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Journal: Annals of family medicine

312

PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to explore the formation and impact of attitudes and beliefs among people experiencing acute and chronic low back pain. METHODS Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 12 participants with acute low back pain (less than 6 weeks' duration) and 11 participants with chronic low back pain (more than 3 months' duration) from 1 geographical region within New Zealand. Data were analyzed using an Interpretive Description framework. RESULTS Participants' underlying beliefs about low back pain were influenced by a range of sources. Participants experiencing acute low back pain faced considerable uncertainty and consequently sought more information and understanding. Although participants searched the Internet and looked to family and friends, health care professionals had the strongest influence upon their attitudes and beliefs. Clinicians influenced their patients' understanding of the source and meaning of symptoms, as well as their prognostic expectations. Such information and advice could continue to influence the beliefs of patients for many years. Many messages from clinicians were interpreted as meaning the back needed to be protected. These messages could result in increased vigilance, worry, guilt when adherence was inadequate, or frustration when protection strategies failed. Clinicians could also provide reassurance, which increased confidence, and advice, which positively influenced the approach to movement and activity. CONCLUSIONS Health care professionals have a considerable and enduring influence upon the attitudes and beliefs of people with low back pain. It is important that this opportunity is used to positively influence attitudes and beliefs.

Concepts: Health care, Low back pain, Back pain, Symptoms, Meaning of life

248

Improving hydration is a strategy commonly used by clinicians to prevent overeating with the goal of promoting a healthy weight among patients. The relationship between weight status and hydration, however, is unclear. Our objective was to assess the relationship between inadequate hydration and BMI and inadequate hydration and obesity among adults in the United States.

Concepts: United States, United Kingdom, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, American football, Ice hockey, Promoting adversaries

227

Primary care physicians spend nearly 2 hours on electronic health record (EHR) tasks per hour of direct patient care. Demand for non-face-to-face care, such as communication through a patient portal and administrative tasks, is increasing and contributing to burnout. The goal of this study was to assess time allocated by primary care physicians within the EHR as indicated by EHR user-event log data, both during clinic hours (defined as 8:00 am to 6:00 pm Monday through Friday) and outside clinic hours.

Concepts: Medicine, Patient, Hospital, Physician, Doctor-patient relationship, Pediatrics, Electronic health record, Physicians

129

PURPOSE Cinnamon has been studied in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) for its glycemic-lowering effects, but studies have been small and show conflicting results. A prior meta-analysis did not show significant results, but several RCTs have been published since then. We conducted an updated systematic review and meta-analysis of RCTs evaluating cinnamon’s effect on glycemia and lipid levels. METHODS MEDLINE, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) were searched through February 2012. Included RCTs evaluated cinnamon compared with control in patients with type 2 diabetes and reported at least one of the following: glycated hemoglobin (A1c), fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), or triglycerides. Weighted mean differences (with 95% confidence intervals) for endpoints were calculated using random-effects models. RESULTS In a meta-analysis of 10 RCTs (n = 543 patients), cinnamon doses of 120 mg/d to 6 g/d for 4 to 18 weeks reduced levels of fasting plasma glucose (-24.59 mg/dL; 95% CI, -40.52 to -8.67 mg/dL), total cholesterol (-15.60 mg/dL; 95% CI, -29.76 to -1.44 mg/dL), LDL-C (-9.42 mg/dL; 95% CI, -17.21 to -1.63 mg/dL), and triglycerides (-29.59 mg/dL; 95% CI, -48.27 to -10.91 mg/dL). Cinnamon also increased levels of HDL-C (1.66 mg/dL; 95% CI, 1.09 to 2.24 mg/dL). No significant effect on hemoglobin A1c levels (-0.16%; 95%, CI -0.39% to 0.02%) was seen. High degrees of heterogeneity were present for all analyses except HDL-C (I(2) ranging from 66.5% to 94.72%). CONCLUSIONS The consumption of cinnamon is associated with a statistically significant decrease in levels of fasting plasma glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-C, and triglyceride levels, and an increase in HDL-C levels; however, no significant effect on hemoglobin A1c was found. The high degree of heterogeneity may limit the ability to apply these results to patient care, because the preferred dose and duration of therapy are unclear.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Atherosclerosis, Diabetes mellitus, Randomized controlled trial, Low-density lipoprotein, Niacin, Diabetes, Triglyceride

109

Although the digital rectal examination (DRE) is commonly performed to screen for prostate cancer, there is limited data to support its use in primary care. This review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of DRE in screening for prostate cancer in primary care settings.

Concepts: Cancer, Prostate cancer, Screening, Benign prostatic hyperplasia, Overdiagnosis, Rectal examination, Prostate-specific antigen, Prostate cancer screening

95

Comprehensiveness is lauded as 1 of the 5 core virtues of primary care, but its relationship with outcomes is unclear. We measured associations between variations in comprehensiveness of practice among family physicians and healthcare utilization and costs for their Medicare beneficiaries.

Concepts: Health care, Seven virtues

69

To examine the association between primary care practitioner (physician and nurse) empathy and incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and all-cause mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes.

67

Continuity of care is a defining characteristic of primary care associated with lower costs and improved health equity and care quality. However, we lack provider-level measures of primary care continuity amenable to value-based payment, including the Medicare Quality Payment Program (QPP). We created 4 physician-level, claims-based continuity measures and tested their associations with health care expenditures and hospitalizations.

64

Studies examining the association between use of oseltamivir and neuropsychiatric events (including suicide) among children have had mixed findings and have been limited by small sample size, reliance on older data, and potential confounding. We undertook an analysis that addresses these limitations.

Concepts: Sample, Sample size, The Association

57

This pilot study assessed the feasibility of implementing electronic health record (EHR) tools for collecting, reviewing, and acting on patient-reported social determinants of health (SDH) data in community health centers (CHCs). We believe it is the first such US study.