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Journal: AIDS (London, England)


Some studies suggest that specific hormonal contraceptive (HC) methods (particularly depot medroxyprogesterone acetate [DMPA]) may increase women’s HIV acquisition risk. We updated a systematic review to incorporate recent epidemiological data.

Concepts: Birth control, Epidemiology, Randomized controlled trial, Hormonal contraception, Meta-analysis, Chemical castration, Depo-Provera, Progestogen only pill


Despite considerable advances in the prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS, the burden of new infections of HIV and AIDS varies substantially across the country. Previous studies have demonstrated associations between increased health care spending and better HIV/AIDS outcomes; however, less is known about the association between spending on social services and public health spending and HIV/AIDS outcomes. We sought to examine the association between state-level spending on social services and public health and HIV/AIDS case rates and AIDS deaths across the U.S.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, AIDS, Immune system, Health care, CCR5, Weight loss, Cytomegalovirus


: Some, but not all, observational studies have suggested an increase in the risk of HIV acquisition for women using injectable hormonal contraception (IHC).

Concepts: Birth control, Risk, Observational study, Hormonal contraception


BACKGROUND:: Switching from boosted protease inhibitors (PI/r) to raltegravir (RAL) results in a better plasma lipid profile than continuing PI/r. Whether this strategy affects plasma biomarkers associated with atherosclerosis is unknown. METHODS:: We assessed 48-week changes in fasting lipids and several biomarkers including serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), osteoprotegerin, interleukin (IL) 6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin and P-selectin, adiponectin, insulin, and D-dimer in otherwise healthy, virologically suppressed HIV-infected patients treated with PI/r who randomly switched from PI/r to RAL or continued with PI/r in the SPIRAL trial. Biomarkers and lipids at baseline and 48-week changes between both study arms were compared. Correlations between changes in biomarkers and changes in lipids were also evaluated. RESULTS:: Of 273 patients initiating study drugs in the SPIRAL trial, 233 (119 RAL, 114 PI/r) remained on allocated therapy for 48 weeks and had sera available for the purpose of this substudy. Triglycerides (-28%, P < 0.0001), total (-14%, P < 0.0001), low-density lipoprotein (-9%, P = 0.0069), and high-density lipoprotein (-10%, P = 0.0017) cholesterol decreased in RAL relative to the PI/r group. Among biomarkers, hsCRP (-40%, P < 0.0001), MCP-1 (-20%, P = 0.0003), osteoprotegerin (-13%, P = 0.0024), IL-6 (-46%,P < 0.0001), TNF-α (-27%, P = 0.0011), insulin (-26%, P < 0.0001), and D-dimer (-8%, P = 0.0187) decreased in RAL relative to PI/r group, whereas IL-10 (+1%, P = 0.7773), ICAM-1 (-6%, P = 0.1255), VCAM-1(0%, P = 0.8671), E-selectin (-9%, P = 0.2174), P-selectin (-6%, P = 0.3865), and adiponectin (+8%, P = 0.2028) remained unchanged. Biomarkers and lipids changes at 48 weeks were weakly correlated. CONCLUSION:: Switching from PI/r to RAL induced significant changes in several cardiovascular biomarkers that were not completely explained by lipid changes.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Inflammation, Atherosclerosis, Cardiovascular disease, Cell adhesion molecule, Lipid, Tumor necrosis factor-alpha, VCAM-1


To assess whether state criminal exposure laws are associated with HIV and stage 3 (AIDS) diagnosis rates in the United States.

Concepts: United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Law of the United States


To describe demographic and treatment characteristics of the Dutch vertically HIV-infected paediatric population from 1996 until 2012, and to investigate the long-term virological and immunological response to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), with emphasis on the influence of age at cART initiation and initial CD4 counts.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, Medicine, Netherlands, Belgium, Dutch people, Dutch language, Afrikaner


Globotriaosylceramide(Gb3) is a cell-surface-expressed natural resistance factor for HIV infection; but, its expression in human T-cells remains unknown. Therefore, Gb3 in resting or activated CD4 T-cells was assessed by flow cytometry and thin-layer-chromatography of cell extracts. We found the majority of CD4 T-cells, whether resting or activated, do not express Gb3 at significant levels(<2% positive cells). Thus, HIV treatment or prevention strategies must focus on development of soluble Gb3 analogues for inhibition of HIV infection.

Concepts: HIV, Gene, Infectious disease, Bacteria, Cell biology, CCR5, Flow cytometry, Retrovirus


Physical function impairments are seen among aging, HIV-infected persons on effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). The impact of physical function impairments on health-related quality of life (QoL) during ART is unknown.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, AIDS, Protease inhibitor, Viral load, Infectious disease, Quality, Cytomegalovirus


The objective of this study is to estimate life expectancies of HIV-positive patients conditional on response to antiretroviral therapy (ART).

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, AIDS, Protease inhibitor, Viral load, Demography, Actuarial science, Life expectancy


The aim of this study was to observe the effect of sex on attaining optimal adherence to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) longitudinally, while controlling for known adherence confounders: injection drug use (IDU) and ethnicity.

Concepts: Antiretroviral drug, HIV, AIDS, Male, Female, Gender, Gender role, Transgender