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Journal: Annals of diagnostic pathology


The aim of this study was to determine the impact of prognostic factors in primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC). All cases of PFTC diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were retrieved from the files of 6 academic centers. The cases were staged according to a modification of the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology staging system proposed by Alvarado-Cabrero et al (Gynecol Oncol 1999; 72: 367-379). One hundred twenty-seven PFTC cases were identified. The mean age of the patients was 64.2 years. Stage distribution was as follows: 72 (57%), stage I; 19 (15%), stage II; 28 (22%), stage III; and 8 (6.2%), stage IV. Depth of infiltration of the tubal wall was an independent prognostic factor in stage I cases (P < .001). Carcinomas located in the fimbriated end even without invasion had a worse prognosis than did carcinomas involving the tubal portion of the organ. The presence of vascular space invasion correlated with the depth of tubal wall invasion (P = .001) and the presence of lymph node metastases (P = .003). Tumor grade significantly correlated with survival (P < .0001), but histologic type was of marginal significance and only if it was grouped as nonserous/non-clear cell vs serous/clear cell (P = .04). The depth of invasion of the tubal wall and the presence of carcinoma in the fimbriated end even without invasion are important prognostic indicators. The modified International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology staging system should be used on a routine basis in all carcinomas of the fallopian tube.

Concepts: Cancer, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Lymph node, Gynecology, Prognosis, Fallopian tube cancer, Obstetrics and gynaecology


Our aim was to describe clinicopathologic features of secretory carcinoma on a cohort of cases. We retrieved reported cases of secretory carcinoma of breast (SCB) in the Section of Histopathology, Department of Pathology & Microbiology, Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, from May 2004 to December 2011. The slides were reviewed, and clinicopathologic features were noted. A total of 8 cases of SCB were found. The age ranged from 17 to 60 years (median, 41 years) with a female to male ratio of 7:1. Lumpectomy was done in 6 cases, and mastectomy, in 2 cases. The tumor size ranged from 2.5 to 10 cm (mean, 5.5 cm). Histologically, abundant extra- and intracellular secretory material was seen in all cases. Most of the tumors showed mixtures of patterns with dominant microcystic and papillary patterns. In situ component was seen in only 1 case. Lymph node metastases were seen in both cases with lymph node sampling. In conclusion, SCB is a rare type of ductal breast carcinoma. The papillary pattern of SCB is rare according to published data but was seen in most of our cases. In situ secretory carcinoma is even rarer, and to date, we have seen a single case only. Although most occur in women, these can be seen in men as well.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Carcinoma in situ, Lymph node, Anatomical pathology, Aga Khan IV, Karachi


Osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma are histologically similar, benign bone-forming tumors. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the natural history; clinical, pathologic, and radiologic findings; and treatment results in 204 patients between 1959 and 2006 in a single institution. According to the World Health Organization’s definition, tumors ≤1 cm in diameter were classified as osteoid osteoma, and those ≥2 cm, as osteoblastoma. For tumors between 1 cm and 2 cm, other criteria, such as the bone involved, the site, the presence of a nidus, and presence of peripheral sclerosis, were used for diagnosis. There were 131 patients with osteoid osteoma (93 male, 38 female) and 73 patients with osteoblastoma (40 male, 33 female). The mean age in the osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma groups was 16.4 ± 7 and 19.6 ± 9.9 years, respectively. The osteoid osteoma cases were mostly localized in the extremities, whereas the osteoblastoma cases involved the vertebral column and sacrum. The nidus size varied between 0.2 and 1.5 cm in osteoid osteoma cases, and the tumor size range was 1.3-10 cm in the osteoblastoma cases. The pain was encountered in 89% of osteoid osteoma and 45% of osteoblastoma patients. Histopathology was similar in both cases. The treatment of choice was conservative surgery for both diagnoses. In conclusion, osteoblastoma is clinically and radiologically more aggressive than osteoid osteoma.

Concepts: Cancer, Pathology, Anatomical pathology, Vertebral column, Retrospective, Benign tumor, World Health Organization, Osteoid osteoma


Leukemic, non-nodal mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a relatively indolent disease characterized by asymptomatic leukemic presentation, non-nodal disease distribution, and slow disease progression, particularly in comparison to that of classic nodal MCL. We studied 3 cases of leukemic, non-nodal MCL in which TP53, ATM, and/or 13q14 deletions were identified. All three patients had disease progression leading to treatment requirements in two of the patients at 5 and 18 months after initial diagnosis. The third patient also clinically progressed 25 months after initial diagnosis but was lost to follow up despite recommendation for initiation of therapy. We present these cases as potential evidence that while leukemic non-nodal MCL is typically an indolent disease compared to classically defined mantle cell lymphoma, cytogenetic heterogeneity exists and cases with TP53, ATM, and/or 13q14 deletions may have a relatively aggressive clinical course.

Concepts: Cancer, Medical terms, Chronic myelogenous leukemia, Mantle cell lymphoma


Considered as an aggressive counterpart of central ossifying fibroma (OF), juvenile ossifying fibroma (JOF) is a benign fibro-osseous neoplasm characterized by an unpredictable destructive behavior, elevated morbidity, mutilating treatment and high potential for local recurrences. The aim of this study is to compare the analysis for cell proliferation and vascular markers between JOF and OF. Cell proliferation index was measured by Ki-67 and Mcm-2 expression and microvessel density (MVD) was obtained by the immunoexpression of CD34/CD105. We observed a reduced expression of vascular markers, where MVD for CD34 was significantly higher in JOF than in OF (p = 0.009), but no statistical difference was found for CD105. JOF and OF showed low expression for Ki-67 and Mcm-2 and no difference was noted between both, suggesting that other mechanisms such as anti-apoptotic and/or pro-autophagic pathways or even increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases may be responsible for the aggressiveness of JOF.


The present study was aimed at evaluating clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical (IHC) features of 300 rhabdomyosarcomas (RMSs), including differential IHC expression and prognostic value of myogenin and MyoD1 across various subtypes of RMSs. IHC expression of myogenin and MyoD1 was graded on the basis of percentage of tumor cells displaying positive intranuclear immunostaining i.e. grade 1 (1-25%); grade 2 (26-50%); grade 3 (51-76%) and grade 4 (76-100%).Clinical follow-up was available in 238 (79.3%) patients. Various clinicopathologic parameters were correlated with 3-year disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS). There were 140 cases (46.7%) of alveolar RMS (ARMS), 90 of embryonal RMS (ERMS) (30%), 61 (20.3%) of spindle cell/sclerosing RMS and 9 cases (3%) of pleomorphic RMS. Most cases, barring pleomorphic RMSs, occurred in the first two decades (228 cases) (76%), frequently in males, in the head and neck region (126) (42%). By immunohistochemistry, desmin was positive in 292/299 (97.6%) tumors; myogenin in 238/267 (89.1%) and MyoD1 in 192/266 (72.2%) tumors. High myogenin expression (in ≥51% positive tumor cells) was significantly associated with ARMSs (95/121, 78.5%), as compared to other subtypes (48/117, 41%) (p value < 0.001). High MyoD1 expression (≥51% tumor cells) was seen in more cases of pure sclerosing, combined with spindle cell/sclerosing RMSs (10/10, 100%), as compared to the other subtypes (91/141, 67.4%) (p = 0.032). There was no significant difference between high myogenin expression and clinical outcomes. Patients without metastasis and harbouring tumors, measuring ≤5 cm showed a significant increase in OS, with p values = 0.01 and <0.001, respectively. ARMS was the most frequent subtype. There was a significant association between high myogenin expression and ARMSs and high MyoD1 expression and spindle cell/sclerosing RMSs. High myogenin expression did not correlate with clinical outcomes. Patients with smaller sized tumors and without metastasis had significantly better clinical outcomes.


Some fibroepithelial lesions (FEL) of the breast are difficult to classify as cellular fibroadenoma (CFA) or benign phyllodes tumor (BPT) due to overlapping histologic features. This indeterminate group is histologically characterized by prominent stromal cellularity, mild atypia, and mitotic activity. The local recurrence potential of cellular FEL (CFEL) has been insufficiently studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the histologic features, characterize the long-term follow-up and recurrence rate of CFEL, and compare this data with the recurrence rate of definitive BPT. Ninety CFEL that were <4 cm were recovered from the benign breast disease cohort. The control group comprised of 10 randomly selected patients with BPT. Cases were classified based on a combination of mitotic activity, intracanalicular growth, stromal atypia, stromal prominence, and fat infiltration. None of the CFEL was widely excised. Of the 90 CFEL cases, there were 22 BPT-like, 35 CFA, and 33 indeterminate. The mean age of the patients was 40.1 years. The mean tumor size was 2.4 cm. All patients had at least two years of follow-up (median 27). None of the patients with BPT-like CFEL showed ipsilateral recurrence. Five of the 35 patients with CFA had recurrent ipsilateral CFA. This occurred within 1 to 11 years after the initial diagnosis. One of 33 patients with indeterminate type had a recurrent ipsilateral lesion five years after the initial diagnosis with histologic features of CFA. None of the patients in control group had any recurrence. In conclusion, as a group, CFEL have a low proclivity for recurrence, even when enucleated with close or positive margins. The presence of histologic features of BPT did not correlate with an increased potential for recurrence.


We present a series of papillary renal cell carcinomas (PRCC) reminiscent of so-called “oncocytic variant of papillary renal cell carcinoma” (OPRCC), included in the 2016 WHO classification as a potential type 3 PRCC. OPRCC is a poorly understood entity, cytologically characterized by oncocytic cells with non-overlapping low grade nuclei. OPRCC is not genotypically distinct and the studies concerning this variant have shown an inconsistent genetic profile. The tumors presented herein demonstrated predominantly papillary/tubulopapillary architecture and differed from OPRCC by pseudostratification and grade 2-3 nuclei (Fuhrman/ISUP). Because there is a morphologic overlap between renal oncocytoma (RO) and PRCC in the cases included in this study, the most frequently affected chromosomes in RO and PRCC were analyzed.


Although recent technological advances, there is still discordance between mammography findings and pathologic diagnoses, especially for certain racial/ethnic populations. In this study we correlated the mammography BI-RADS categories with pathologic diagnoses, aiming to evaluate the performance of mammography in breast cancer detection in a unique poor population consisting of mostly Hispanics and African Americans. A total of 3935 female patients with a breast mammography and a subsequent breast pathology report within 90 days were retrospectively analyzed. There were 875 (22.2%) patients with a negative or probably benign mammography (BI-RADS 1, 2 and 3), and 33 (3.8%) of them had a malignant pathologic diagnosis. Patients with malignant pathologic diagnoses were older, higher in socioeconomic status (SES), and more likely to be African American or White, compared to those with non-malignant pathologic findings. They mostly presented with related symptoms (e.g. breast pain, mass or discharge) and/or family history or past history of breast cancers, which triggered secondary imaging examination and subsequent breast biopsy/excision, and eventually resulted to the diagnosis of breast cancers. In conclusion, our studies indicated that the performance of mammography is comparable in detection of breast cancers among Hispanics, African American and White populations, if it was done in the same facility. Our results also suggested that for patients with presenting symptoms, past history of breast cancer or strong family history of breast cancer, a secondary breast imaging examination may be warranted following a negative to probably benign mammography (BI-RADS 1-3).


The aim of this study was to evaluate and correlate the amplification of chromosomal regions 3q26 and 5p15 in different cytological and histological subgroups of patients and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of amplification tests with cytology, colposcopy and HPV status.