SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Biological psychiatry

191

Inflammation impairs cognitive performance and is implicated in the progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Rodent studies demonstrated key roles for inflammatory mediators in many processes critical to memory, including long-term potentiation, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. They also demonstrated functional impairment of medial temporal lobe (MTL) structures by systemic inflammation. However, human data to support this position are limited.

Concepts: Inflammation, Neuroscience, Synaptic plasticity, Memory, Temporal lobe, Hippocampus, Long-term potentiation, Lobe

88

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is behaviorally and biologically heterogeneous and likely represents a series of conditions arising from different underlying genetic, metabolic, and environmental factors. There are currently no reliable diagnostic biomarkers for ASD. Based on evidence that dysregulation of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) may contribute to the behavioral characteristics of ASD, we tested whether dysregulation of amino acids (AAs) was a pervasive phenomenon in individuals with ASD. This is the first article to report results from the Children’s Autism Metabolome Project (CAMP), a large-scale effort to define autism biomarkers based on metabolomic analyses of blood samples from young children.

81

N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists, such as ketamine, have rapid antidepressant effects in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD). We hypothesized that nitrous oxide, an inhalational general anesthetic and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist, may also be a rapidly acting treatment for TRD.

Concepts: Receptor, Receptor antagonist

65

Neuroplastin cell recognition molecules have been implicated in synaptic plasticity. Polymorphisms in the regulatory region of the human neuroplastin gene (NPTN) are correlated with cortical thickness and intellectual abilities in adolescents and in individuals with schizophrenia.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Gene expression, Cell, Hippocampus, Amnesia, Retrograde amnesia

60

Depression and stress promote obesity. This study addressed the impact of daily stressors and a history of major depressive disorder (MDD) on obesity-related metabolic responses to high-fat meals.

Concepts: Serotonin, Major depressive disorder, Dysthymia

57

A relationship between non-neurological autoimmune (NNAI) disorders and psychosis has been widely reported but not yet subjected to meta-analysis. We conducted the first meta-analysis examining the association between NNAI disorders and psychosis and investigated the effect of 1) temporality (as determined by study design), 2) psychiatric diagnosis, and 3) specific autoimmune disorders.

54

51

Marijuana is the most widely used illicit drug in the United States and all over the world. Reports indicate that the potency of cannabis preparation has been increasing. This report examines the concentration of cannabinoids in illicit cannabis products seized by the U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration over the last 2 decades, with particular emphasis on Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol.

Concepts: United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Cannabis, Cannabinoid, Cannabidiol, Recreational drug use

49

Women are two times more likely to be diagnosed with depression than men. Sex hormones modulating serotonergic transmission are proposed to partly underlie these epidemiologic findings. Here, we used the cross-sex steroid hormone treatment of transsexuals seeking sex reassignment as a model to investigate acute and chronic effects of testosterone and estradiol on serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) binding in female-to-male and male-to-female transsexuals.

Concepts: Hormone, Estrogen, Gender, Testosterone, Serotonin, Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Transgender, Serotonin transporter

47

Ketamine is reported to have rapid antidepressant effects; however, there is limited understanding of the time-course of ketamine effects beyond a single infusion. A previous report including 10 participants with treatment-resistant major depression (TRD) found that six ketamine infusions resulted in a sustained antidepressant effect. In the current report, we examined the pattern and durability of antidepressant effects of repeated ketamine infusions in a larger sample, inclusive of the original.

Concepts: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Bipolar disorder, Sertraline