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Journal: Annals of diagnostic pathology


The aim of this study was to determine the impact of prognostic factors in primary fallopian tube carcinoma (PFTC). All cases of PFTC diagnosed between 1990 and 2010 were retrieved from the files of 6 academic centers. The cases were staged according to a modification of the International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology staging system proposed by Alvarado-Cabrero et al (Gynecol Oncol 1999; 72: 367-379). One hundred twenty-seven PFTC cases were identified. The mean age of the patients was 64.2 years. Stage distribution was as follows: 72 (57%), stage I; 19 (15%), stage II; 28 (22%), stage III; and 8 (6.2%), stage IV. Depth of infiltration of the tubal wall was an independent prognostic factor in stage I cases (P < .001). Carcinomas located in the fimbriated end even without invasion had a worse prognosis than did carcinomas involving the tubal portion of the organ. The presence of vascular space invasion correlated with the depth of tubal wall invasion (P = .001) and the presence of lymph node metastases (P = .003). Tumor grade significantly correlated with survival (P < .0001), but histologic type was of marginal significance and only if it was grouped as nonserous/non-clear cell vs serous/clear cell (P = .04). The depth of invasion of the tubal wall and the presence of carcinoma in the fimbriated end even without invasion are important prognostic indicators. The modified International Federation of Obstetrics and Gynecology staging system should be used on a routine basis in all carcinomas of the fallopian tube.

Concepts: Cancer, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Lymph node, Gynecology, Prognosis, Fallopian tube cancer, Obstetrics and gynaecology


Our aim was to describe clinicopathologic features of secretory carcinoma on a cohort of cases. We retrieved reported cases of secretory carcinoma of breast (SCB) in the Section of Histopathology, Department of Pathology & Microbiology, Aga Khan University Hospital Karachi, from May 2004 to December 2011. The slides were reviewed, and clinicopathologic features were noted. A total of 8 cases of SCB were found. The age ranged from 17 to 60 years (median, 41 years) with a female to male ratio of 7:1. Lumpectomy was done in 6 cases, and mastectomy, in 2 cases. The tumor size ranged from 2.5 to 10 cm (mean, 5.5 cm). Histologically, abundant extra- and intracellular secretory material was seen in all cases. Most of the tumors showed mixtures of patterns with dominant microcystic and papillary patterns. In situ component was seen in only 1 case. Lymph node metastases were seen in both cases with lymph node sampling. In conclusion, SCB is a rare type of ductal breast carcinoma. The papillary pattern of SCB is rare according to published data but was seen in most of our cases. In situ secretory carcinoma is even rarer, and to date, we have seen a single case only. Although most occur in women, these can be seen in men as well.

Concepts: Cancer, Breast cancer, Metastasis, Carcinoma in situ, Lymph node, Anatomical pathology, Aga Khan IV, Karachi


Osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma are histologically similar, benign bone-forming tumors. In this retrospective study, we aimed to evaluate the natural history; clinical, pathologic, and radiologic findings; and treatment results in 204 patients between 1959 and 2006 in a single institution. According to the World Health Organization’s definition, tumors ≤1 cm in diameter were classified as osteoid osteoma, and those ≥2 cm, as osteoblastoma. For tumors between 1 cm and 2 cm, other criteria, such as the bone involved, the site, the presence of a nidus, and presence of peripheral sclerosis, were used for diagnosis. There were 131 patients with osteoid osteoma (93 male, 38 female) and 73 patients with osteoblastoma (40 male, 33 female). The mean age in the osteoid osteoma and osteoblastoma groups was 16.4 ± 7 and 19.6 ± 9.9 years, respectively. The osteoid osteoma cases were mostly localized in the extremities, whereas the osteoblastoma cases involved the vertebral column and sacrum. The nidus size varied between 0.2 and 1.5 cm in osteoid osteoma cases, and the tumor size range was 1.3-10 cm in the osteoblastoma cases. The pain was encountered in 89% of osteoid osteoma and 45% of osteoblastoma patients. Histopathology was similar in both cases. The treatment of choice was conservative surgery for both diagnoses. In conclusion, osteoblastoma is clinically and radiologically more aggressive than osteoid osteoma.

Concepts: Cancer, Pathology, Anatomical pathology, Vertebral column, Retrospective, Benign tumor, World Health Organization, Osteoid osteoma


Leukemic, non-nodal mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) is a relatively indolent disease characterized by asymptomatic leukemic presentation, non-nodal disease distribution, and slow disease progression, particularly in comparison to that of classic nodal MCL. We studied 3 cases of leukemic, non-nodal MCL in which TP53, ATM, and/or 13q14 deletions were identified. All three patients had disease progression leading to treatment requirements in two of the patients at 5 and 18 months after initial diagnosis. The third patient also clinically progressed 25 months after initial diagnosis but was lost to follow up despite recommendation for initiation of therapy. We present these cases as potential evidence that while leukemic non-nodal MCL is typically an indolent disease compared to classically defined mantle cell lymphoma, cytogenetic heterogeneity exists and cases with TP53, ATM, and/or 13q14 deletions may have a relatively aggressive clinical course.

Concepts: Cancer, Medical terms, Chronic myelogenous leukemia, Mantle cell lymphoma


This review reflects a collaboration between the American Registry of Pathology (the publisher of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Fascicles) and Annals of Diagnostic Pathology. It is part of a series of expert recommendations on topics encountered in daily practice. The authors, three pathologists with expertise in gastrointestinal tract pathology and immunohistochemistry, met on 30 July 2019 tasked with developing expert recommendations for evaluating poorly differentiated and undifferentiated malignant neoplasms encountered on mucosal biopsies of the gastrointestinal tract. We focused on esophageal, gastric, small intestinal, colorectal, and anal (i.e., tubal gut) samples. When faced with diagnostic uncertainty on the initial H&E, it is best to begin by trying to assign the broad tumor class with screening markers such as pankeratin, S100 protein or SOX10, and CD20 or CD45. Once a broad tumor class is established, more specific differentiation markers can be pursued (e.g., lineage-restricted transcription factors for adenocarcinoma; p40 for squamous cell carcinoma; chromogranin A and synaptophysin or INSM1 for neuroendocrine neoplasms). Every small biopsy containing tumor should be considered a potential molecular pathology sample; cutting extra unstained slides with this testing in mind is strongly encouraged.


The formation, development and dissolution of germinal centers is a major part of immune system function. It is important to differentiate neoplastic processes from follicular hyperplasia and regressive follicular changes. Better understanding of germinal center development and dissolution also provides diagnostic clues to the underlying pathologic process. It is also important in identifying the immune basis of different pathologic entities as well as in immunotherapy decision making and follow up. In this study, we characterize the immunoarchitecture of lymphoid follicles with a focus on germinal center in one representative case, each of commonly encountered benign and malignant lymph node disorders, with morphologic and immunohistochemical alterations of germinal centers. The cases include reactive follicular hyperplasia (FH), florid follicular hyperplasia (FFH), follicular lymphoma (FL), angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL), hyaline-vascular Castleman disease (HVCD), progressive transformation of germinal centers, nodular lymphocyte predominant Hodgkin lymphoma (NLPHL), lymphocyte-rich classic Hodgkin lymphoma (LR-CHL), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated follicular dissolution and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) with proliferation centers (PC). A panel of antibodies were used namely CD3, CD20, CD10, BCL2, BCL6, CD21, CD23, CD35, FOXP1, GCET1, HGAL/GCET2, LMO2, MUM1, IgD, Ki67, PD1 and PD-L1. We found that these entities show distinct immunoarchitectural patterns of germinal center formation, development and regression, particularly, the distribution of mantle zone B-cells, follicular helper T cells (Tfh) and FDC meshworks, confirming the influence of antigenic stimulation and status of immune system in these changes. This also confirms the interrelationship of underlying immunologic mechanisms in these disease processes.


This review is part of a collaboration between the American Registry of Pathology (the publisher of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology Fascicles) and Annals of Diagnostic Pathology. It is in a series of expert recommendations on topics encountered in daily practice. The authors, two pathologists and a gastroenterologist, met on 19 January 2019 tasked with developing expert recommendations on reporting biopsies from the columnar lined esophagus and gastroesophageal junction. Our opinions for reporting revolve around noting the presence and absence of goblet cells and clues for confirming whether a sample is from the tubular esophagus. We also illustrate congeners of goblet cell. We present the information in the form of questions and answers.


Studies assessing tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) and clinical outcomes have mixed results. Given fundamental interaction of MHC class I with CD8+ T-cells, we hypothesized that expression of MHC class I associated protein, beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), may be an important immunologic marker in RCC. We sought to understand potential implications of CD8 + TILs and tumor B2M expression on overall survival and response to high-dose interleukin-2 (IL-2) therapy, in a cohort of patients with high-stage (clinical stage III and IV) ccRCC. Four tumor regions from 56 patients with ccRCC were retrospectively assessed immunohistochemically. At a median follow-up time of 33 months, 22 (39%) patients had died of disease, 23 (41%) were alive disease, and 11 (20%) had no evidence of disease. Tumors with high CD8 + TILs had a significantly lower death rate [hazard ratio (HR): 0.33, p = 0.02]. CD8 + TILs correlated with B2M expression (p = 0.007). On multivariable analyses, patients with both high B2M and CD8 + TILs had lower death rate (HR: 0.27, p = 0.03). Within the subgroup treated with IL-2 (n = 27, 48%), tumors with high CD8 + TILs were more likely to respond to IL-2 therapy [coefficient (coef): 1.6, p = 0.05]. On multivariable analyses, tumors with a combination of both high B2M expression and high CD8 + TILs also showed trend to responding to IL-2 therapy (coef: 2.5, p = 0.06). In conclusion, abundant CD8+ TILs and high tumor expression of beta-2-microglobulin were good prognostic indicators associated with longer survival in patients with high-stage ccRCC. Abundant CD8+ TILs may predict response to IL-2 therapy.


Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH) is a bone marrow-derived immature myeloid dendritic cell proliferative disorder with diverse clinical manifestations commonly involves bone, skin, lymph node and lung. Oral involvement is uncommon. Intraoral lesions can be the first sign of either a localized LCH or clinically undiagnosed systemic LCH, predates systemic manifestations of LCH, or an early indicator of recurrence in known cases. Clinically, it can be mistaken for primary oral and dental inflammatory, infectious and neoplastic lesions. Histologically, diagnostic challenges may arise because of the nature of oral and dental specimens, different tissue reaction patterns and variations in histomorphology of LCH. We performed a retrospective review study over 10 years. We searched for diagnosed cases of LCH. We retrieved and reviewed cases of LCH with oral involvement. We found 54 cases of LCH, four (7.4%) with oral involvement. The age range was between 1 and 27 years with an average age of 13.7 years. They were males. They were clinically confused with abscess, cysts, infection, granulation tissue and other neoplastic lesions. Histologically, they showed different histopathologic features including different patterns of necrosis, granulomas, allergic-like inflammation, superimposed infection, stomatitis, cyst and sinus formation, foreign body giant cell reaction, and foci mimicking lymphomas and metastasis. Certain cytologic features were helpful hints. In doubtful cases, immunohistochemistry helped confirm the diagnosis. Because of the multiple fragmented nature of oral specimens with different tissue reaction patterns, the diagnostic Langerhans cells may be missed or misinterpreted. Oral LCH may be confused with infectious, inflammatory, benign and malignant neoplastic lesions because of its variable clinical presentations and its heterogeneous histomorphologic features. Pathologists have an important role in guiding clinicians to the correct diagnosis and patients' management. They should be familiar with the different histomorphologic patterns to avoid pitfalls. Attention to certain morphologic features and immunohistochemistry should help resolve challenging cases.


The accurate detection of recurrent genetic abnormalities for most hematologic neoplasms is critical for diagnosis, prognosis and/or treatment. Rearrangements involving CCND1 are observed in a subset of mature B-cell neoplasms and can be reliably detected by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) in most cases. However, cryptic and complex chromosomal rearrangements may pose a technical challenge for accurate diagnosis. Herein, we describe two patients with suspected mantle cell lymphoma that lacked obvious CCND1 rearrangements by FISH studies. A next generation sequencing (NGS) based assay, mate-pair sequencing (MPseq), was utilized in each case to investigate potential cryptic CCND1 rearrangements and revealed cryptic insertional events resulting in CCND1/IGH and CCND1/IGK rearrangements. These cases demonstrate that NGS-based assays, including MPseq, are a powerful approach to identify cryptic rearrangements of clinical importance that are not detected by current clinical genomics evaluation.