SciCombinator

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Journal: Archives of gerontology and geriatrics

30

Recent studies show that the elderly have increased oxidative stress and impaired antioxidant defense systems. Our study aims to evaluate the effects of daily consumption of EVOO in the healthy institutionalized elderly. We studied anthropometric, biochemical and antioxidant parameters in 62 subjects aged 65-96 years after a 6-week daily intake of polyphenol-rich EVOO with high oleuropein derivative contents. Subjects were divided into a control group (CG) who maintained their dietary habits (n=39) and an olive group (OG) who consumed EVOO as the only added fat, plus a daily dose of 50ml (n=23). We found a significant reduction of total cholesterol (TC), HDL, LDL and TGs in OG subjects and a significant increase of HDL levels. There was no significant variation in the CG parameters. In OG the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in plasma increased with significant differences over CG. Plasma hydroxytyrosol (OH-Tyr) concentration showed a significant increase after EVOO intervention. Daily consumption of EVOO was found to have positive effects on lipid profiles, OH-Tyr levels and TAC. The results also show a significant increase of catalase (CAT) in erythrocytes and a decrease (p<0.05) in superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GH-PX) activity after EVOO intake. To our knowledge, no other study has examined the effects of EVOO consumption on biochemical parameters, antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity in healthy elderly subjects. In conclusion, our results show that nutritional intervention with EVOO improves antioxidant status in healthy elderly people.

Concepts: Nutrition, Death, Antioxidant, Superoxide dismutase, Olive, Olive oil, Hydroxytyrosol, Oleuropein

27

The present study investigated the extent to which the effect of age on cognitive ability is predicted by individual differences in physical health. The sample consisted of 118 volunteer subjects who were healthy and ranging in age from 26 to 91. The examinations included a clinical investigation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain neuroimaging, and a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment. The effect of age on fluid IQ with and without visual spatial praxis and on crystallized IQ was tested whether being fully-, partially- or non-mediated by physical health. Structural equation analyses showed that the best and most parsimonious fit to the data was provided by models that were fully mediated for fluid IQ without praxis, non-mediated for crystallized IQ and partially mediated for fluid IQ with praxis. The diseases of the circulatory and nervous systems were the major mediators. It was concluded from the pattern of findings that the effect of age on fluid intelligence is fully mediated by physical health, while crystallized intelligence is non-mediated and visual spatial praxis is partially mediated, influenced mainly by direct effects of age. Our findings imply that improving health by acting against the common age-related circulatory- and nervous system diseases and risk factors will oppose the decline in fluid intelligence with age.

Concepts: Nervous system, Psychology, Medicine, Epidemiology, Brain, Neuroscience, Magnetic resonance imaging, Intelligence

17

Nutrition screening is an initial procedure in which the risk of malnutrition is identified. The aims of this review were to identify malnutrition risk from nutrition screening studies that have used validated nutrition screening tools in community living older adults; and to identify types of nutrition interventions, pathways of care and patient outcomes following screening.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Systematic review, Malnutrition

5

Providing quality care for people with dementia to meet the growing demand for services is a significant challenge to Australia and globally. When it comes to planning for current and future care needs, limited information is available on what people living with dementia and their family members consider the meaning of “quality” in residential care services.

Concepts: Management, Meaning of life, Virgin Media

4

The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of a single-set RT program on CVD-risk parameters in untrained older women. Forty-eight older women (> 60 years) were randomly assigned to two groups. The training group (SS) performed a 12-week RT program comprised of single sets (10-15 repetitions) in 8 exercises performed 3 times per week. The control group remained pursued normal daily activities with no exercise intervention. Each participant was evaluated for total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), triglycerides (TG), glucose (GLU) and, C-reactive protein (CRP). TC, LDL, GLU and CRP were reduced significantly (pā€‰<ā€‰0.05) after exercise intervention in the exercise group. The composite Z-score of the cardiovascular risk was also significantly reduce compared to control group (Pā€‰<ā€‰0.05). We conclude that a 12-week RT program performed with a single-set per exercise is sufficient to reduce cardiovascular diseases risk components.

4

Low physical capability predicts mortality, perhaps by association with co-morbidity. However, few studies include participants <70years old with lower co-morbidity burdens compared to older adults. We examined relationships between usual walking speed (UWS), timed chair stands speed, grip strength, standing balance and all-cause mortality in 8477 participants aged 48-92years enrolled in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer-Norfolk study.

Concepts: Gerontology, Old age

3

Sarcopenia poses a significant problem for older adults, yet very little is known about this medical condition in the hospital setting. The aims of this hospital-based study were to determine: (i) the prevalence of sarcopenia; (ii) factors associated with sarcopenia; and (iii) the association of sarcopenia with adverse clinical outcomes post-hospitalisation.

Concepts: Cohort study, Medicine, Longitudinal study, Epidemiology, Disease, Death, Sociology, Geriatrics

3

A majority of us will at some point in our lives take care of family members, relatives and friends in need of assistance. How will this affect us? Strain related to life satisfaction (LS) and health related quality of life (HRQoL) among caregivers aged 60 years and older has not been previously studied.

Concepts: Caregiver, Family, Quality, Quality of life, Personal life, Gross domestic product

2

The effect of protein supplementation in attenuating loss of muscle mass, strength and function in community-dwelling older people has been promising, however, its benefits in pre-frail and frail older people remains unclear.

2

To describe the food and dining experience of people with cognitive impairment and their family members in nursing homes.

Concepts: Person, Food