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Journal: American journal of veterinary research


Objective-To determine the pharmacokinetics of tramadol hydrochloride (30 mg/kg) following twice-daily oral administration in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals-9 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Procedures-Tramadol hydrochloride was administered to each parrot at a dosage of 30 mg/kg, PO, every 12 hours for 5 days. Blood samples were collected just prior to dose 2 on the first day of administration (day 1) and 5 minutes before and 10, 20, 30, 60, 90, 180, 360, and 720 minutes after the morning dose was given on day 5. Plasma was harvested from blood samples and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Degree of sedation was evaluated in each parrot throughout the study. Results-No changes in the parrots' behavior were observed. Twelve hours after the first dose was administered, mean ± SD concentrations of tramadol and its only active metabolite M1 (O-desmethyltramadol) were 53 ± 57 ng/mL and 6 ± 6 ng/mL, respectively. At steady state following 4.5 days of twice-daily administration, the mean half-lives for plasma tramadol and M1 concentrations were 2.92 ± 0.78 hours and 2.14 ± 0.07 hours, respectively. On day 5 of tramadol administration, plasma concentrations remained in the therapeutic range for approximately 6 hours. Other tramadol metabolites (M2, M4, and M5) were also present. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-On the basis of these results and modeling of the data, tramadol at a dosage of 30 mg/kg, PO, will likely need to be administered every 6 to 8 hours to maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. (Am J Vet Res 2013;74:957-962).

Concepts: Pharmacology, Chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, Tramadol, Parrot, Amazon parrot, Parrots, O-Desmethyltramadol


Objective-To evaluate the righting reflex after topical application of a sevoflurane jelly in cane toads (Bufo marinus). Animals-8 cane toads. Procedures-Toads were 6 to 8 months of age and weighed (mean ± SD) 142.0 ± 25.2 g. Sevoflurane jelly was applied to the dorsum of each toad at a dose of 25 μL/g in trial 1 and 37.5 μL/g in trial 2. Toads were placed in dorsal recumbency every 30 seconds until loss of the righting reflex. Jelly was then removed by rinsing the toads with tap water. Toads were then left undisturbed in dorsal recumbency until return of the righting reflex. Chamber sevoflurane concentration was measured to determine vaporization. Results-6 of 8 toads in trial 1 and 8 of 8 toads in trial 2 lost the righting reflex. Mean ± SD time to loss of the reflex was 8.2 ± 1.3 minutes for trial 1 and 8.3 ± 0.9 minutes for trial 2; this difference was not significant. Mean ± SD time to return of the reflex was 25.6 ± 26.2 minutes for trial 1 and 84.4 ± 47.2 minutes for trial 2; this difference was significant. Chamber sevoflurane concentration did not change significantly, compared with baseline (time 0) concentration, at any time in trial 1; however, there was a significant change in chamber sevoflurane concentration from baseline (time 0) concentration in trial 2. Chamber sevoflurane concentrations were not significantly different between trial 1 and trial 2 at any time. Mean ± SD chamber sevoflurane concentration was 0.46 ± 0.2% for trial 1 and 0.57 ± 0.28% for trial 2. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Sevoflurane jelly applied topically at a dose of 37.5 μL/g induced a more reliable loss of righting reflex and longer recovery time than when applied at a dose of 25 μL/g in cane toads.

Concepts: Topical, Lidocaine, Toads, Cane toad


Objective-To determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of a single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals-6 healthy adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. Procedures-A single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride (60 mg/kg) was administered orally to each bird, which was followed immediately by administration of a commercially available gavage feeding formula. Blood samples were collected at the time of drug administration (time 0) and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours after drug administration. Plasma concentrations of terbinafine were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. Results-Data from 1 bird were discarded because of a possible error in the dose of drug administered. After oral administration of terbinafine, the maximum concentration for the remaining 5 fed birds ranged from 109 to 671 ng/mL, half-life ranged from 6 to 13.5 hours, and time to the maximum concentration ranged from 2 to 8 hours. No adverse effects were observed. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Analysis of the results indicated that oral administration of terbinafine at a dose of 60 mg/kg to Amazon parrots did not result in adverse effects and may be potentially of use in the treatment of aspergillosis. Additional studies are needed to determine treatment efficacy and safety.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Bird, Chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, Analytical chemistry, Parrot, Amazon parrot, Parrots


Objective-To assess dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) for evaluating effects of diet and environment on bone mineral density in Hermann’s tortoises (Testudo hermanni). Animals-26 Hermann’s tortoises within 1 month after hatching. Procedures-Group 1 was housed in an artificial setting and fed naturally growing vegetation. Group 2 was housed in an artificial setting and fed vegetables grown for human consumption. Group 3 was maintained in an outside enclosure and fed naturally growing vegetation. After 10 months, pyramidal growth, body weight, and adverse conditions were assessed. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the axial and appendicular skeleton, shell, vertebral column, and pelvis was measured via DXA. Results-Group 2 had the highest mean ± SD body weight (65.42 ± 30.85 g), followed by group 1 (51.08 ± 22.92 g) and group 3 (35.74 ± 7.13 g). Mean BMD of the shell varied significantly among groups (group 1, 0.05 ± 0.03 g/cm(2)•m; group 2, 0.09 ± 0.15 g/cm(2)•m; and group 3, undetectable). The BMD of the axial and appendicular skeleton, vertebral column, and pelvis did not differ significantly among groups. Pyramidal growth was highest in group 1 and not evident in group 3. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Tortoises raised in artificial conditions did not have deficits in BMD, compared with results for outdoor-housed hibernating tortoises. Supplemental calcium was apparently not necessary when an adequate photothermal habitat and plant-based diet were provided. Higher BMD of captive-raised tortoises was morphologically associated with a higher incidence of pyramidal growth in captive-raised groups.

Concepts: Osteoporosis, Bone, Skeletal system, Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, Human anatomy, Tortoise, Hermann's Tortoise


Objective-To compare pharmacokinetics after IV, IM, and oral administration of a single dose of meloxicam to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis). Animals-11 healthy parrots. Procedures-Cohorts of 8 of the 11 birds comprised 3 experimental groups for a crossover study. Pharmacokinetics were determined from plasma concentrations measured via high-performance liquid chromatography after IV, IM, and oral administration of meloxicam at a dose of 1 mg/kg. Results-Initial mean ± SD plasma concentration of 17.3 ± 9.0 μg/mL was measured 5 minutes after IV administration, whereas peak mean concentration was 9.3 ± 1.8 μg/mL 15 minutes after IM administration. At 12 hours after administration, mean plasma concentrations for IV (3.7 ± 2.5 μg/mL) and IM (3.5 ± 2.2 μg/mL) administration were similar. Peak mean plasma concentration (3.5 ± 1.2 μg/mL) was detected 6 hours after oral administration. Absolute systemic bioavailability of meloxicam after IM administration was 100% but was lower after oral administration (range, 49% to 75%). Elimination half-lives after IV, IM, and oral administration were similar (15.9 ± 4.4 hours, 15.1 ± 7.7 hours, and 15.8 ± 8.6 hours, respectively). Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Pharmacokinetic data may provide useful information for use of meloxicam in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. A mean plasma concentration of 3.5 μg/mL would be expected to provide analgesia in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots; however, individual variation may result in some birds having low plasma meloxicam concentrations after IV, IM, or oral administration. After oral administration, meloxicam concentration slowly reached the target plasma concentration, but that concentration was not sustained in most birds.

Concepts: Chemistry, Chromatography, High performance liquid chromatography, Analytical chemistry, Bioavailability, Parrot, Amazon parrot, Parrots


Objective-To evaluate protein expression in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained from West Highland White Terriers with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), dogs with chronic bronchitis, and healthy control dogs to identify potential biomarkers for IPF. Samples-BALF samples obtained from 6 West Highland White Terriers with histologically confirmed IPF, 5 dogs with chronic bronchitis, and 4 healthy Beagles. Procedures-Equal amounts of proteins in concentrated BALF samples were separated via 2-D differential gel electrophoresis. Proteins that were differentially expressed relative to results for healthy control dogs were identified with mass spectrometry and further verified via western blotting. Results-Expression of 6 proteins was upregulated and that of 1 protein was downregulated in dogs with IPF or chronic bronchitis, compared with results for healthy dogs. Expression of proteins β-actin, complement C3, α-1-antitrypsin, apolipoprotein A-1, haptoglobin, and transketolase was upregulated, whereas expression of lysozyme C was downregulated. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Proteomics can be used to search for biomarkers and to reveal disease-specific mechanisms. The quantitative comparison of proteomes for BALF obtained from dogs with IPF and chronic bronchitis and healthy dogs revealed similar changes for the dogs with IPF and chronic bronchitis, which suggested a common response to disease processes in otherwise different lung diseases. Specific biomarkers for IPF were not identified.

Concepts: Protein, Molecular biology, Pulmonology, Gel electrophoresis, Bronchoalveolar lavage, Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, Respiratory diseases, West Highland White Terrier


Objective-To compare repeatability and equivalency of measures of femoral trochlea depth and trochlear angle in red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) determined by use of radiography, ultrasonography, and digital photography of cadaver limbs. Sample-24 pelvic limbs from 12 red fox cadavers. Procedures-Cranioproximal-craniodistal oblique (skyline) and lateromedial radiographic views of the stifle joint and ultrasonographic images at 5 locations along the femoral trochlea were used in the study. Spacing of the 5 locations was determined on the basis of patellar position with the stifle joint at various caudal angles ranging from 96° to maximal extension (approx 170°). Ultrasonographic measurements were compared with those obtained at matched locations on photographs of anatomic preparations. Trochlear depth was assessed with all 3 image formats, and trochlear angle (measured between the trochlear ridges and sulcus) was assessed on radiographs and ultrasonographic images. Patellar thickness was measured on radiographs. Values obtained were compared by means of ANOVA, modified Bland-Altman plots, and repeatability testing. Results-Depth measurement repeatability was considered good for all modalities. Small but significant differences between mean ultrasonographic trochlear depth and anatomic (photographic) measurements were found at 3 locations; 95% limits of agreement for paired anatomic and ultrasonographic measurements were wide. The ratio of trochlear depth to radiographic patellar thickness was approximately 30% for all modalities. Trochlear angle measurements were more variable than trochlear depth measurements, especially in the distal aspect of the trochlea. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance-Paired anatomic and ultrasonographic measurements did not appear equivalent in this study, possibly attributable to imprecise probe location, which could limit quantitative use of ultrasonography in assessing proximal trochlear depth in a clinical setting.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Knee, Canidae, Fox, Vulpes, Red Fox, Arctic Fox, Foxes


OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of simultaneous intra-articular and IV injection of autologous adipose-derived stromal vascular fraction (SVF) and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints. ANIMALS 22 client-owned dogs (12 placebo-treated [control] dogs and 10 treated dogs). PROCEDURES Dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints that caused signs of lameness or discomfort were characterized on the basis of results of orthopedic examination, goniometry, lameness score, the Canine Brief Pain Inventory (CBPI), a visual analogue scale, and results obtained by use of a pressure-sensing walkway at week 0 (baseline). Dogs received a simultaneous intraarticular and IV injection of SVF and PRP or a placebo. Dogs were examined again 4, 8, 12, and 24 weeks after injection. RESULTS CBPI scores were significantly lower for the treatment group at week 24, compared with scores for the control group. Mean visual analogue scale score for the treatment group was significantly higher at week 0 than at weeks 4, 8, or 24. Dogs with baseline peak vertical force (PVF) in the lowest 25th percentile were compared, and the treatment group had a significantly higher PVF than did the control group. After the SVF-PRP injection, fewer dogs in the treated group than in the control group had lameness confirmed during examination. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE For dogs with osteoarthritis of the hip joints treated with SVF and PRP, improvements in CBPI and PVF were evident at some time points, compared with results for the control group.

Concepts: Bone, Osteoarthritis, Knee, Joint, Scores, Synovial joint, Joints, Ligament


OBJECTIVE To determine effects of cranberry extract on development of urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and on adherence of Escherichia coli to Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. ANIMALS 12 client-owned dogs (in vivo experiment) and 6 client-owned dogs (in vitro experiment). PROCEDURES 12 dogs with a history of recurrent UTI received an antimicrobial (n = 6) or cranberry extract (6) orally for 6 months. Dogs were monitored for a UTI. For the in vitro experiment, cranberry extract was orally administered to 6 dogs for 60 days. Voided urine samples were collected from each dog before and 30 and 60 days after onset of extract administration. Urine was evaluated by use of a bacteriostasis assay. An antiadhesion assay and microscopic examination were used to determine inhibition of bacterial adherence to MDCK cells. RESULTS None of the 12 dogs developed a UTI. The bacteriostasis assay revealed no zone of inhibition for any urine samples. Bacterial adhesion was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results for urine samples obtained before extract administration. Microscopic examination revealed that bacterial adherence to MDCK cells was significantly reduced after culture with urine samples obtained at 30 and 60 days, compared with results after culture with urine samples obtained before extract administration. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Oral administration of cranberry extract prevented development of a UTI and prevented E coli adherence to MDCK cells, which may indicate it has benefit for preventing UTIs in dogs.

Concepts: Kidney, Bacteria, Urinary tract infection, Urine, Escherichia coli, Ureter, In vitro, Proteobacteria


OBJECTIVE To determine effects of restriction feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet on loss of body weight (BW), voluntary physical activity, body composition, and fecal microbiota of overweight cats. ANIMALS 8 neutered male adult cats. PROCEDURES After BW maintenance for 4 weeks (week 0 = last week of baseline period), cats were fed to lose approximately 1.5% of BW/wk for 18 weeks. Food intake (daily), BW (twice per week), body condition score (weekly), body composition (every 4 weeks), serum biochemical analysis (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16), physical activity (every 6 weeks), and fecal microbiota (weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, and 16) were assessed. RESULTS BW, body condition score, serum triglyceride concentration, and body fat mass and percentage decreased significantly over time. Lean mass decreased significantly at weeks 12 and 16. Energy required to maintain BW was 14% less than National Research Council estimates for overweight cats and 16% more than resting energy requirement estimates. Energy required for weight loss was 11% more, 6% less, and 16% less than American Animal Hospital Association recommendations for weight loss (80% of resting energy requirement) at weeks 1 through 4, 5 through 8, and 9 through 18, respectively. Relative abundance of Actinobacteria increased and Bacteroidetes decreased with weight loss. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Restricted feeding of a moderate-protein, high-fiber diet appeared to be a safe and effective means for weight loss in cats. Energy requirements for neutered cats may be overestimated and should be reconsidered.

Concepts: Nutrition, Obesity, Physical exercise, Overweight, Mass, Adipose tissue, Dieting, Neutering