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Journal: Archives of environmental & occupational health


The jobs of Latino manual laborers place their mental and physical health at risk. This study evaluates the associations among musculoskeletal pain, mental health, and work organization in Latino manual laborers. Farmworkers and non-farmworkers (n = 189) in North Carolina were interviewed for self-reported musculoskeletal pain, depressive symptoms, stress, work safety climate, and precarious job status. More non-farmworkers than farmworkers had neck and shoulder pain, but they did not differ in other areas of musculoskeletal pain. Depressive symptoms had a significant association with neck and shoulder pain (p<0.05). Precariousness had a significant association with back pain (p<0.05). Farmworker participants had H-2A visas and were afforded some protection compared to non-farmworker manual workers. Research is needed to improve policy that relieves pain and improves mental health for all Latino manual workers.

Concepts: Improve, United States, Symptoms, Occupational health psychology, North Carolina, South Carolina, Laborer, Virginia


A 3-year follow-up study of an occupational cohort was conducted to clarify the effect of the type of shift work on the risk of development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The subjects were 1,677 Japanese male employees aged 36 to 57. Age, each component of MetS, serum uric acid, serum insulin, lifestyle factors, and occupational position were used for the analyses. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) of 2-shift work (n = 686) and 3-shift work (n = 99) against daytime work (n = 868) for the development of MetS, as defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program, were 1.43 (1.05, 1.95) and 0.72 (0.37, 1.41), respectively. When Japanese criteria were adopted for defining MetS, the corresponding odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) were 1.88 (1.29, 2.74) and 0.87 (0.39, 1.97), respectively. The results of the analyses suggested that 2-shift work was a risk factor for the development of metabolic syndrome.

Concepts: Atherosclerosis, Insulin resistance, Metabolic syndrome, Uric acid


Injury mortality was followed up from 1950 to 2000 in a cohort of 56,576 nickel workers. Injury fatalities were elevated throughout the cohort of never sinter plant workers (SMR = 134, 95% CI: 129-140). Elevations were also observed in injury mortality sub-categories of road, rail, and air (SMR = 137, 95% CI: 127-147); boating and swimming (SMR = 150, 95% CI: 128-176); suicide and possible suicide (SMR = 124, 95% CI: 114-135); and possibly job-related accidents (SMR = 160, 95% CI: 145-175). The results were largely attributed to underground miners with 61.4% of all injury mortality (SMR = 162; 95% CI: 153-171). Occupational etiology could not be ascertained, however, compiled workplace injury fatalities are presented separately. Recommendations include delivery of injury prevention and wellness programs in partnership with the local health unit and other stakeholders.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Actuarial science, Mining, Occupational safety and health, Accident, London Underground


This study assessed the nature, prevalence and risk factors of musculoskeletal symptoms (MS) in dental clinics. A self-administered questionnaire was completed by 515 dental students and dentists about nature of work, and prevalence and frequency of MS symptoms. Chi-square and logistic regression were used to determine the association of MS with a number of important variables. Pain in the lower back (64%) and neck (60%) were the most prevalent MS. Working in the dental colleges' clinics was associated with increased risk of MS (adjusted OR 2.30, 95% CI 1.27-4.18). A stronger association was observed for dentists working in the private clinics (adjusted OR 2.58, 95%CI 1.28-5.17). Female dentists were at more risk of MS than male subjects (OR 1.63, 95%CI 1.02-2.59). The higher risk of reported MS symptoms in females and for those working in the dental colleges and private clinics underscores the importance of recognition and prevention of MS symptoms even early in the dental profession.

Concepts: Saudi Arabia, Arabian Peninsula, Riyadh, Dentistry


This paper aims to quantify airborne fungal load in air-conditioned rooms and develop a health risk rating scale for different indoor environments. Five sampling locations in Kolkata frequented by a heterogeneous human population, containing various types of fungal growth-promoting substances (FGPS) like old documents, food items, waste hair, etc. were chosen as sampling locations where an Andersen Two-Stage Cascade Impactor was ran using Rose Bengal agar and Potato Dextrose agar media plates. Total spore load (CFU/m3), species diversity, species dominance, human exposure time, susceptible age and FGPS were considered the risk factors for this study. A risk rating scale was developed after evaluating the relative importance of these different factors in relation to human health. The most dominant genera were Aspergillus, followed by Penicillium. Maximum CFU was observed at library, followed by computer room.


Commercial motorcycle (CM) accidents constitute a major public concern in Nigeria. There is 8:10 chance that injuries resulting from these accidents are severe and debilitating including head and spinal injuries. This study is aimed at producing useful data on the prevalence, frequency, and determinants of helmet use among commercial motorcyclist in Ido-Osi Local Government Area, Ekiti State, Nigeria. The study was a descriptive/cross-sectional study. A total of 360 respondents were selected by multi-stage sampling technique and interviewed using assisted self-administered, semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 21. Determinants of helmet use examined included age, educational level, marital status and religion. There was a 100% response rate. More than half of the respondents were within the age range of 20-29 years 164(53.6%) with the mean age of the study participants 29.9. The prevalence of helmet usage among commercial motorcyclist was 23.5%. The commonest reason for not using a crash helmet in this study was non-availability. The commonest reason for the non-availability of the welding helmet was the cost of the helmet. Less than half of the respondents were able to show or present helmet although some of the helmet presented were sub-standard (39.7%). The study also revealed irregular use of helmets among the respondents that used a helmet while riding a motorcycle as only 2.7% of them used it for all the five riding sessions assessed in this study. There was a statistically significant relationship between age, educational level, marital status and the use of helmets among respondents with p values of 0.005, 0.027, and 0.009, respectively. The prevalence of the use of helmets among the motorcyclist in this study is low despite the high level of awareness of legislation among the respondents on the use of helmets during riding. There is a need for the government to make provision for a safety helmet for this group of people at a subsidized rate if it cannot be given free of charge because of the economic situation of the country. There is a need to carry out behavioral change communication for this group of people.


This study investigated protective and risk factors for depressive mood and anxiety against occupational stress, including temperament character and coping strategy, among civil servants. We administered a questionnaire that included demographic factors and psychological scales to 1197 Korean civil servants. High levels of occupational stress, temperaments of novelty seeking and harm avoidance, a character of cooperativeness, and using emotion-focused coping were risk factors for depressive mood, while living with a partner, having a character of self-directedness, and using problem-focused strategies were protective factors. Additionally, female gender, high level of occupational stress, and temperaments of novelty seeking and harm avoidance were risk factors for anxiety, while having a character of self-directedness was a protective factor. Assessment of temperament character and training on effective coping strategies may help address depressive mood and anxiety for civil servants.


Objective: To analyze the association of psychosocial risk factors at work, sociodemographic, and occupational characteristics with the level of physical activity among motorcycle taxi drivers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with 750 male motorcycle taxi drivers from the municipality of Jequié, Bahia, Brazil. A form containing sociodemographic and occupational characteristics was utilized. The psychosocial risk factors at work were evaluated by the Job Content Questionnaire and the level of physical activity by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The adjusted associations were analyzed by means of the Poisson regression with robust variance. Results: the prevalence of an insufficiently active level of physical activity was of 59.6%. The crude prevalence ratios (PR) showed an association between physical inactivity in motorcycle taxi drivers and high strain job (PR: 1.31), with 5 or more years of experience (PR: 1.67), in night shifts (PR: 1.36) and 40 or more years old (PR: 1.77). In the multivariate model, adjusted by income, work in high strain is kept associated to a situation of being insufficiently active (PR: 1.13), duration of employment of five or more years raised by 51.0% the frequency of insufficiently active physical activity (PR: 1.51) and the work in predominantly nocturnal shifts increased it by 26.0% (PR: 1.26). It is made evident that age was an effect modifier (p < 0.001) and its interaction was evaluated by including the corresponding product term (job Demand-Control model), which shows that the association between highly straining work and being insufficiently active was observed only among the youngest (21-39 years old) (PR: 1,21). Conclusions: the age and exposure to unfavorable working conditions, like long duration of employment, night work and work under high psychological demand and low control, have an influence on the insufficient physical activity among motorcycle taxi drivers.


The present study aims to investigate the association between psychosocial aspects at work and the quality of sleep of professors in a public university in Feira de Santana, Bahia, Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted, with descriptive, bivariate and multivariate analysis, including a random sample of 423 professors. The psychosocial aspects work aspects were associated to a perception of poor sleep quality. In analysis of effect modifiers, the variable “practice of physical activity” modified the main association under test. Among professors that did not practice physical activity, the following variables kept statistically associated to the perception of poor sleep quality: having children (PR = 1.33, CI 95% 1.02-1.74), poor self-rated health (PR = 1.49; CI 95% 1.24-1.79) and quality of life self-evaluation (PR = 1.60, CI 95% 1.45-2.00), insufficient time for regular leisure activities (PR = 1.52, CI 95% 1.23-1.86) and high psychological demand (PR = 1.40, CI 95% 1.14-1.72). In final analysis, high strain and passive work were experiences associated to the perception of a poor sleep quality among professors that did not practice physical activity. The results confirmed that the adverse psychosocial aspects at work are associated to negative impacts on the professor’s quality of sleep.


This study investigated the association between exercise and cardiovascular load in Korean mail carriers with high occupational physical activity (OPA). A total of 36 subjects completed a questionnaire, and their heart rates were measured for 3 consecutive days. Treadmill tests were used determine maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). The subjects' relative heart rate (RHR) was 25.6%±4.5%, which was higher than the recommended RHR (24.5%). Daily working hours were 11.1 ± 0.9 hours, which was longer than the maximum acceptable work time (7.8 ± 1.7 hours). Multiple regression analysis showed that daily working hours were positively associated with RHR, but exercise did not show any significant association. According to the results of this study, exercise may not be of benefit to workers with high OPA, suggesting that exercise should be cautiously considered for workers with high OPA.