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Journal: Annals of diagnostic pathology

168

The aim of this study was to determine the impact of prognostic factors in primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC). All cases of PFTC diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were retrieved from the files of 6 academic centers. The cases were staged according to a modification of the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology staging system proposed by Alvarado-Cabrero et al (Gynecol Oncol 1999; 72: 367-379). One hundred twenty-seven PFTC cases were identified. The mean age of the patients was 64.2 years. Stage distribution was as follows: 72 (57%), stage I; 19 (15%), stage II; 28 (22%), stage III; and 8 (6.2%), stage IV. Depth of infiltration of the tubal wall was an independent prognostic factor in stage I cases (P < .001). Carcinomas located in the fimbriated end even without invasion had a worse prognosis than did carcinomas involving the tubal portion of the organ. The presence of vascular space invasion correlated with the depth of tubal wall invasion (P = .001) and the presence of lymph node metastases (P = .003). Tumor grade significantly correlated with survival (P < .0001), but histologic type was of marginal significance and only if it was grouped as nonserous/non-clear cell vs serous/clear cell (P = .04). The depth of invasion of the tubal wall and the presence of carcinoma in the fimbriated end even without invasion are important prognostic indicators. The modified International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology staging system should be used on a routine basis in all carcinomas of the fallopian tube.

Concepts: Cancer, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Lymph node, Gynecology, Prognosis, Fallopian tube cancer, Obstetrics and gynaecology

28

Our aim was to describe clinicopathologic features of secretory carcinoma on a cohort of cases. We retrieved reported cases of secretory carcinoma of breast (SCB) in the Section of Histopathology, Department of Pathology & Microbiology, Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, from May 2004 to December 2011. The slides were reviewed, and clinicopathologic features were noted. A total of 8 cases of SCB were found. The age ranged from 17 to 60 years (median, 41 years) with a female to male ratio of 7:1. Lumpectomy was done in 6 cases, and mastectomy, in 2 cases. The tumor size ranged from 2.5 to 10 cm (mean, 5.5 cm). Histologically, abundant extra- and intracellular secretory material was seen in all cases. Most of the tumors showed mixtures of patterns with dominant microcystic and papillary patterns. In situ component was seen in only 1 case. Lymph node metastases were seen in both cases with lymph node sampling. In conclusion, SCB is a rare type of ductal breast carcinoma. The papillary pattern of SCB is rare according to published data but was seen in most of our cases. In situ secretory carcinoma is even rarer, and to date, we have seen a single case only. Although most occur in women, these can be seen in men as well.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Carcinoma in situ, Lymph node, Anatomical pathology, Aga Khan IV, Karachi

26

Osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma are histologically similar, benign bone-forming tumors. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the natural history; clinical, pathologic, and radiologic findings; and treatment results in 204 patients between 1959 and 2006 in a single institution. According to the World Health Organization’s definition, tumors ≤1 cm in diameter were classified as osteoid osteoma, and those ≥2 cm, as osteoblastoma. For tumors between 1 cm and 2 cm, other criteria, such as the bone involved, the site, the presence of a nidus, and presence of peripheral sclerosis, were used for diagnosis. There were 131 patients with osteoid osteoma (93 male, 38 female) and 73 patients with osteoblastoma (40 male, 33 female). The mean age in the osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma groups was 16.4 ± 7 and 19.6 ± 9.9 years, respectively. The osteoid osteoma cases were mostly localized in the extremities, whereas the osteoblastoma cases involved the vertebral column and sacrum. The nidus size varied between 0.2 and 1.5 cm in osteoid osteoma cases, and the tumor size range was 1.3-10 cm in the osteoblastoma cases. The pain was encountered in 89% of osteoid osteoma and 45% of osteoblastoma patients. Histopathology was similar in both cases. The treatment of choice was conservative surgery for both diagnoses. In conclusion, osteoblastoma is clinically and radiologically more aggressive than osteoid osteoma.

Concepts: Cancer, Pathology, Anatomical pathology, Vertebral column, Retrospective, Benign tumor, World Health Organization, Osteoid osteoma

26

Leukemic, non-nodal mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a relatively indolent disease characterized by asymptomatic leukemic presentation, non-nodal disease distribution, and slow disease progression, particularly in comparison to that of classic nodal MCL. We studied 3 cases of leukemic, non-nodal MCL in which TP53, ATM, and/or 13q14 deletions were identified. All three patients had disease progression leading to treatment requirements in two of the patients at 5 and 18 months after initial diagnosis. The third patient also clinically progressed 25 months after initial diagnosis but was lost to follow up despite recommendation for initiation of therapy. We present these cases as potential evidence that while leukemic non-nodal MCL is typically an indolent disease compared to classically defined mantle cell lymphoma, cytogenetic heterogeneity exists and cases with TP53, ATM, and/or 13q14 deletions may have a relatively aggressive clinical course.

Concepts: Cancer, Medical terms, Chronic myelogenous leukemia, Mantle cell lymphoma

0

Although antitumor necrosis factor alfa (TNFα) agents are widely used to treat patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) - both Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) - there is still some uncertainty in the cell type expressing TNFα in human ileo-colonic segments.

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Fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) is a protein-coding gene, also known as the obesity gene. It has been reported previously to be associated with a variety of malignant cancers, such as breast, thyroid and acute myeloid leukemia. The aim of the present study was to investigate the FTO mRNA expression in human clear cell renal cell carcinoma and its clinical value. FTO mRNA expression and its prognostic value were investigated by bioinformatic analysis of the data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, https://cancergenome.nih.gov/). The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that FTO mRNA expression in the lower quartile is significantly associated with poor survival in clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients (P < 0.0001). This study indicated that higher FTO mRNA expression may have a protective role and it may be a vital molecular marker in the prognosis of clear cell renal cell carcinoma patients.

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Pleomorphic sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of mesenchymal neoplasms with widely varied clinical behavior but overlapping histologic appearances. The following guidelines are helpful when approaching the diagnosis of a pleomorphic sarcoma. (1) Be aware of the relative incidence of the various sarcoma types: several pleomorphic sarcomas are relatively common (e.g., dedifferentiated liposarcoma and undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma), whereas others are exceptionally rare. (2) Pay attention to anatomic location: some pleomorphic sarcomas have a predilection for somatic soft tissues, especially the thigh (e.g., undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma, pleomorphic liposarcoma, pleomorphic rhabdomyosarcoma), whereas other pleomorphic sarcomas most often arise in the retroperitoneum (e.g., dedifferentiated liposarcoma). (3) Carefully sample the resection specimen, paying particular attention to areas with differences in gross appearances (e.g., fleshy, fibrous, mucoid, or gritty). (4) Search for histologic clues (i.e., myxoid stroma, lipoblasts, and osteoid matrix, in order to diagnose myxofibrosarcoma, pleomorphic liposarcoma, and extraskeletal osteosarcoma, respectively); these critical diagnostic features may be limited in extent. (5) Apply immunohistochemistry judiciously, after generating a differential diagnosis; always exclude metastatic sarcomatoid carcinoma and melanoma before diagnosing a pleomorphic sarcoma. This review will present an approach to the diagnosis of pleomorphic sarcomas, emphasizing differential diagnosis and the application of ancillary studies (immunohistochemistry and FISH), when relevant.

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Intestinal T-cell and NK/T- cell lymphomas are rare and aggressive. The diagnosis is quite difficult, especial in biopsy specimens. This study investigates the clinicopathological features of intestinal T-cell and NK/T-cell lymphomas to aid their differential diagnosis.

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Mediastinal neurogenic tumors are unusual and more so is the presence of melanotic neurogenic tumors. We present five cases of mediastinal melanotic neurogenic tumors. The patients are five men between the ages of 34 and 43 years (average: 38.5 years). All patients presented with non-specific symptoms that included back pain and cough. Diagnostic imaging revealed the presence of a posterior mediastinal mass without connection to the spinal canal, and surgical resection was accomplished in all of the patients. Histologically, the five tumors showed a spindle epithelioid cellular proliferation, nuclear atypia, mitotic activity, and melanin deposition. Histochemical stain for Fontana Masson clearly demonstrated the presence of melanin pigment in all the cases, while S-100 protein was only focally positive in tumor cells. Other immunohistochemical stains including SOX-10, MITF, HMB-45, and Melan A were negative. Clinical follow-up showed that two patients died 22 and 30 months after initial diagnosis; one remains alive, 6 months after initial diagnosis; two patients were lost to follow up. Melanotic neurogenic tumors represent a diagnostic challenge for pigmented thoracic tumors and careful analysis of the morphology and immunohistochemistry is required to lead to proper diagnosis.

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Spinal cord paralysis is relatively common after surgical repair of thoraco-abdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) and its etiology is unknown. The present study was designed to examine the histopathology of the disease and investigate whether miR-155 ablation would reduce spinal cord ischemic damage and delayed hindlimb paralysis induced by aortic cross-clamping (ACC) in our mouse model. The loss of locomotor function in ACC-paralyzed mice correlated with the presence of extensive gray matter damage and central cord edema, with minimal white matter histopathology. qRTPCR and Western blotting showed that the spinal cords of wild-type ACC mice that escaped paralysis showed lower miR-155 expression and higher levels of transcripts encoding Mfsd2a, which is implicated in the maintenance of blood-brain barrier integrity. In situ based testing demonstrated that increased miR-155 detection in neurons was highly correlated with the gray matter damage and the loss of one of its targets, Mfsd2a, could serve as a good biomarker of the endothelial cell damage. In vitro, we demonstrated that miR-155 targeted Mfsd2a in endothelial cells and motoneurons and increased endothelial cell permeability. Finally, miR-155 ablation slowed the progression of central cord edema, and reduced the incidence of paralysis by 40%. In sum, the surgical pathology findings clearly indicated that the epicenter of the ischemic-induced paralysis was the gray matter and that endothelial cell damage correlated to Mfsd2a loss is a good biomarker of the disease. MiR-155 targeting therefore offers new therapeutic opportunity for edema caused by traumatic spinal cord injury and diagnostic pathologists, by using immunohistochemistry, can clarify if this mechanism also is important in other ischemic diseases of the CNS, including stroke.