Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: AJNR. American journal of neuroradiology


Degenerative changes are commonly found in spine imaging but often occur in pain-free individuals as well as those with back pain. We sought to estimate the prevalence, by age, of common degenerative spine conditions by performing a systematic review studying the prevalence of spine degeneration on imaging in asymptomatic individuals.

Concepts: Systematic review, Vertebral column, Degenerative disc disease, Chronic pain


Despite availability of advanced imaging, distinguishing radiation necrosis from recurrent brain tumors noninvasively is a big challenge in neuro-oncology. Our aim was to determine the feasibility of radiomic (computer-extracted texture) features in differentiating radiation necrosis from recurrent brain tumors on routine MR imaging (gadolinium T1WI, T2WI, FLAIR).

Concepts: Cancer, Brain, Oncology, Brain tumor, Magnetic resonance imaging, Distinguish


There is significant interest in whether diffusion-weighted MR imaging indices, such as the minimum apparent diffusion coefficient, may be useful clinically for preoperative tumor grading and treatment planning. To help establish the pathologic correlate of minimum ADC, we undertook a study investigating the relationship between minimum ADC and maximum FDOPA PET uptake in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme.

Concepts: Brain tumor, Diffusion, Temozolomide


This article provides an overview of phase-contrast and time-spatial labeling inversion pulse MR imaging techniques to assess CSF movement in the CNS under normal and pathophysiologic situations. Phase-contrast can quantitatively measure stroke volume in selected regions, notably the aqueduct of Sylvius, synchronized to the heartbeat. Judicious fine-tuning of the technique is needed to achieve maximal temporal resolution, and it has limited visualization of CSF motion in many CNS regions. Phase-contrast is frequently used to evaluate those patients with suspected normal pressure hydrocephalus and a Chiari I malformation. Correlation with successful treatment outcome has been problematic. Time-spatial labeling inversion pulse, with a high signal-to-noise ratio, assesses linear and turbulent motion of CSF anywhere in the CNS. Time-spatial labeling inversion pulse can qualitatively visualize whether CSF flows between 2 compartments and determine whether there is flow through the aqueduct of Sylvius or a new surgically created stoma. Cine images reveal CSF linear and turbulent flow patterns.

Concepts: Fundamental physics concepts, Fluid dynamics, Viscosity, Cerebrospinal fluid, Pressure, Hydrocephalus, Arnold-Chiari malformation, Cerebral aqueduct


“Transcriptionally different” medulloblastoma groups are associated with specific signaling pathway abnormalities; hence, they may present with distinct imaging manifestations. In this study, we sought to describe the MR imaging features of wingless-type-subgroup medulloblastomas with embryologic correlations.

Concepts: Medulloblastoma


Radiologically isolated syndrome describes asymptomatic individuals with incidental radiologic abnormalities suggestive of multiple sclerosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that >40% of white matter lesions in MS (and often substantially more) have visible central veins on MR imaging. This “central vein sign” reflects perivenous inflammatory demyelination and can assist in differentiating MS from other white matter disorders. We therefore hypothesized that >40% of white matter lesions in cases of radiologically isolated syndrome would show the central vein sign.


Mild traumatic brain injury results in a heterogeneous constellation of deficits and symptoms that persist in a subset of patients. This prospective longitudinal study identifies early diffusion tensor imaging biomarkers of mild traumatic brain injury that significantly relate to outcomes at 1 year following injury.

Concepts: Longitudinal study, Traumatic brain injury, Neuroimaging, Magnetic resonance imaging, Diffusion MRI, Post-concussion syndrome, Imaging, Tensors


Reversible vasoconstriction syndrome is a complex of clinical symptoms and angiographic findings, which, while having a mostly benign clinical course, has clinical and imaging overlap with more serious disorders such as vasculitis and aneurysmal SAH and itself includes a minority of patients with fulminant vasoconstriction resulting in severe intracranial complications. Endovascular options for patients with refractory reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome include intra-arterial vasodilator infusion similar to therapy for patients with vasospasm after SAH. To date, only case reports and 1 small series have discussed the utility of intra-arterial vasodilators for the treatment of reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome. We report an additional series of 11 medically refractory cases of presumed or proved reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome successfully treated with intra-arterial verapamil infusion. Furthermore, we propose that the reversal of vasoconstriction, as seen on angiography, could fulfill a diagnostic criterion.


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an active worldwide pandemic with diverse complications. Stroke as a presentation has not been strongly associated with COVID-19. The authors aimed to retrospectively review a link between COVID-19 and acute stroke.


Various imaging protocols exist for the identification of vessel occlusion and assessment of collateral flow in acute stroke. CT perfusion is particularly popular because the color maps are a striking visual indicator of pathology. Multiphase CTA has similar diagnostic and prognostic ability but requires more expertise to interpret. This article presents a new multiphase CTA display format that incorporates vascular information from all phases of the multiphase CTA series in a single time-variant color map, thereby facilitating multiphase CTA interpretation, particularly for less experienced readers. Exemplary cases of multiphase CTA from this new display format are compared with conventional multiphase CTA, CT perfusion, and follow-up imaging to demonstrate how time-variant multiphase CTA color maps facilitate assessment of collateral flow, detection of distal and multiple intracranial occlusions, differentiation of pseudo-occlusion from real occlusion, and assessment of flow relevance of stenoses, ante- and retrograde flow patterns, and clot permeability.