SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Annals of epidemiology

261

This article describes epidemiologic evidence concerning risk of gun violence and suicide linked to psychiatric disorders, in contrast to media-fueled public perceptions of the dangerousness of mentally ill individuals, and evaluates effectiveness of policies and laws designed to prevent firearms injury and mortality associated with serious mental illnesses and substance use disorders.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Mental health, Mental disorder, Schizophrenia, Psychiatry, Mental illness, Psychiatric medication, Cross-cultural psychiatry

28

To compare persons who report that they never wear a seat belt while driving or as a passenger with those who do in a nationally representative sample in the United States. Our guiding hypothesis is that failure to wear a seat belt is part of an antisocial behavior spectrum.

Concepts: Sample, United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Antisocial personality disorder, Nationalism, United States House of Representatives, Comic strip

28

26

Factor analysis (FA) has become part and parcel in metabolic syndrome (MBS) research. Both exploration- and confirmation-driven factor analyzes are rampant. However, factor analytic results on MBS differ widely. A situation that is at least in part attributable to misapplication of FA. Here, our purpose was (i) to review factor analytic efforts in the study of MBS with emphasis on misusage of the FA model and (ii) to propose an alternative factor analytic strategy.

Concepts: Nutrition, Factor analysis, The Football Association

6

We conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study to determine the postservice suicide risk of recent wartime veterans comparing them with the US general population as well as comparing deployed veterans to nondeployed veterans.

Concepts: Demography, Actuarial science, Iran, Western Asia, Iraq War, 2003 invasion of Iraq, Soviet war in Afghanistan, Iran–Iraq War

5

The proportion of cancer deaths in the contemporary United States caused by cigarette smoking (the population attributable fraction [PAF]) is not well documented.

Concepts: Cancer, United States, Smoking, Tobacco, Tobacco smoking, Cigarette, Nicotine, Attributable risk

4

To quantify the coinciding improvement in the clinical diagnosis of sepsis, its documentation in the electronic health records, and subsequent medical coding of sepsis for billing purposes in recent years.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Clinical trial, Physician

4

We examined the association between green tea consumption and mortality due to all causes, cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, respiratory disease, injuries, and other causes of death in a large-scale population-based cohort study in Japan.

Concepts: Cohort study, Epidemiology, Infectious disease, Genetic disorder, Death, Demography, Japan, Green tea

4

PURPOSE: Previous studies have suggested an association between mood and anxiety disorders and peptic ulcer, yet extant work suffers from methodologic limitations. Centrally, previous epidemiologic studies have relied exclusively on self-report of ulcer. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between DSM-IV depression and anxiety disorders and physician-diagnosed ulcer among adults in the general population. METHODS: Data were drawn from a population-based, representative sample of 4181 adults aged 18 to 79 in the German National Health Interview and Examination Survey. RESULTS: Any anxiety disorder (odds ratio [OR], 2.6), panic disorder (OR, 5.2), panic attacks (OR, 3.8), and social phobia (OR, 3.3) were associated with increased likelihood of physician-diagnosed ulcer, compared with those without ulcer. There was evidence of a dose-response relationship between number of mental disorders and likelihood of current ulcer. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide initial evidence of a link between anxiety disorders and physician-diagnosed ulcer among adults in the community. Future work, ideally taking into account Helicobacter pylori infection, stress, and mental health problems is needed to improve our understanding of the possible mechanisms that can provide insight into the etiology of peptic ulcers.

Concepts: Helicobacter pylori, Mental disorder, Peptic ulcer, Panic disorder, Fear, Anxiety disorders, Social anxiety disorder, Panic attack

3

Mounting epidemiological evidence supports the occurrence of a mild herald pandemic wave in the spring and summer of 1918 in North America and Europe, several months before the devastating autumn outbreak that killed an estimated 2% of the global population. These epidemiological findings corroborate the anecdotal observations of contemporary clinicians who reported widespread influenza outbreaks in spring and summer 1918, with sporadic occurrence of unusually severe clinical manifestations in young adults. Initially seen as controversial, these findings were eventually confirmed by retrospective identification of influenza specimens collected from U.S. soldiers who died from acute respiratory infections in May-August 1918. Other studies found that having an episode of influenza illness during the spring herald wave was highly protective in the severe autumn wave. Here, we conduct a systematic review of the clinical, epidemiological, and virological evidence supporting the global occurrence of mild herald waves of the 1918 pandemic and place these historic observations in the context of pandemic preparedness. Taken together, historic experience with the 1918 and subsequent pandemics shows that increased severity in second and later pandemic waves may be the rule rather than the exception. Thus, a sustained pandemic response in the first years following a future pandemic is critical; conversely, multiwave pandemic patterns allow for more time to rollout vaccines and antivirals.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Infectious disease, Influenza, Influenza pandemic, Europe, Pandemic, World population, Outbreak