SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology

91

Degenerative changes are commonly found in spine imaging but often occur in pain-free individuals as well as those with back pain. We sought to estimate the prevalence, by age, of common degenerative spine conditions by performing a systematic review studying the prevalence of spine degeneration on imaging in asymptomatic individuals.

Concepts: Systematic review, Vertebral column, Degenerative disc disease, Chronic pain

31

Despite availability of advanced imaging, distinguishing radiation necrosis from recurrent brain tumors noninvasively is a big challenge in neuro-oncology. Our aim was to determine the feasibility of radiomic (computer-extracted texture) features in differentiating radiation necrosis from recurrent brain tumors on routine MR imaging (gadolinium T1WI, T2WI, FLAIR).

Concepts: Cancer, Brain, Oncology, Brain tumor, Magnetic resonance imaging, Distinguish

28

There is significant interest in whether diffusion-weighted MR imaging indices, such as the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient, may be useful clinically for preoperative tumor grading and treatment planning. To help establish the pathologic correlate of minimum ADC, we undertook a study investigating the relationship between minimum ADC and maximum FDOPA PET uptake in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme.

Concepts: Brain tumor, Diffusion, Temozolomide

26

This article provides an overview of phase-contrast and time-spatial labeling inversion pulse MR imaging techniques to assess CSF movement in the CNS under normal and pathophysiologic situations. Phase-contrast can quantitatively measure stroke volume in selected regions, notably the aqueduct of Sylvius, synchronized to the heartbeat. Judicious fine-tuning of the technique is needed to achieve maximal temporal resolution, and it has limited visualization of CSF motion in many CNS regions. Phase-contrast is frequently used to evaluate those patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus and a Chiari I malformation. Correlation with successful treatment outcome has been problematic. Time-spatial labeling inversion pulse, with a high signal-to-noise ratio, assesses linear and turbulent motion of CSF anywhere in the CNS. Time-spatial labeling inversion pulse can qualitatively visualize whether CSF flows between 2 compartments and determine whether there is flow through the aqueduct of Sylvius or a new surgically created stoma. Cine images reveal CSF linear and turbulent flow patterns.

Concepts: Fundamental physics concepts, Fluid dynamics, Viscosity, Cerebrospinal fluid, Pressure, Hydrocephalus, Arnold-Chiari malformation, Cerebral aqueduct

25

“Transcriptionally different” medulloblastoma groups are associated with specific signaling pathway abnormalities; hence, they may present with distinct imaging manifestations. In this study, we sought to describe the MR imaging features of wingless-type-subgroup medulloblastomas with embryologic correlations.

Concepts: Medulloblastoma

22

Radiologically isolated syndrome describes asymptomatic individuals with incidental radiologic abnormalities suggestive of multiple sclerosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that >40% of white matter lesions in MS (and often substantially more) have visible central veins on MR imaging. This “central vein sign” reflects perivenous inflammatory demyelination and can assist in differentiating MS from other white matter disorders. We therefore hypothesized that >40% of white matter lesions in cases of radiologically isolated syndrome would show the central vein sign.

7

Mild traumatic brain injury results in a heterogeneous constellation of deficits and symptoms that persist in a subset of patients. This prospective longitudinal study identifies early diffusion tensor imaging biomarkers of mild traumatic brain injury that significantly relate to outcomes at 1 year following injury.

Concepts: Longitudinal study, Traumatic brain injury, Neuroimaging, Magnetic resonance imaging, Diffusion MRI, Post-concussion syndrome, Imaging, Tensors

5

Codeine-containing cough syrups have become one of the most popular drugs of abuse in young people in the world. Chronic codeine-containing cough syrup abuse is related to impairments in a broad range of cognitive functions. However, the potential brain white matter impairment caused by chronic codeine-containing cough syrup abuse has not been reported previously. Our aim was to investigate abnormalities in the microstructure of brain white matter in chronic users of codeine-containing syrups and to determine whether these WM abnormalities are related to the duration of the use these syrups and clinical impulsivity.

Concepts: Psychology, Matter, Cognition, Mind, Common cold, Recreational drug use, Cough medicine, Purple drank

3

Widespread brain structural changes are seen following extended spaceflight missions. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether these structural changes are associated with alterations in motor or cognitive function.

3

Preliminary research has demonstrated that postgadolinium 3D-FLAIR MR imaging at 7T may be a valuable tool for detecting abnormal meningeal enhancement and inflammation in MS; however, researchers have not systematically investigated its longitudinal persistence. We hypothesized that persistence of meningeal enhancement in MS varies on the basis of pattern of enhancement as well as demographic and clinical factors such as treatment status, disease phenotype, and disability score.