer to functional disorders of the masticatory system, temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and masticatory muscles. The main objective of this study was to determine whether and to what extent temporomandibular disorders (TMD) affect the maximum bite force (MBF).


The purpose of our study was to examine the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA in Czech patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).