SciCombinator

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Journal: Anales de pediatria (Barcelona, Spain : 2003)

171

The mainstay of the treatment of childhood obesity is the promotion of behavioural changes, which are especially difficult during adolescence. This paper proposes and evaluates a new motivation-based therapeutic protocol, structured in objectives, which is applicable from paediatric practice.

Concepts: Medicine, Nutrition, Childhood, Adolescence, Motivation

169

INTRODUCTION: The aetiology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is attributed to different factors: genetic, environmental, and biological (neurotransmitters: dopaminergic system). Iron is essential for the correct functioning of the dopaminergic system. Iron deficiency is common in patients with ADHD, and its correction may be useful in the treatment. OBJECTIVES: To analyse a possible relationship between iron deficiency and symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity in ADHD patients, and the potential benefit of iron therapy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A prospective study was conducted on non-anaemic and cognitively normal children, newly diagnosed with ADHD, according to DSM-IV criteria. Specific scales were used (SNAP-IV, ADHS) and serum ferritin was determined. Those with ferritin ≤ 30ng/ml were treated with ferrous sulphate (4mg/kg/day) for 3 months, with its effect quantified being subsequently quantified. RESULTS: A total of 60 patients, with a mean age of 9.02 years (range: 6-14), were analysed. The inattentive subtype was the most frequent one (53.3%). Almost two-thirds (63.3%) had iron deficiency, which was more frequent among the inattentive group (38 vs 22, P<.02). The iron treatment was completed by 17 patients. The treatment was not effective in 7 of the 8 non-inattentive subtypes, with a partial response in the remaining one. Of the 9 inattentive subtypes: the treatment was successful in the total control of symptoms in 5 of them, partially effective in other 3, and ineffective in one patient. The probability of complete response after treatment with iron was higher in inattentive patients with ADHD (P=.02). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with iron supplements can be an effective alternative to treat patients with ADHD and iron deficiency, especially the inattentive subtype.

Concepts: Attention, Dopamine receptor, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Hyperactivity, Dopamine, Methylphenidate, Amphetamine, Dopaminergic

168

Human subcutaneous (SQ) white adipose tissue (WAT) can vary according to its anatomical location, with subsequent differences in its proteomic profile.

Concepts: Adipose tissue, Tissues, Brown adipose tissue, White adipose tissue

168

OBJETIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of adenotonsillectomy for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) in children by respiratory polygraphy (RP). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective study was conducted on children referred with clinical suspicion of OSAHS. A clinical history was taken and a general physical and ENT examination was performed on all patients. RP was performed before adenotonsillectomy and six months afterwards. Patients with craniofacial syndromes, neuromuscular disorders, and severe concomitant disease were excluded. RESULTS: We studied 150 children (67. 8% male), with a mean age of 3.74±1.80 years and a BMI of 41.70±31.75. A diagnosis of OSAHS was made if the total number of respiratory events, apneas and hypopneas, divided by the total study time (RDI) was > 4.6, using RP before undergoing adenotonsillectomy. The mean respiratory disturbance index (RDI) was 15.18±11.11, with 58.7% (88) of with severe OSAHS (RDI>10). There was a significant improvement in all clinical and polygraphic variables six months after adenotonsillectomy. The residual OSAHS was 14%. The preoperative RDI was significantly associated with persistent disease (P=.042). CONCLUSIONS: Respiratory polygraphy is useful for monitoring the efficacy of surgical treatment by adenotonsillectomy in children with OSAHS.

Concepts: Pulmonology, Sleep disorder, Sleep apnea, Obstructive sleep apnea, Hypopnea, Abnormal respiration, Apnea, Sleep disorders

164

To assess the renal safety of treatment with polyethylene glycol 3350 with electrolytes at 1, 3 and 6 months, its gastrointestinal tolerance and dose effectiveness.

Concepts: Constipation, Ether, Polyethylene glycol, Laxative

160

We report the case of a twelve year old female patient with juvenile dermatomyositis. The diagnosis was made in our unit a few days after starting with proximal muscular weakness and a skin rash. A combination of oral corticosteroids and methotrexate was administered. There was an initial improvent in the skin lesions, but with no changes in the muscle weakness. The appearance of dysphagia a few days after starting the treatment led us to add three pulses of parenteral methylprednisolone to her initial treatment. We report the case to illustrate the difficulties in deciding initial treatment options.

Concepts: Muscular system, Weakness, Muscle weakness, Dermatomyositis

38

To study the correlation between the levels of environmental pollutants and the number of paediatric consultations related to respiratory disease in Primary Health Care.

Concepts: Health care, Medicine, Biodiversity, Environment, Pollution, Environmentalism, Acid rain, Cruise ship pollution

16

This document is the result of previous work carried out by different expert groups and submitted to multidisciplinary debate at a Conference about controversial, deficient, or new aspects in the field of neonatal palliative care, such as: 1) the deliberative decision-making process, 2) hospital and domiciliary palliative care, 3) donation after controlled cardiac death, and 4) moral stress in professionals. The most relevant conclusions were: the need to instruct professionals in bioethics and in the deliberative method to facilitate thorough and reasonable decision-making; the lack of development in the field of perinatal palliative care and domiciliary palliative care in hospitals that attend newborns; the need to provide neonatal units with resources that help train professionals in communication skills and in the management of moral distress, as well as delineate operational procedure and guidelines for neonatal organ donation.

Concepts: Childbirth, Infant, Decision making, Palliative care, Pediatrics, Hospice, End-of-life care, Bioethics

10

The process of care and assistance from birth to the starting of therapeutic hypothermia (TH) is crucial in order to improve its effectiveness and prevent the worsening of hypoxic-ischaemic injury.

Concepts: Childbirth, Biology, Life, Hypothermia, Asphyxia, Cryobiology

10

The creation of paediatric palliative care units (PPCU) could optimise the management of children with palliative focus after admission to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU). This study describes the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children referred from PICU to the UCPP of the Autonomous Community of Madrid (CAM). The overall treatment, relapses, re-admissions, and deaths, if occurred, are described.

Concepts: Cancer, Intensive care medicine, Palliative care, Madrid, Autonomous communities of Spain, Provinces of Spain, Castile-La Mancha, Community of Madrid