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Journal: Biomedical papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacky, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia


BACKGROUND: Nanotechnology is receiving enormous funding. Very little however is known about the health dangers of this technology so far. Chronic tonsillitis is one of a number of diseases called idiopathic. Among other factors, the tonsils are exposed to suspended particles in inhaled air including nano particles. The objective of this study was to detect and evaluate metallic particles in human tonsil tissue diagnosed with chronic tonsillitis and in amniotic fluid as a comparison. METHODS: Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX) was used for identification of solid particles in a total of 64 samples of routinely analyzed biopsy and cytologic material. RESULTS: Almost all samples were found to contain solid particles of various metals. The most frequent, regardless of diagnosis, were iron, chromium, nickel and aluminium. The size, determined using SEM, varied from around 500 nm to 25 ┬Ám. The majority formed aggregates of several micrometers in size but there were a significant number of smaller (sub-micrometer or nano-sized) particles present. The incidence of metallic particles was similar in child and adult tissues. The difference was in composition: the presence of several metals in adults was due to occupational exposure. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of metallic particles in pathologically altered tissues may signal an alternative causation of some diseases. The ethiopathogenic explanation of these diseases associated with the presence of nano-sized particles in the organism has emerged into a new field of pathology, nanopathology.

Concepts: Iron, Metal, Scanning electron microscope, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Tonsil, Tonsillectomy, Tonsillitis, Tonsillolith


The cutaneous silent period (CSP) is a spinal inhibitory reflex primarily mediated by A-delta fibers. Prolonged CSPs have been reported in patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (IPD). Dopaminergic medication normalizes the CSP, concurring with the effect of levodopa on CSPs. To date, CSPs have not been extensively studied in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). The purpose of this study was to confirm abnormal CSP findings in a group of MSA patients and to affirm the lack of influence of levodopa on CSPs during long-term treatment.

Concepts: Parkinson's disease, Parkinsonism, Neurotransmitter, Dopamine, Pramipexole, Ropinirole, Restless legs syndrome, Multiple system atrophy


An epidemiological study conducted over four years revealed increased prevalence of neurodegenerative parkinsonism in a small, isolated region (10 villages, with a combined population of 8664, with approx. 2927 over 50 years of age) of south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic. The aim of this study was to obtain more detailed information on the medical history of the relatives of individuals with confirmed parkinsonism in an isolated rural population in south-eastern Moravia, Czech Republic.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Gregor Mendel, Czechoslovakia, Czech language, Moravia, Czechs


The review is a summary of structural and functional changes in the human retina observed in patients with schizophrenia. The main focus is on the potential of these changes to serve as schizophrenia-specific biomarkers accessible to clinicians. We identified three features of the retina that can be detected non-invasively in humans and which appear to show charateristic changes in schizophrenia: (1) retinal microvasculature displaying abnormally wide venules; (2) electroretinograms indicating altered function of photoreceptors or other cells in the retinal component of the visual pathway; (3) optical coherence tomography pointing to structural differences between the retinae of patients with schizophrenia and those of healthy volunteers. We propose that the most feasible approach to evaluating the data would be to study the genetic and epigenetic background of the schizophrenia-associated retinal abnormalities and establish their significance and specificity as potential biomarkers for the disease. The studies should include longitudinal observations focusing on the possible involvement of medication and comorbid conditions in the mechanism of the disease; a comparison of schizophrenia with other mental disorders; and investigating retinal abnormalities in animal models of psychoses. Biomarkers identified in the process could represent an important addition to the arsenal of non-invasive techniques available to both clinicians and researchers. These novel biomarkers could facilitate research of the biological basis of psychosis and help to address the diagnostic, predicitive, preventative, prophylactic and therapeutic aspects of schizophrenia.


To evaluate the anatomical and functional results in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) who underwent 25-gauge pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) with gas tamponade.


Diagnosing neonatal sepsis is difficult, particularly in preterm newborns. A promising method appears to be evaluation of cell surface markers by flow cytometry.


Optimal ECG monitoring in detecting recurrences of atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial tachycardia (AT) after catheter ablation has not been well established. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare the utility of daily ECG monitoring with episodic card recorder (ECR) vs. periodic monitoring with episodic loop recorder (ELR) for the detection of post-blanking AF/AT recurrences during early (Months 4-6) and late (Months 7-12) periods after catheter ablation for paroxysmal AF.


Sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused the dysregulation of host inflammatory response and immunosuppression to infection Early recognition and intervention are hence of paramount importance. In this respect the “sepsis bundle” was proposed in 2004 to be instituted in cases of suspected sepsis.



The physiotherapeutic technique of Vojta reflex locomotion is often accompanied by various autonomic activity changes and unpleasant sensations. It is unknown whether these effects are specific to Vojta Therapy. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare changes in cardiac autonomic control after Vojta reflex locomotion stimulation and after an appropriate sham stimulation.