SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: American heart journal

146

Smartwatch and fitness band wearable consumer electronics can passively measure pulse rate from the wrist using photoplethysmography (PPG). Identification of pulse irregularity or variability from these data has the potential to identify atrial fibrillation or atrial flutter (AF, collectively). The rapidly expanding consumer base of these devices allows for detection of undiagnosed AF at scale.

146

Data on left atrial/left atrial appendage (LA/LAA) thrombus resolution after non-vitamin K antagonist (VKA) oral anticoagulant treatment are scarce. The primary objective of X-TRA was to explore the use of rivaroxaban for the resolution of LA/LAA thrombi in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (AF) or atrial flutter, with the CLOT-AF registry providing retrospective data after standard-of-care therapy in this setting.

Concepts: Stroke, Atrial fibrillation, Warfarin, Thrombus

143

Disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) reduced adverse cardiac outcomes in a factorial trial also testing oral vitamins. This report describes the intent-to-treat comparison of the 4 factorial groups overall and in patients with diabetes.

Concepts: EDTA, Chelation therapy

47

The prevalence of both atrial fibrillation (AF) and diabetes mellitus (DM) are rising, and these conditions often occur together. Also, DM is an independent risk factor for stroke in patients with AF. We aimed to examine the safety and efficacy of rivaroxaban vs warfarin in patients with nonvalvular AF and DM in a prespecified secondary analysis of the ROCKET AF trial.

Concepts: Diabetes mellitus, Stroke, Atrial fibrillation, Coagulation, Warfarin, Thrombus, Anticoagulant, Vitamin K

34

High urine flow rate (UFR) has been suggested as a target for effective prevention of contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI). The RenalGuard therapy (saline infusion plus furosemide controlled by the RenalGuard system) facilitates the achievement of this target.

Concepts: Kidney, Urine, Acute kidney injury

29

Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) patients remain at high risk for recurrent events. Cholesterol efflux, mediated by apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), removes excess cholesterol from atherosclerotic plaque and transports it to the liver for excretion. Impaired cholesterol efflux is associated with higher cardiovascular (CV) event rates among both patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) and recent myocardial infarction (MI). CSL112, a novel intravenous formulation of apoA-I (Human) derived from human plasma, increases cholesterol efflux capacity. AEGIS-II is a phase 3, multicenter, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial investigating the efficacy and safety of CSL112 compared to placebo among high-risk AMI participants. Eligibility criteria include age≥18years with type 1 (spontaneous) MI, evidence of multivessel CAD, and presence of diabetes requiring pharmacotherapy, or≥2 of the following: age≥65years, prior MI or peripheral artery disease. A target sample of 17,400 participants will be randomized 1:1 to receive 4 weekly infusions of CSL112 6g or placebo, initiated prior to or on the day of discharge and within 5days of first medical contact. The primary outcome is the time to first occurrence of the composite of CV death, MI, or stroke through 90days. Key secondary outcomes include the total number of hospitalizations for coronary, cerebral, or peripheral ischemia through 90days, and time to first occurrence of the composite primary outcome through 180 and 365days. AEGIS-II will be the first trial to formally test whether enhancing cholesterol efflux can reduce the rate of recurrent major adverse CV events.

26

In a prospective study, we previously identified plaque disruption (PD: plaque rupture or ulceration) in 38% of women with myocardial infarction (MI) without angiographically obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), using intravascular ultrasound (IVUS). Underlying plaque morphology has not been described in these patients and may provide insight into the mechanisms of MI without obstructive CAD.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Angina pectoris, Coronary artery disease, Heart, Atheroma, Artery, Intravascular ultrasound

26

Risk assessment may be important in patients being considered for repeat revascularization after prior coronary intervention or surgery. We sought the prognostic value of radionuclide stress myocardial perfusion imaging or echocardiography among patients with previous revascularization.

Concepts: Medicine, Evaluation, Nuclear medicine, Cardiovascular system, Prognosis

25

Vitamin K antagonists are the only approved oral anticoagulants for long-term prophylaxis against valve thrombosis and thromboembolism in patients with a mechanical heart valve. Despite the proven efficacy and safety of anticoagulation with the oral direct factor Xa inhibitor apixaban compared with warfarin in high-risk populations including subjects with atrial fibrillation or with venous thromboembolism, it remains unknown whether patients with a mechanical heart valve can be safely managed with apixaban. The On-X Aortic Heart Valve and On-X Ascending Aortic Prosthesis with the Vascutek Gelweave Valsalva Graft may have lower rates of valve thrombosis and thromboembolism than conventional bileaflet and tilting disc valves due its unique pyrolytic carbon composition and flared inlet design. DESIGN: PROACT Xa is a randomized, multicenter, open-label, active-controlled trial comparing apixaban with warfarin in patients with an On-X Aortic Heart Valve or On-X Ascending Aortic Prosthesis with the Vascutek Gelweave Valsalva Graft. The study will randomize approximately 1,000 patients from approximately 60 sites in North America who underwent aortic valve replacement at least 3 months prior. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receiving apixaban 5 mg twice daily or warfarin with a target international normalized ratio of 2.0-3.0. The last randomized participant will be followed for at least 2 years. The primary efficacy outcome is the composite of valve thrombosis and valve-related thromboembolism, and the primary safety outcome is major bleeding. Assuming the primary outcome occurs in warfarin-anticoagulated patients at a rate of 1.75%/patient-year, the study has more than 90% power to assess noninferiority of apixaban treatment with an absolute noninferiority margin of 1.75%/patient-year. A second co-primary analysis is to compare the hazard rate for the apixaban arm to twice the objective performance criterion for thromboembolism and valve thrombosis, that is, 3.4%/patient-year. SUMMARY: PROACT Xa will determine whether patients with an On-X Aortic Heart Valve can be anticoagulated with apixaban as an alternative to warfarin.

25

It is unclear if holding angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) prior to coronary angiography reduces contrast-induced acute kidney injury (AKI). We undertook a randomized trial to investigate the effect of holding ACEI/ARB therapy prior to coronary angiography on the incidence of AKI.

Concepts: Cardiology, Diabetic nephropathy, Coronary catheterization, Angiotensin, Renin-angiotensin system, Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Angiotensin II receptor antagonist, ACE inhibitor