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Journal: Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia


BACKGROUND: Nanotechnology is receiving enormous funding. Very little however is known about the health dangers of this technology so far. Chronic tonsillitis is one of a number of diseases called idiopathic. Among other factors, the tonsils are exposed to suspended particles in inhaled air including nano particles. The objective of this study was to detect and evaluate metallic particles in human tonsil tissue diagnosed with chronic tonsillitis and in amniotic fluid as a comparison. METHODS: Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used for identification of solid particles in a total of 64 samples of routinely analyzed biopsy and cytologic material. RESULTS: Almost all samples were found to contain solid particles of various metals. The most frequent, regardless of diagnosis, were iron, chromium, nickel and aluminium. The size, determined using SEM, varied from around 500 nm to 25 µm. The majority formed aggregates of several micrometers in size but there were a significant number of smaller (sub-micrometer or nano-sized) particles present. The incidence of metallic particles was similar in child and adult tissues. The difference was in composition: the presence of several metals in adults was due to occupational exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of metallic particles in pathologically altered tissues may signal an alternative causation of some diseases. The ethiopathogenic explanation of these diseases associated with the presence of nano-sized particles in the organism has emerged into a new field of pathology, nanopathology.

Concepts: Iron, Metal, Scanning electron microscope, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Tonsil, Tonsillectomy, Tonsillitis, Tonsillolith


The cutaneous silent period (CSP) is a spinal inhibitory reflex primarily mediated by A-delta fibers. Prolonged CSPs have been reported in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Dopaminergic medication normalizes the CSP, concurring with the effect of levodopa on CSPs. To date, CSPs have not been extensively studied in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). The purpose of this study was to confirm abnormal CSP findings in a group of MSA patients and to affirm the lack of influence of levodopa on CSPs during long-term treatment.

Concepts: Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, Neurotransmitter, Dopamine, Pramipexole, Ropinirole, Restless legs syndrome, Multiple system atrophy


An epidemiological study conducted over four years revealed increased prevalence of neurodegenerative parkinsonism in a small, isolated region (10 villages, with a combined population of 8664, with approx. 2927 over 50 years of age) of south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic. The aim of this study was to obtain more detailed information on the medical history of the relatives of individuals with confirmed parkinsonism in an isolated rural population in south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Gregor Mendel, Czechoslovakia, Czech language, Moravia, Czechs


Cytomegalovirus enterocolitis is a rare but potentially life threatening complication after allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Its early diagnosis and treatment are essential for a successful outcome.


Mesiodens is the most common form of supernumerary tooth mainly located between the maxillary central incisors. Its etiology is not completely understood but both genetic and environmental factors are assumed. The degree of mineralization and inorganic element content in hard tooth tissues is poorly understood as well as is the durability and suitability for allo- and auto-transplantation. Therefore aim of this study was to examine the content of inorganic elements.


Patients who are unable to receive oral medication (p.o.) are a major problem in outpatient settings, especially in home health care systems. Mucosal administration of drugs offers an alternative to the oral route, especially when the parenteral mode cannot be used. There are three main pathways of mucosal administration: sublingual/buccal, intranasal and rectal. We discuss the possibility of mucosal delivery of antihypertensive drugs. Perindopril arginine and Amlodipine besylate are registered in the EU as orodispersible tablets for oromucosal delivery, however, they are not available in all countries. For this reason, we describe other drugs suitable for mucosal delivery: Captopril and Nitrendipine in the sublingual system and Metoprolol tartrate, Propranolol and Furosemide by the transrectal route. Based on the published data and common clinical practice we discuss the use of mucosal delivery systems of all these antihypertensive drugs with special attention to their pharmacokinetics. We illustrate this mini-review with a case report of the prolonged-term use of mucosal delivery of sublingual Captopril and Nitrendipine combined with rectal Metoprolol tartrate and Furosemide in a patient with severe hypertension unable to receive medication p.o. This is also a report on the first human use of Furosemide-containing suppositories as well as prolonged-term transmucosal administration of these four drugs, describing a practical approach leading to successful control of severe hypertension with four antihypertensive drugs delivered via the mucosal route. The treatment was effective and without side effects; however, the long-term safety and efficacy of such therapy must be confirmed by randomized clinical trials.


Obesity and insulin resistance are closely associated with chronic inflammation in adipose tissue, where macrophages play an important role. Adipose tissue macrophages can be divided into two main phenotypes: the classical M1 macrophages and alternatively activated macrophages M2. M1 macrophages produce pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, interleukin IL-6 and MCP-1) and thus contribute to the development of insulin resistance. On the other hand, M2 macrophages, anti-inflammatory, are involved in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and are typical in the adipose tissue of slender individuals. Macrophages can also play a role in the pathogenesis of other serious illnesses such as cardiovascular diseases or cancer. This article reviews the latest data on macrophage polarization in adipose tissue.


BK virus nephropathy (BKVN) is a serious opportunistic infection threatening renal function especially during the first year after transplantation. Its incidence is now on the rise and is closely related to the level of the recipient’s immune system inhibition. This is more intensive with current trends in transplantation medicine, where more potent immunosuppressive protocols are used and more aggressive antirejection therapy is applied. In the absence of BK virus (BKV) specific therapy and limited treatment options for advanced BKVN, active screening of BKV replication and subsequent preemptive adjustment of immunosuppression are essential measures to prevent BKVN. However, it remains unclear how to modify immunosuppressive protocols as well as how to address initial stages of BKV replication. This comprehensive review summarizes the currently applied and not completely uniform procedures for the detection, prophylaxis and therapy of BKV replication and BKVN. The pitfalls brought by reduced immunosuppression, as a typical response to a significant viral replication or a developed BKVN, are also mentioned, particularly in the form of graft rejection. The paper also outlines the authors' experiences, and lists currently ongoing studies on the subject. The perspectives of new, especially immune-based, procedures in the treatment of complications associated with BKV infections are highlighted. Different views on the management of patients indicated for kidney re-transplantation whose previous graft failed because of BKVN are also discussed.


Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive form of breast cancer (BC) with a poor prognosis. Second, patients cannot benefit from targeted therapy, except for those with BRCA1/2 mutations, for whom poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition therapy using olaparib has recently been approved. As global priorities continue to be epidemiological analysis of BC risk factors and early diagnosis, this review focuses on the risks and protective factors associated with TNBC. A PubMed keyword search for new knowledge on the risks and protective factors for TNBC was carried out. We also found statistical information from current online databases concerning the estimated incidence, prevalence and mortality worldwide of this cancer. Traditional risk factors for BC and TNBC are those related to reproduction such as the age of menarche, age of first birth, parity, breastfeeding and age at menopause. Attention needs to be paid to familial BC, weight control, alcohol consumption and regular physical activity. Epidemiological studies on TNBC provide evidence for protective factors such as regular consumption of soya, seafood, green tea, folic acid and vitamin D. Potential risk factors may include night work and viral infectious agents like human papillomavirus (HPV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Droplet digital methylation-specific PCR (ddMSP) is a possible new screening method for detection of BC including TNBC. Further research is necessary to validate these new factors.


To evaluate the mRNA expression levels of Cd36 in adipose and hepatic tissues, in rats with NAFLD after the consumption of sucrose for 10 and 20 weeks.