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Journal: Biomedical chromatography : BMC


A highly sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was developed and validated for the determination of limonin in beagle dog plasma using nimodipine as internal standard. The analyte and internal standard (IS) were extracted with ether followed by a rapid isocratic elution with 10 mm ammonium acetate buffer-methanol (26:74, v/v) on a C column (150 × 2.1 mm i.d.) and subsequent analysis by mass spectrometry in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. The precursor to product ion transitions of m/z 469.4 → 229.3 and m/z 417.2 → 122.0 were used to measure the analyte and the IS. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 0.625-100 ng/mL for limonin in dog plasma. The lower limit of quantification was 0.312 ng/mL and the extraction recovery was >90.4% for limonin. The inter- and intra-day precision of the method at three concentrations was less than 9.9%. The method was successfully applied to pharmacokinetic study of limonin in dogs. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Ammonia, Mass spectrometry, Calculus, Analytical chemistry, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Titration


A highly sensitive, specific and enantioselective assay has been developed and validated for the estimation of TAK-700 enantiomers [(+)-TAK-700 and (-)-TAK-700] in rat plasma on LC-MS/MS-ESI in the positive-ion mode. Liquid-liquid extraction was used to extract (±)-TAK-700 enantiomers and IS (phenacetin) from rat plasma. TAK-700 enantiomers were separated using methanol and 5 mm ammonium acetate (80:20, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.7 mL/min on a Chiralcel OJ-RH column. The total run time was 7.0 min and the elution of (+)-TAK-700, (-)-TAK-700 and IS occurred at 3.71, 4.45 and 4.33 min, respectively. The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were m/z 308.2 → 95.0 for TAK-700 and m/z 180.2 → 110.1 for IS. The standard curves for TAK-700 enantiomers were linear (r(2)  > 0.998) in the concentration range 2.01-2015 ng/mL for each enantiomer. The inter- and intra-day precisions were in the ranges 3.74-7.61 and 2.06-8.71% and 3.59-9.00 and 2.32-11.0% for (+)-TAK-700 and (-)-TAK-700, respectively. Both the enantiomers were found to be stable in a battery of stability studies. This novel method was applied to the study of stereoselective oral pharmacokinetics of (+)-TAK-700 and it was unequivocally demonstrated that (+)-TAK-700 does not undergo chiral inversion to its antipode in vivo. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Stereochemistry, Enantiomer, Chirality, Tartaric acid, Enantiomeric excess


The World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) has recently added desmopressin, a synthetic analogue of the endogenous peptide hormone arginine vasopressin, to the Prohibited List, owing to the potential masking effects of this drug on hematic parameters useful to detect blood doping. A qualitative method for detection of desmopressin in human urine by high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) has been developed and validated. Desmopressin purification from urine was achieved by means of delipidation with a 60:40 di-isopropyl ether/n-butanol and solid-phase extraction with WCX cartridges. The lower limit of detection was 25 pg/mL. Extraction recovery was determined as 59.3% (SD 29.4), and signal reduction owing to ion suppression was estimated to be 42.7% (SD 12.9). The applicability of the method was proven by the analysis of real urine samples obtained after intravenous, oral and intranasal administration of desmopressin, achieving unambiguous detection of the peptide in all the cases. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Hormone, Oxytocin, Vasopressin, Diabetes insipidus, Tandem mass spectrometry, Desmopressin, World Anti-Doping Agency


Limonene, considered a green solvent, was successfully used to extract simvastatin, lovastatin, and their hydroxy-acid metabolites from human plasma samples. The extraction process was followed by the direct injection of a large volume aliquot (100 μL) from the limonene layer into a Zorbax SB-C(18) Rapid Resolution chromatographic column (50 mm length × 4.6 mm i.d. × 1.8 µm d.p.), operated under gradient elution reversed-phase separation mechanism. Tandem mass spectrometry operated under the multiple reaction monitoring mode was used for detection, providing low quantitation limits in the 0.25-0.5 ng/mL concentration interval. This method was validated and used for quantitation of simvastatin and its hydroxy acid metabolite in incurred plasma samples obtained from two volunteers participating in a bioequivalence study, using lovastatin and its hydroxy analog as internal standards. The results were statistically compared with those produced by means of an alternative RPLC-tandem MS using protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The quality attributes of the two methods are comparatively discussed. The agreement between the quality characteristics of the two methods and the experimental results obtained on real samples may be considered as a consistent basis for the simultaneous use of limonene as extraction medium and injection diluent for hydrophobic compounds in bioanalytical approaches. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Statin, Chromatography, Analytical chemistry, CYP3A4, Tandem mass spectrometry, Statins, Liquid-liquid extraction


A highly sensitive, rapid assay method has been developed and validated for the estimation of bicalutamide in mouse plasma using liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization in the negative-ion mode. The assay procedure involves extraction of bicalutamide and tolbutamide (internal standard, IS) from mouse plasma with a simple protein precipitation method. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an isocratic mobile phase (0.2% formic acid:acetonitrile, 35:65, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min on an Atlantis dC(18) column (maintained at 40 ± 1°C) with a total run time of 3.0 min. The MS/MS ion transitions monitored were m/z 428.9 → 254.7 for bicalutamide and m/z 269.0 → 169.6 for IS. Method validation was performed as per FDA guidelines and the results met the acceptance criteria. The lower limit of quantitation achieved was 1.04 ng/mL and the linearity range extended from 1.04 to 1877 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions were in the ranges of 0.49-4.68 and 2.62-4.15, respectively. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Protein, Mass spectrometry, Assay, Chromatography, Analytical chemistry, Gas chromatography, Tandem mass spectrometry, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance


A sensitive, accurate and highly stereoselective assay for the simultaneous determination of venlafaxine (VEN) and its equipotent metabolite, O-desmethyl venlafaxine (ODV), in human plasma was developed and validated. Analytes were simultaneously extracted from plasma using solid-phase extraction and detected by tandem mass spectrometry in positive ion mode with a turbo ion spray interface. Deuterium-labeled VEN and ODV were used as internal standards. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Chiral AGP column, using a time programmed gradient flow with a total run time of 16 min. The method has a lower limit of quantitation of 0.60 ng/mL. The assay was linear over a range 0.60-300.00 ng/mL for both the enantiomers of VEN and ODV, respectively, with coefficient of correlation > 0.99. The extraction recoveries were >77.0% on an average for all the four analytes. The analytes were found stable in plasma through three freeze (-15 °C) and thaw cycles and under storage at room temperature for 8 h, and also in mobile phase at 10 °C for 54 h. The method has shown good reproducibility, with intra- and inter-day variation coefficients < 9%, for all the analytes, and has proved to be very reliable for analysis of VEN and its metabolite in clinical study samples. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, Analytical chemistry, Gas chromatography, Chromatography in blood processing, Tandem mass spectrometry, Separation process


In this study, a sensitive and reliable liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the determination of seven bioactive components including paeoniflorin, nobiletin, tangeretin, liquiritigenin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritin and formononetin in rat plasma and tissues after oral administration of Si-Ni-San extract using astragaloside IV as internal standard (IS). The plasma and tissue samples were extracted by solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was accomplished on a C18 column with a multiple-step gradient elution. The quantification was obtained by scanning with multiple reaction monitoring via an electrospray ionization source that was operated by switching between the positive and negative modes in two MS/MS scan segments. Full validation of the assay was implemented. In conclusion, this method demonstrated good linearity and specificity. The lower limits of quantification for the analytes were <7.5 ng/mL. Intra- and inter-day precisions (RSD) were <12.5% and accuracy (RE) ranged from -10.2 to 7.3%. The average recoveries of the analytes from rat plasma and tissues were >65.2% and 58.6%, respectively. The validated method was further applied to the determination of actual rat plasma and tissues after oral administration of Si-Ni-San extract. The results provided a meaningful basis for the clinical application of this prescription. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Chromatography, Analytical chemistry, Electrospray ionization, Taylor cone, Standard, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Separation process


A dispersive liquid-liquid micellar microextraction (DLLMME) method coupled with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using Diode Array Detector (DAD) detector was developed for the analysis of five pharmaceutical compounds of different nature in wastewaters. A micellar solution of a surfactant, polidocanol, as extraction solvent (100 μL) and chloroform as dispersive solvent (200 μL) were used to extract and preconcentrate the target analytes. Samples were heated above critical temperature and the cloudy solution was centrifuged. After removing the chloroform, the reduced volume of surfactant was then injected in the UHPLC system. In order to obtain high extraction efficiency, the parameters affecting the liquid-phase microextraction, such as time and temperature extraction, ionic strength and surfactant and organic solvent volume, were optimized using an experimental design. Under the optimized conditions, this procedure allows enrichment factors of up to 47-fold. The detection limit of the method ranged from 0.1 to 2.0 µg/L for the different pharmaceuticals. Relative standard deviations were <26% for all compounds. The procedure was applied to samples from final effluent collected from wastewater treatment plants in Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain), and two compounds were measured at 67 and 113 µg/L in one of them. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Canary Islands, Chromatography, Analytical chemistry, Solvent, Sewage treatment, Solution, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Gran Canaria


Gardenin A is one of the less abundant hydroxylated polymethoxyflavonoids (OH-PMFs) in nature, and has many potential significant health benefits. In the present study, an efficient strategy was established using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap-Orbitrap mass spectrometer to profile the in vivo metabolic fate of gardenin A in rat plasma and various tissues. First, an online LC-MS(n) data acquisition method was developed to trace all the probable metabolites. Second, a combination of offline data processing methods including extracted ion chromatography and multiple mass defect filters was employed to screen the common and uncommon metabolites from the background noise and endogenous components. Finally, structures of the metabolites were elucidated based on an accurate mass measurement, the diagnostic product ions of PMFs, and relevant drug biotransformation knowledge. Based on the proposed strategy, a total of 26 metabolites were observed and characterized. The results indicate that some biotransformations, such as methylation, demethoxylation, demethylation, glucuronide conjugation, sulfate conjugation and their composite reactions, have been discovered for OH-PMFs. Moreover, some diagnostic biotransformation pathways are summarized. Overall, this study gives us a first insight into the in vivo metabolism of gardenin A. The study also provides a practical strategy for rapidly screening and identifying metabolites, which can be widely applied for the other biotransformations. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Concepts: Metabolism, Atom, Chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Micellar liquid chromatography, Biotransformation, Ion chromatography


The screening of vitamin D deficiency in neonatal infants, which is based on the blood 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3 ] quantification, is important for the early detection, diagnosis and health risk assessment of several diseases. In this study, two new Cookson-type reagents, 4-(4-diethylaminophenyl)-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (DEAPTAD) and 4-(6-quinolyl)-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione, were designed and synthesized, then compared with the previous reagents, 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD) and 4-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (DAPTAD), in terms of sensitivity and specificity in the assay of 25(OH)D3 in neonatal blood samples by liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry. Among the reagents, DEAPTAD was found to be the most promising. The limit of detection (0.38 fmol on the column) of the DEAPTAD-derivatized 25(OH)D3 was 60 and 2 times lower than those of the intact 25(OH)D3 and the PTAD-derivative, respectively. 25(OH)D3 was more clearly detected in the plasma sample as the DEAPTAD-derivative than the DAPTAD-derivative due to the lower background noise. DEAPTAD-derivatization was also useful for the separation of 25(OH)D3 from a potent interfering metabolite, 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 . By using DEAPTAD, a trace amount of 25(OH)D3 in dried blood spots was reproducibly determined without interference from coexisting compounds. Thus, DEAPTAD was proved useful in the measurement of 25(OH)D3 in neonatal blood samples. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Vitamin D, Positive predictive value, Type I and type II errors, Sensitivity and specificity