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Journal: Annals of diagnostic pathology


The aim of this study was to determine the impact of prognostic factors in primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC). All cases of PFTC diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were retrieved from the files of 6 academic centers. The cases were staged according to a modification of the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology staging system proposed by Alvarado-Cabrero et al (Gynecol Oncol 1999; 72: 367-379). One hundred twenty-seven PFTC cases were identified. The mean age of the patients was 64.2 years. Stage distribution was as follows: 72 (57%), stage I; 19 (15%), stage II; 28 (22%), stage III; and 8 (6.2%), stage IV. Depth of infiltration of the tubal wall was an independent prognostic factor in stage I cases (P < .001). Carcinomas located in the fimbriated end even without invasion had a worse prognosis than did carcinomas involving the tubal portion of the organ. The presence of vascular space invasion correlated with the depth of tubal wall invasion (P = .001) and the presence of lymph node metastases (P = .003). Tumor grade significantly correlated with survival (P < .0001), but histologic type was of marginal significance and only if it was grouped as nonserous/non-clear cell vs serous/clear cell (P = .04). The depth of invasion of the tubal wall and the presence of carcinoma in the fimbriated end even without invasion are important prognostic indicators. The modified International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology staging system should be used on a routine basis in all carcinomas of the fallopian tube.

Concepts: Cancer, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Lymph node, Gynecology, Prognosis, Fallopian tube cancer, Obstetrics and gynaecology


Our aim was to describe clinicopathologic features of secretory carcinoma on a cohort of cases. We retrieved reported cases of secretory carcinoma of breast (SCB) in the Section of Histopathology, Department of Pathology & Microbiology, Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, from May 2004 to December 2011. The slides were reviewed, and clinicopathologic features were noted. A total of 8 cases of SCB were found. The age ranged from 17 to 60 years (median, 41 years) with a female to male ratio of 7:1. Lumpectomy was done in 6 cases, and mastectomy, in 2 cases. The tumor size ranged from 2.5 to 10 cm (mean, 5.5 cm). Histologically, abundant extra- and intracellular secretory material was seen in all cases. Most of the tumors showed mixtures of patterns with dominant microcystic and papillary patterns. In situ component was seen in only 1 case. Lymph node metastases were seen in both cases with lymph node sampling. In conclusion, SCB is a rare type of ductal breast carcinoma. The papillary pattern of SCB is rare according to published data but was seen in most of our cases. In situ secretory carcinoma is even rarer, and to date, we have seen a single case only. Although most occur in women, these can be seen in men as well.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Carcinoma in situ, Lymph node, Anatomical pathology, Aga Khan IV, Karachi


Osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma are histologically similar, benign bone-forming tumors. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the natural history; clinical, pathologic, and radiologic findings; and treatment results in 204 patients between 1959 and 2006 in a single institution. According to the World Health Organization’s definition, tumors ≤1 cm in diameter were classified as osteoid osteoma, and those ≥2 cm, as osteoblastoma. For tumors between 1 cm and 2 cm, other criteria, such as the bone involved, the site, the presence of a nidus, and presence of peripheral sclerosis, were used for diagnosis. There were 131 patients with osteoid osteoma (93 male, 38 female) and 73 patients with osteoblastoma (40 male, 33 female). The mean age in the osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma groups was 16.4 ± 7 and 19.6 ± 9.9 years, respectively. The osteoid osteoma cases were mostly localized in the extremities, whereas the osteoblastoma cases involved the vertebral column and sacrum. The nidus size varied between 0.2 and 1.5 cm in osteoid osteoma cases, and the tumor size range was 1.3-10 cm in the osteoblastoma cases. The pain was encountered in 89% of osteoid osteoma and 45% of osteoblastoma patients. Histopathology was similar in both cases. The treatment of choice was conservative surgery for both diagnoses. In conclusion, osteoblastoma is clinically and radiologically more aggressive than osteoid osteoma.

Concepts: Cancer, Pathology, Anatomical pathology, Vertebral column, Retrospective, Benign tumor, World Health Organization, Osteoid osteoma


Leukemic, non-nodal mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a relatively indolent disease characterized by asymptomatic leukemic presentation, non-nodal disease distribution, and slow disease progression, particularly in comparison to that of classic nodal MCL. We studied 3 cases of leukemic, non-nodal MCL in which TP53, ATM, and/or 13q14 deletions were identified. All three patients had disease progression leading to treatment requirements in two of the patients at 5 and 18 months after initial diagnosis. The third patient also clinically progressed 25 months after initial diagnosis but was lost to follow up despite recommendation for initiation of therapy. We present these cases as potential evidence that while leukemic non-nodal MCL is typically an indolent disease compared to classically defined mantle cell lymphoma, cytogenetic heterogeneity exists and cases with TP53, ATM, and/or 13q14 deletions may have a relatively aggressive clinical course.

Concepts: Cancer, Medical terms, Chronic myelogenous leukemia, Mantle cell lymphoma


The clinical decision to excise intraductal papilloma (IDP) without atypia diagnosed on biopsy remains controversial. We sought to establish clinical and histologic predictors (if any) which may predict upgrade in IDP. 296 biopsies (in 278 women) with histologic diagnosis of IDP without atypia were retrospectively identified and placed into Incidental (no corresponding imaging correlate), or Non-incidental (positive imaging correlate) groups. 253/296 (85.5%) cases were non-incidental, and 43/296 (14.5%) were incidental. 73.1% (185/253) non-incidental and 48.8% (21/43) incidental cases underwent excision. 12.4% (23/185) non-incidental cases underwent an upgrade to cancer or high-risk lesion; namely 8-Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), 8-atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH), 6-lobular neoplasia, and 1-flat epithelial atypia. There was no histopathologic feature on the biopsy in the non-incidental group which predicted upgrade; however a past history of atypia was significantly associated with upgrade. 2 of the 21 incidental cases upgraded (1 to ADH and 1 to lobular neoplasia); the former had a past history of ADH. Both incidental upgrades were >1 mm in size, and were not completely excised on the biopsy. None of the incidental cases which appeared completely excised on biopsy upgraded, irrespective of the size on biopsy. These findings suggest that all non-incidental IDPs should be considered candidates for surgical excision, given the 12.4% upgrade rate and no definitive histologic predictors of upgrade. Patients with incidental IDPs (if <1 mm, completely excised on biopsy and with no history of high risk breast lesion) can be spared excision.


Fibro-osseous pseudotumors of the digits (FOPD) is a rare self-limiting lesion composed of bland looking hypercellular fibrous tissue and bone. USP6 rearrangement is a consistent genetic finding in aneurysmal bone cyst, nodular fasciitis, myositis ossificans and giant cell lesions of small bones. We report herein the occurrence of USP6 rearrangement in fibro-osseous pseudotumors of the digits using fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis (FISH). Of the five patients included, three were female and two were male. The age ranged from 33 to 72 years (mean 48 years). Lesions arose in the palm (n = 2), thenar (n = 1), middle finger (n = 1) and great toe (n = 1). All patients underwent resection. Four cases (80%) harbored USP6 rearrangements showing that fibro-osseous pseudotumors of digits belongs to the spectrum of clonal transient neoplasms including aneurysmal bone cyst, nodular fasciitis, myositis ossificans and giant cell lesion of small bones.


Several prognostic indicators have been used for many decades in an attempt to predict clinical behaviour of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC). The prognostic value of TSR is yet to be explored in OSCC. Hence, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the prognostic value of TSR in OSCC patients.


Serrated colorectal fibroblastic polyps (FPs) are rare benign mucosal lesions composed of serrated epithelial crypts separated and distorted by intimately associated bland spindle cell proliferations with perineurial-like phenotype. We herein describe 21 new FPs affecting 10 females and 9 males aged 45 to 80 yrs. (mean, 62 yrs). Lesions originated in the sigmoid colon/rectosigmoid junction (n = 16), rectum (n = 2), and other parts of the colon (n = 3). Most patients had additional synchronous or metachronous polyps: classical adenomas (12 patients), sessile serrated adenoma/SSA (1 patient), hyperplastic polyps/HPs (7 patients), both HPs and adenomas (6 patients) and colorectal cancer (2 patients). Size of the lesions varied from 1 to 6 mm (mean: 3 mm). Histologically, all lesions were composed of serrated epithelial crypts that were separated and distorted by spindle cell stromal proliferations (consistently EMA+, claudin-1+ and GLUT-1+). The epithelial component displayed features of HPs (n = 17) and SSA (n = 4). Laser-microdissection-guided molecular testing was successful for 13 epithelial and 9 stromal components (9 paired samples). The BRAF V600E mutation was detected in 54% of the epithelial but in none of the stromal components. In conclusion, colorectal FPs represent genuine serrated epithelial polyps corresponding either to HP or (less frequently) SSA and should be better classified as such with a note on the presence of the stromal component. A more concise terminology reflecting their epithelial nature is needed to fulfill the requirements for colorectal cancer risk assessment and hence adopt appropriate follow-up strategies.


Desmoid-type fibromatosis, also called desmoid tumor, is a locally aggressive myofibroblastic neoplasm that usually arises in deep soft tissue with significant potential for local recurrence. It displays an unpredictable clinical course. β-Catenin, the genetic key player of desmoid tumors shows nuclear accumulation due to mutations that prevent its degradation leading to activation of Wnt signaling and myofibroblastic cell proliferation. The corresponding hot spot mutations are located in exon 3 of the CTNNB1 gene or alternatively, in the APC tumor suppressor gene, most often as a germline mutation. Multifocal desmoid tumors are very rare and clinical characteristics are poorly understood. Here we present six sporadic and one familial case of multifocal desmoid tumors. Four female and three male patients, aged between 7 and 30 years (mean 18.4 years) were identified in a cohort of 1392 cases. Tumors were located in (distal) extremities, thorax, breast, abdominal wall, shoulder, and neck. Four cases showed a CTNNB1 mutation and one an APC germline mutation. In two sporadic cases no CTNNB1 mutation was identified. Four patients showed (multiple) recurrences and one patient was lost to follow-up. In conclusion, multifocal desmoid tumors are a very rare disease and may occur in sporadic cases that are characterized by recurrent CTNNB1 mutations. However, the underlying pathogenesis of multifocal desmoid tumors remains poorly understood with often aggressive clinical behavior and challenging therapeutical management.


Recently, we came with the theory of a possible relationship between a group of testicular and pancreatic tumors. We used one case of a pancreatic analogue solid pseudopapillary neoplasm of the testis composed partially of areas reminiscent of solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas and partially of structures identical to primary signet ring stromal tumor of the testis (PSRSTT) as a connecting link between these two entities. After demonstrating that PSRSTT and pancreatic analogue SPN of the testis share the same immunoprofile and genetic features characteristic for pancreatic SPN, we came to the conclusion that pancreatic analogue SPN of the testis and PSRSTT represent a morphological spectrum of a single entity and that both are related to the pancreatic SPN.