SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Archives of disease in childhood

236

To investigate the association between breast feeding and intergenerational social mobility and the possible mediating role of neurological and stress mechanisms.

Concepts: The Association, Mediation, Sunshine pop, Social mobility

226

BACKGROUND: Screen entertainment for young children has been associated with several aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Most research is from North America and focuses on television. Few longitudinal studies have compared the effects of TV and electronic games, or have investigated gender differences. PURPOSE: To explore how time watching TV and playing electronic games at age 5 years each predicts change in psychosocial adjustment in a representative sample of 7 year-olds from the UK. METHODS: Typical daily hours viewing television and playing electronic games at age 5 years were reported by mothers of 11 014 children from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Conduct problems, emotional symptoms, peer relationship problems, hyperactivity/inattention and prosocial behaviour were reported by mothers using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Change in adjustment from age 5 years to 7 years was regressed on screen exposures; adjusting for family characteristics and functioning, and child characteristics. RESULTS: Watching TV for 3 h or more at 5 years predicted a 0.13 point increase (95% CI 0.03 to 0.24) in conduct problems by 7 years, compared with watching for under an hour, but playing electronic games was not associated with conduct problems. No associations were found between either type of screen time and emotional symptoms, hyperactivity/inattention, peer relationship problems or prosocial behaviour. There was no evidence of gender differences in the effect of screen time. CONCLUSIONS: TV but not electronic games predicted a small increase in conduct problems. Screen time did not predict other aspects of psychosocial adjustment. Further work is required to establish causal mechanisms.

Concepts: Vacuum tube, Cohort study, Longitudinal study, Research methods, Causality, United Kingdom, Radio, Television

197

To investigate longitudinal sleep patterns in children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs).

Concepts: Cohort study, Longitudinal study, Cohort, Sleep, Memory, Autism, Autism spectrum

170

OBJECTIVE: To identify reasons why eligible families are not accessing free ‘Healthy Start’ vitamin supplementation (providing vitamins A, C and D) in England. DESIGN: Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. SETTING: 13 primary care trusts in England. PARTICIPANTS: Purposive sample of 15 Healthy Start coordinators, 50 frontline health and children’s professionals and 107 parents. RESULTS: Vitamin take-up was low across all research sites, reported as below 10% of eligible beneficiaries for free vitamins. Reasons identified by both parents and professionals included (1) poor accessibility of vitamins, (2) low promotion of the scheme by health professionals, (3) a lack of awareness among eligible families, and (4) low motivation among mothers to take vitamins for themselves during pregnancy or for children under 4 years old. CONCLUSIONS: Low uptake rates can be explained by poor accessibility of vitamins and lack of awareness and motivation to take vitamin supplements among eligible families. Universal provision (at least for pregnant women) and better training for health professionals are identified as potential solutions worthy of further research and evaluation.

Concepts: Family, Pregnancy, Nutrition, Vitamin, Dietary supplement, Educational psychology, Folic acid, Mother

143

Higher screen time is associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk in adults, but the association with T2D risk markers in children is unclear. We examined associations between self-reported screen time and T2D risk markers in children.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus type 2, Obesity, Insulin resistance

113

Investigate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of the Lightning Process (LP) in addition to specialist medical care (SMC) compared with SMC alone, for children with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)/myalgic encephalitis (ME).

Concepts: Health care, Pharmacology, Medicine, Clinical trial, The Canon of Medicine, Randomized controlled trial, Avicenna, Chronic fatigue syndrome

85

Coeliac disease (CD) incidence has increased in recent decades, characterised by variations according to sex, age at diagnosis, year of birth, month of birth and region of birth. Genetic susceptibility and exposure to gluten are the necessary factors in CD aetiology, although several environmental factors are considered.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Environment, Wheat, Coeliac disease, Gluten, Gluten-free diet, Wheat allergy, Gliadin

79

To investigate associations between takeaway meal consumption and risk markers for coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity risk markers in children.

Concepts: Nutrition, Hypertension, Diabetes mellitus type 2, Diabetes mellitus, Heart, Obesity, Heart disease, Childhood obesity

72

Deaths from choking are a major cause of childhood mortality, especially in the very young. Whole grapes are ideally suited to cause paediatric airway obstruction and, though regularly implicated, knowledge that this popular fruit, and other similarly shaped foods, is a choking hazard is not widespread. We present the cases of three children who presented to our institution after grape aspiration. Increased dissemination of the learning points among health professionals working with children may aid in the prevention of further episodes.

Concepts: Fruit, Youth, Wine, Grape, Berry, Blackcurrant

72

Studies suggest that increased breastfeeding rates can provide substantial financial savings, but the scale of such savings in the UK is not known.

Concepts: Economics, United Kingdom, Investment, Anarchy in the U.K., Decolonization