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Journal: American journal of rhinology & allergy

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BACKGROUND: Transnasal cannulation of the natural ostium in patients with an intact uncinate process is complicated by the lack of direct visualizationof the ostium. Accuracy of transnasal dilation of the maxillary ostium was evaluated for a malleable-tipped balloon device that was bent to specific angles for avoiding the fontanelle during cannulation.METHODS: Transnasal cannulation and dilation of 42 cadaver maxillary sinus ostia was attempted by 6 surgeons including 3 with very limited clinicalexperience using the study device. All physicians received procedure training including the technique to shape the balloon device into the recommended 135 degree maxillary configuration. Tissue dissection was prohibited. Canine fossa trephination and transantral endoscopy were used to evaluate cannulation and dilation outcomes. Physician operators were blinded to transantral images and results were documented by two observers.RESULTS: Appropriate transnasal cannulation and dilation of natural maxillary sinus ostia occurred in 92.9% (39/42) of attempts. Two failures emanated from procedural deviations. In one deviation, the bend angle was changed to 90 degrees and the device tip did not cannulate the ostium. In the second, the device was passed through a preexisting hole in the uncinate and cannulated the natural ostium. A third failure occurred when the device was passed through the fontanelle creating a false lumen.CONCLUSION: Using recommended procedural techniques and a malleable-tipped balloon device, newly trained and experienced physicians alike can perform uncinate-preserving transnasal cannulation and dilation of the maxillary ostium with a high rate of success.

Concepts: Sinusitis, Physician, Failure, Angle, Maxillary sinus, Cadaver, Dissection, Uncinate process of ethmoid bone

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Background Saline nasal lavage is one of the treatments of sinonasal diseases. Evidence from basic research favors hypertonic saline (HS) over isotonic saline (IS) for mucociliary clearance, but evidence from clinical studies is controversial. Conversely, HS may carry greater side effects. Objective To compare the effects of HS and IS nasal irrigation in treating sinonasal diseases. Methods Systematic search with Ovid MEDLINE, Scopus, PubMed, Google Scholar, and Manual additional sources was conducted. Randomized controlled trials comparing HS with IS nasal irrigation in treating any sinonasal diseases, including rhinitis and rhinosinusitis, were included. Data were pooled for meta-analyses. Outcomes were symptom scores, sinonasal outcome test (SNOT), and adverse events. Heterogeneity was explored by subgroup analyses. Results Nine studies (740 patients) were included. HS nasal irrigation brought greater benefits over IS in symptom reduction (standardized mean difference (SMD) -0.58; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.76, -0.40); however, no difference was shown in SNOT-20 improvement (mean difference 1.81; 95% CI: -0.68, 4.30). In subgroup analyses, effects favoring HS on symptoms were larger in 4 subgroups. These were (1) patients with rhinitis (SMD -1.09; 95% CI: -1.42, -0.76) compared with rhinosinusitis (SMD -0.37; 95% CI: -0.58, -0.15), P < .01; (2) patients under the age of 18 years (SMD -1.22; 95% CI: -1.53, -0.91) compared with patients over the age of 18 years (SMD -0.26; 95% CI: -0.49, -0.04), P < .01; (3) saline irrigation using high volume (SMD -0.89; 95% CI: -1.18, -0.60) compared with low volume (SMD -0.39; 95% CI: -0.62, -0.16), P < .01; and (4) saline irrigation with hypertonicity of <3% (SMD -1.09; 95% CI: -1.42, -0.76) and hypertonicity of 3%-5% (SMD -1.20; 95% CI: -1.61, -0.78) compared with hypertonicity of >5% (SMD 0.20; 95% CI: -0.15, 0.55), P < .01. Buffered saline and operative status did not have impact. HS brought greater minor adverse effects. No major adverse effects were reported. Conclusion HS improves symptoms over IS nasal irrigation in treating sinonasal diseases. There is no difference in disease-specific quality of life. However, HS brings greater minor side effects than IS.

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Background Odontogenic maxillary sinusitis (OMS) and rhinogenic sinusitis (RS) are the main types of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) and have a significant impact on health-related quality of life (HRQL), but the difference in HRQL and symptom presentation between them has not been specifically evaluated to date. Obejctive: Our aim was to compare patterns of symptoms and HRQL disease-specific domains in patients affected with these 2 types of CRS. Methods A group of 201 patients with CRS (99 with rhinogenic and 102 with odontogenic origin) completed the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 (SNOT-22) questionnaire before treatment. Data sets were analyzed by using principal component analysis (PCA) to identify a set of symptom components together with the items excluded from PCA, which were then analyzed for differences between patients with OMS and RS. Results PCA of SNOT-22 items identified 5 components: “rhinologic,” “extranasal rhinologic,” “ear/facial,” “sleep and functional disturbance,” and “emotional disturbance.” Sneezing was excluded from PCA and treated as separate outcome variable and was significantly worse in RS patients. Patients with OMS scored significantly higher scores with regard to emotional disturbance, while RS patients scored significantly worse in sleep and functional disturbance. The extra symptom “malodor” was the most different symptom and was significantly worse in OMS patients. The total SNOT-22 score was not significantly different between the groups. Conclusion With controlling of covariates that may influence the severity of the disease, this study showed some significant differences in symptom patterns and HRQL impairment between patients with OMS and RS. Malodor is the most characteristic feature of OMS. Therefore, OMS should always be suspected in patients complaining of bad breath.

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Background Recent years have witnessed significant expansion in office-based rhinology. This study assesses practice patterns of the American Rhinologic Society (ARS) membership regarding office-based rhinologic procedures. Methods A 24-item survey was disseminated to the ARS membership from March 15 to May 31, 2016. Results A total of 157 physicians (11.9%) completed the survey. Office-based rhinologic procedures were performed by 99% of respondents, with sinonasal debridements (99%), polypectomy (77%), and balloon sinus ostial dilation (56%) being the most common. During a typical month, the number of sinonasal debridements was 0-10 in 23%, 11-20 in 34%, 21-30 in 26%, and >30 in 18%. For polypectomy, 57% of the respondents utilized a microdebrider (reusable electric-24%, disposable vacuum-powered-21%, and both-12%), 36% endoscopic forceps, and 7% a combination of both. With respect to balloon ostial dilation, the frontal sinuses were the most frequently addressed (53%) followed by the maxillary (46%) and sphenoid (39%) sinuses. In-office ethmoidectomies, antrostomies, sphenoidotomies, and frontal sinusotomies without the use of the balloon were performed by 35%, 31%, 24%, and 21% of the respondents, respectively. Thirty percent of respondents used steroid-eluting sinus implants and 10% used computer-assisted surgical navigation in the office setting. Overall, 63% of respondents reported that the number of office-based rhinologic procedures they performed had increased over the last 5 years. Conclusions The present study illustrates the integration of office procedures into rhinologic clinical practice among ARS survey respondents. With ongoing technologic innovations, the scope of office-based rhinology will likely continue to expand in the years to come.

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Background Osteomas are rare benign and slow-growing osteogenic tumors mainly involving frontal and ethmoid sinuses. Objectives The primary objective of our study is to present the management of cases of giant frontal sinus osteomas. Secondarily, we describe our modified unilateral osteoplastic flap approach without obliteration to remove these osteomas. Methods Retrospective chart review at a tertiary academic center (“Hôpital de l'Enfant-Jésus”) from July 2006 to October 2016. Demographics characteristics, tumor characteristics, presenting symptoms, frontal sinus surgery technique (osteoplastic flap, endoscopic surgery, or a combination of both), and outcomes of giant frontal sinus osteomas (≥30 mm) were recorded. For laterally placed osteomas, tumors with posterior wall involvement, orbital roof involvement, or intracranial extension, the modified unilateral osteoplastic flap approach was used. A decision-making algorithm is proposed for the choice of surgical approach. Results Ten giant frontal osteomas were analyzed (7 men and 3 women). The mean age at diagnosis was 38 years old (range, 24-55 years; median, 39 years; standard deviation, 11 years). The most common presenting symptom was headache (43% of symptomatic patients). Five patients had complications preoperatively due to tumoral extension (sinusitis, cellulitis, mucocele, optic nerve compression, and convulsions). One patient was treated endoscopically, 3 patients had an open approach and 6 patients had a combined technique. One patient experienced a postoperative complication (local infection treated with oral antibiotics). Six patients had minimal residual tumor with one patient needing reoperation. Conclusion Osteomas are rare paranasal sinus tumors. Due to the proximity to noble structures, a giant frontal osteoma should be managed surgically. The modified unilateral osteoplastic flap without obliteration offers good long-term surgical and aesthetic results. Osteomas are not known for malignant transformation and recurrences are rare; thus, subtotal resection is warranted and safe when a cleavage plan is not found.

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Background The composite sinus stent was developed to support the nasal walls, stabilize the middle turbinate, and prevent adhesions following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). Objective This study sought to assess its safety and effectiveness. Methods A prospective clinical trial was conducted in a single medical center in 2016-2018. The study included 30 patients (64% males) with a mean age of 41.9 years, who were scheduled for bilateral ESS, were randomized to undergo composite sinus stent implantation for 14 to 28 days or middle meatus placement of a Telfa tampon for 2 to 3 days. Telfa is a nonadherent absorbent dressing that has been compared favorably with other packs for use following ESS. Both groups received the same postoperative treatment. Outcomes were evaluated endoscopically by the principal investigator and also by an independent investigator blinded to the intervention the patient had and by self-report questionnaires at 3 and 12 weeks postoperatively. Results The stent was successfully implanted and removed in all 29 treated sinuses, without complications. None of the stents showed granulation tissue or crusting. Compared to the tampon group, the stent group had significantly less inflammation (mean visual analog scale scores 0.2 vs 4.2 at 12 weeks, P = .01). The probability of having adhesion was 9.3 times greater in the control group compared to the study group ( P = .026), and middle turbinate lateralization rate at 12 weeks was 3.8% versus 44% in the study group and the control group, respectively, at 12 weeks ( P = .006). Patients who underwent stent implantation experienced higher symptomatic improvement (Sino-Nasal Outcome Test 22 of -37.13 vs -28.07, P = .01, in study and control groups, respectively). During stent implantation (2-4 weeks), patients did not suffer from any discomfort. Conclusions The composite sinus stent is safer and more effective than the Telfa tampon in maintaining sinus cavity patency and promoting healing following ESS.

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Background The number of rhinology fellowship programs has grown rapidly over the past decade. To date, no standardization or accreditation process exists, raising the potential for disparate programs. The attitudes of faculty regarding training are important to elucidate the educational experience of rhinology fellowship. Methods An anonymous, web-based survey of rhinology faculty assessed the subjective attitudes toward various domains of fellowship training including surgery, office-based procedures, research, and career development. A 5-point Likert-type scale assessing importance was used (1-not at all important, 5-extremely important). Results A total of 34 faculty (response rate 35.8%) completed the survey. The surgical procedures that received the highest mean importance scores were endoscopic surgery for advanced inflammatory disease (median = 5), cerebrospinal fluid leak closure (5), and extended endoscopic sinus surgery (5). The procedures with the lowest scores were nasal valve repair (2), inferior turbinate surgery (3), and open approaches to the sinuses (4). A wide range of responses was noted for the minimum target number of fellow cases for the surveyed procedures. Higher importance scores were noted for direct attending supervision (5) when compared to fellow autonomy (4, P < .001) or shadowing (3.5, P < .001) in the operating room. Higher scores were noted for career preparation in academic (4) versus private practice (3, P < .001) and providing opportunities for clinical (4) versus basic science research (2, P < .001). The majority of faculty felt that there were too many fellowship positions with respect to the market place for private practice (58.8%), academic jobs (85.3%), and overall societal need (61.8%). Conclusion A range of faculty attitudes with respect to fellowship training was noted in this study. Continued assessment and refinement of the educational experience in rhinology fellowships is necessary.

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Background Epistaxis is common in elderly patients, occasionally necessitating hospitalization for the management of severe bleeds. In this study, we aim to explore the impact of nasal packing versus nonpacking interventions (cauterization, embolization, and ligation) on outcomes and complications of epistaxis hospitalization in the elderly. Methods The 2008-2013 National Inpatient Sample was queried for elderly patients (≥65 years) with a primary diagnosis of epistaxis and accompanying procedure codes for anterior and posterior nasal packing or nonpacking interventions. Results A total of 8449 cases met the inclusion criteria, with 62.4% receiving only nasal packing and 37.6% receiving nonpacking interventions. On average, nonpacking interventions were associated with a 9.9% increase in length of stay and a 54.0% increase in hospital charges. Comorbidity rates did not vary between cohorts, except for diabetes mellitus, which was less common in the nonpacking cohort (26.6% vs 29.0%; P = .014). Nonpacking interventions were associated with an increased rate of blood transfusion (24.5% vs. 21.8%; P = .004), but no significant differences in rates of stroke, blindness, aspiration pneumonia, infectious pneumonia, thromboembolism, urinary/renal complications, pulmonary complications, cardiac complications, or in-hospital mortality. Comparing patients receiving ligation or embolization, no differences in length of stay, complications, or in-hospital mortality were found; however, embolization patients incurred 232.1% greater hospital charges ( P < .001). Conclusion Nonpacking interventions in the elderly do not appear to be associated with increased morbidity or mortality when compared to nasal packing only but appear to be associated with increased hospital charges and length of stay. Embolization in the elderly results in greater hospital charges but no change in outcome when compared to ligation.

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Background The intranasal endoscopic prelacrimal recess approach (PLRA) access to all aspects of the maxillary sinus while preserving the inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct and its use have been reported in the treatment of many maxillary sinus and lateral skull base diseases. Objective To retrospectively assess the effectiveness of a 10-year multicenter follow-up for the resection of inverted papilloma of the maxillary sinus (IPMS) via a PLRA. Methods A total of 71 patients were admitted and underwent IPMS excision via an intranasal endoscopic PLRA from 2003 to 2013. All patients underwent high-resolution computed tomography scanning of the nasal sinus, and some also underwent magnetic resonance imaging examination. Results Based on the Krouse staging system, all 71 patients belong to T3 staging. The PLRA was employed to remove IPMS in 71 patients. The postoperative pathological examination of the excised tissue revealed inverted papilloma, and cancerization was identified in 3 patients. The median follow-up time was 37.3 months (range: 13-134 months). Of the 71 patients, reoccurrence was seen in 5 patients (7.04%); 5 patients (7.04%) experienced numbness of the upper lid and the ala of the nose and 4 (5.63%) experienced mild collapse of the ala of the nose. Conclusions These multicenter follow-up results demonstrated that the PLRA is a safe and effective method for the excision of primary or recurrent IPMS with lower postoperative complications and recurrent rate.

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Objectives Our intention was to review all material published to date regarding superantigens (SAgs) and allergy from an otorhinolaryngological viewpoint to understand this association more clearly. Methods We identified all materials published mentioning both SAg and allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic sinusitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis (AD) that are indexed on PubMed, Google, or the ProQuest Central databases. Results Staphylococcus aureus is a significant bacterial pathogen in humans and has the ability to produce enterotoxins with superantigenic features. The inflammatory response in allergy seen in both B cell and T cell may be attributed to SAgs. Sufferers of both allergic asthma with rhinitis and AR alone produce serological evidence of immunoglobulin E formation to SAgs produced by S. aureus. Perennial AR sufferers carry S. aureus more frequently and the presence of the organism within the nasal cavity may exacerbate perennial AR. SAg produced by S. aureus potentially worsens the asthmatic inflammatory response within the airway and may lead to the airways becoming hyperresponsive, as well as possibly activating T cells if asthmatic control is poor. Staphylococcal SAgs potentially increase the risk of developing chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis, additionally being a marker for more severe disease. If SAgs bring about chronic inflammatory responses in the nose and sinuses, then T cells excreting interferon-gamma may be a crucial mediator. In allergic dermatitis, S. aureus could be a key player in exacerbation of the condition. Even in younger pediatric patients with allergic dermatitis, allergic hypersensitivity to SAgs is frequent and may be a factor explaining how severe the condition becomes. Conclusion Just as SAgs are known to feature in many allergic conditions, they play their part in AR, chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma, and AD. Further research is required before the relationship between SAgs and allergy can be adequately explained.