Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Aesthetic surgery journal / the American Society for Aesthetic Plastic surgery


Body hair shafts from the beard, trunk, and extremities can be used to treat baldness when patients have inadequate amounts of scalp donor hair, but reports in the literature concerning use of body hair to treat baldness are confined to case reports.

Concepts: Human body, Hair, Hair transplantation, Scalp, Facial hair, Follicular unit transplantation, Follicular Unit Extraction, Beard


Wrinkles are just one indicator of facial aging, but an indicator that is of prime importance in our world of facial aesthetics. Wrinkles occur where fault lines develop in aging skin. Those fault lines may be due to skin distortion resulting from facial expression or may be due to skin distortion from mechanical compression during sleep. Expression wrinkles and sleep wrinkles differ in etiology, location, and anatomical pattern. Compression, shear, and stress forces act on the face in lateral or prone sleep positions. We review the literature relating to the development of wrinkles and the biomechanical changes that occur in response to intrinsic and extrinsic influences. We explore the possibility that compression during sleep not only results in wrinkles but may also contribute to facial skin expansion.

Concepts: Force, Geology, Electronics terms, Fault, Shear, Structural geology


Background:Midface augmentation is commonly used to improve the appearance of concave faces and to achieve balance in the facial contour. It can also be an adjunct to orthognathic or reconstructive surgery. However, an inherent risk of midface augmentation is injury to the infraorbital nerve where it exits the infraorbital foramen (IOF). This can result in significant morbidity, including loss of sensation to the midface, nasal sidewall, upper lip, and lower eyelid.Objectives:The authors identify a safe zone of dissection in the midface for subperiosteal placement of infraorbital, paranasal, malar, and submalar implants, which avoids injury to the infraorbital nerve.Methods:Given the popularity of transconjuctival and intraoral access to the midface skeleton, the authors identified relevant bony and dental landmarks from radiographic images and measured distances between the IOF and these landmarks. Forty-four computed tomography scans of adult hemifaces were used to accurately locate the IOF in relation to the anatomic landmarks.Results:Most often, the IOF’s location correlated with the second premolar on a vertical axis. The average distance between the IOF and the infraorbital rim, piriform aperture, tip of the second premolar cusps, and lateral orbital rim was approximately 8.61, 17.43, 41.81, and 25.93 mm (respectively) in men and 8.25, 15.69, 37.33, and 24.21 mm (respectively) in women.Conclusions:A safe zone of dissection for midface augmentation has been identified, which differs from previous findings. Awareness of this zone may help clinicians locate the IOF and avoid injury to the nerve.

Concepts: Surgery, Medical imaging, Anatomy, Reconstructive surgery, Foramina of the skull, Infraorbital artery, Infraorbital nerve, Infraorbital foramen


Botulinum toxin A has been successfully used in a variety of areas to temporarily obliterate muscle mobility for either functional or aesthetic gain. Tissue expander-based breast reconstruction has been plagued with pain and discomfort.

Concepts: Plastic surgery, Breast, Botulinum toxin, Microbial toxins


Rib cartilage is an abundant source for cartilage grafts when significant dorsal nasal augmentation or structural support is indicated. Diced cartilage wrapped in fascia was developed to counteract warping, visibility, and displacement of rib cartilage as a dorsal solid graft. The technique for wrapping diced cartilage has evolved during the past several years.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Pharmaceutical industry, Clinical research, Grafting, Fascia, Rectus abdominis muscle


The position, shape, size, and depth of the umbilicus influence the overall aesthetics of the abdomen. Hence, umbilicoplasty is a common adjunct to aesthetic and reconstructive surgery of the abdominal wall. Delineation of the position and shape of the “beautiful” umbilicus can aid in the planning of abdominoplasty and lipoabdominoplasty.

Concepts: Surgery, Abdominal pain, Plastic surgery, Abdomen, Reconstructive surgery, Navel, Aesthetics, Human abdomen


There are numerous methods of assessing patient satisfaction with botulinum toxin type A neuromodulation of the glabellar rhytids. As the use of aesthetic neuromodulation increases both in breadth and number of procedures, there is a need for more comprehensive tools to evaluate patient-reported outcomes. The FACE-Q is a recently validated patient-reported outcome instrument that can be used to measure patient perceptions of botulinum toxin type A neuromodulation.

Concepts: Psychology, Botulinum toxin, Microbial toxins


Abdominoplasty is a common plastic surgery procedure and has a higher rate of postoperative deep venous thrombosis (DVT) than any other such surgery. DVT prevention remains an important topic in the plastic surgery community. Many surgeons avoid DVT chemoprophylaxis, because they are concerned about the risk of postoperative bleeding.

Concepts: Hospital, Surgery, Hematology, Vein, Plastic surgery, Deep vein thrombosis, Deep vein, General surgery


Macrolane is a stabilized, hyaluronic acid-based gel that has been available since 2007 as a minimally invasive, nonpermanent option for breast enhancement. However, numerous controversies pertaining to its side effects have highlighted the need for studies involving larger groups of patients.

Concepts: Medical terms, Minimally invasive, Breast implant


The use of screening scales in cosmetic practices may help to identify patients who require education to modify inappropriate expectations and/or psychological support.