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Journal: Artificial cells, nanomedicine, and biotechnology (Print)


Abstract A new gut bacterial adhesion model has been developed. For this, a continuous-flow bioreactor packed with bacteria-coated beads was designed to simulate the gut lining and other features. In vitro model efficacy shows successful bacterial cell gut adhesions: bacterial adhesion was higher with mucin-alginate compared to controls. In feasibility study, adhesion of Lactobacillus fermentum NCIMB 5221 and Lactobacillus reuteri NCIMB 701359 was investigated for their metabolic activities for bile salt. Bile salt hydrolase (BSH)-active Lactobacillus reuteri exerted higher activity than non-BSH-active L. fermentum. This model has potential use in gut health, probiotic, bacterial cell gut adhesion and other delivery applications.

Concepts: Bacteria, Gut flora, Microbiology, Probiotic, Lactobacillus, Lactobacillaceae, Bacteriology, Lactobacillus reuteri


The occurrence of topical fungal infections is increasing nowadays. Cutaneous fungal infections like cutaneous candidiasis are more prominent in patients associated with AIDS. Current available strategies for the treatment of cutaneous fungal infections are creams or gels which show various adverse effects on skin along with systemic absorption. These drawbacks can be overcome by using various novel drug delivery systems. So, the present investigation aims at exploring the potential of fatty acid vesicles (ufasomes) for the topical delivery of clotrimazole. Oleic acid was employed as a fatty material for the preparation of vesicles. Clotrimazole-loaded oleic acid vesicles were prepared using a thin film hydration method. Prepared vesicles were characterized for size, size distribution, shape, thermal behaviour (differential scanning calorimetry), in vitro release, in vitro antifungal activity, in vitro skin permeation and retention studies and for in vivo antifungal activity. Transmission electron microscopic (TEM) images confirmed the formation of vesicular dispersion (ufasomes) of clotrimazole. Oleic acid vesicles possessed high drug entrapment (49.5 ± 1.0%) and optimum size (455 ± 22 nm) along with good colloidal characteristics (polydispersity index = 0.210 ± 0.035 & zeta potential = - 22.45 ± 0.25 mV) at 4:6 drug-to-oleic acid ratio. In vitro drug release study showed sustained release of drug from the vesicular dispersion. Skin permeation and skin retention studies suggested accumulation of drug in the epidermal part of the skin. In vivo study confirmed prolonged release of drug from oleic acid vesicle up to five days indicating its usefulness for long-term therapy. So, it can be concluded from the present study that fatty acid vesicle may be a good approach to treat topical fungal infections.

Concepts: Present, Fatty acid, In vivo, Colloid, Skin, In vitro, Oleic acid, Candidiasis


Methemoglobin concentration is an important pathophysio-logical biomarker, reflecting the oxygen-carrying and oxygen-releasing capabilities of hemoglobin (Hb). Raman spectroscopy is used to develop a novel technique for determining the methemoglobin concentration. Raman activity combined with two-dimensional correlation analysis is an attractive method for investigating Hb oxidation, exhibiting several relevant peaks in the range of 1200-1650 cm- 1. Methemoglobin concentration is estimated by measuring the intensity of Raman peaks in the ranges of 1210-1230 cm- 1 and 1340-1380 cm- 1 with 785-nm excitation. The correlation between Raman-based methemoglobin concentration estimations and the methemoglobin concentration measured using spectrophotometry was highly significant. These results suggest the potential of Raman spectroscopy as a new quantitative approach to determine the methemoglobin concentration.

Concepts: Spectroscopy, Measurement, Raman spectroscopy, Quantity, Systems of measurement


A novel design of nerve communications and networks using the coupling effects between bio-cells and optical dipoles is proposed. The electrical signals are coupled to the dipoles and cells which propagate within the optical networks for long distance without any electromagnetic interference. Results have shown that the use of optical spins in the spin networks, referred as Spinnet, can be formed. This technique can be used to improve the nerve communication performance. It is fabricated as a nano-biotic circuit system, and has great potential for future disability applications and diagnosis of the links of nerves across the dead cells.

Concepts: Electromagnetism, Photon, Fundamental physics concepts, Quantum field theory, Communication, Public relations, Visual communication, Graphic communication


Wound is one of the oldest suffering associated with the mankind and its history is as old as humanity. Advances in the field of medical sciences created a pile of knowledge and paved the path for the development of a separate branch specifically devoted for wound healing. The understanding and treatment strategies for wound healing have gone through a great revolution. This article reviews all the aspects of wound healing including the pathway, types and recent advances made in the wound care management in particular moist wound dressings using natural polymers, skin grafts, debridement, growth factor and drug delivery.

Concepts: Immune system, Health care, Medicine, Scar, Wound healing, Surgery, History, Revolution


A novel biosensor for determination of L-glutamine in pharmaceutical glutamine powder was developed via immobilizing our produced glutaminase enzyme from Hypocria jecorina onto our prepared zinc oxide (ZnO) nanorod and chitosan. ZnO nanorods were prepared as surface-dependent and surface-independent and both were used. The biosensor is specific for L-glutamine and the peculiar analytical properties (linearity range, reproducibility, and accuracy) of it were experimentally determined. The optimum operating conditions of the biosensor such as buffer concentration, buffer pH, and medium temperature effect on the response of biosensor were studied. Km and Vmax values for the our-producing glutaminase enzyme from Hypocria jecorina immobilized on the biosensor were also determined as 0.29 mM and 208.33 mV/min., respectively, from Lineweaver-Burk plot. The biosensor was then used for the determination of glutamine contained in pharmaceutical formulations.

Concepts: Zinc, PH, Titanium dioxide, Buffer solution, Zinc oxide, Sunscreen, Brass, Glutamine


Abstract In this study, we report the novel double pH-sensitive mixed micelles to fabricate multicore niosomes for drug delivery. The double pH-sensitive mixed micelles (PMM) were prepared with different pH-sensitive polymers, mPEG2000-Hz-CHEMS and mPEG2000-IS (2:1 w/w). Ginsenoside Rh2-loaded DPMM was mixed with Pluronic F-68, in the aqueous medium, and multicore niosomes were fabricated. The size of multicore niosomes were around 100-300 nm with a high encapsulation efficiency of G-Rh2. The G-Rh2-MCN could release encapsulated G-Rh2 with an accelerated rate under lower pH conditions with lower cytotoxicity and good antitumor efficacy.

Concepts: Literature


Permeability plays an important role to achieve the desired therapeutic outcomes. Present study was designed to investigate the permeability of ciprofloxacin from ultrathin polyvinyl alcohol nanofiber through different biological membranes. Results of the permeability studies indicated that nanofibers exhibit higher drug permeability than plane drug. Intestinal tissue shows maximum permeability followed by eye, trachea, sublingual, rectal, and skin. Permeability studies also inferred a steady-state release of drug of the nanofiber, whereas a high degree of fluctuations was observed in plane drug. Nanofiber being 2D nanoscale material provides numerous advantages to be used as an encapsulated carrier system to improve the therapeutic effectiveness.

Concepts: Medicine, Nanomaterials


Electrospinning uses an electrical charge to draw very fine (typically on the micro or nano scale) fibers from a liquid. Electrospinning or electrostatic spinning shares characteristics of both electrospraying and conventional solution dry spinning of fibers. The method does not need the use of coagulation chemistry or high temperatures to produce solid threads from solution. This makes the process particularly suited for the production of fibers using large and complex molecules. Because the full potential of biomaterials being used in various applications, field of nanofibers have involved considerable interest in biotechnology and medicine and there has been fast development in this area in recent years.

Concepts: Electron, Electric charge, Fundamental physics concepts, Molecule, Chemistry, Atom, Nanomaterials, Solid


It is all known that dedifferentiated Schwann cells (SCs) play an important role in neural regeneration, and Notch signaling has complex and extensive regulatory functions in dedifferentiated SCs. So studies have focused on how to improve peripheral nerve repair by regulating proliferation and dedifferentiation in SCs with Notch signaling meloculars.We have found SCs can be activated when adding Recombinant rat jagged1/FC chimera (an activator of the Notch signaling system) in vivo. Compared with that of the control groups, at 4 weeks post-surgery nerve regeneration and functional rehabilitation in the Recombinant rat jagged1/FC chimera group were advanced significantly, and the expression of neurotrophic factors in the regenerated nerves was elevated largely. These results indicated that SCs activated by Notch signaling could promote nerve repair effectively in the early regenerative stage, suggesting the possible clinical application for the treatment of peripheral nerve defects.

Concepts: Nervous system, Neuroanatomy, Regeneration, Action potential, Sciatica, Neurobiology, Neuroregeneration