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Journal: Acta ophthalmologica


It is generally accepted that Jacques Daviel introduced in the 18th century the extracapsular technique of extraction of the lens while the couching method of cataract operation had already been practiced since ancient times. Present study analyses the first known cataract surgery description in three translations into English from the original Sanskrit Sushruta textbook and all the available literature on the subject. We found evidences that some sort of extraocular expulsion of lens material through a limbal puncture (paracentesis) was described by the Indian surgeon. Nevertheless, this incision cannot be considered as a classic extracapsular procedure because it was not large enough to allow the extraction of the entire lens.

Concepts: Surgery, China, Ophthalmology, 18th century, Phacoemulsification, Sushruta Samhita, Louis Althusser, Cataract surgery


Purpose:  To evaluate the effect of verteporfin photodynamic treatment (PDT) on choroidal thickness in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC). Methods:  Choroidal thickness was measured with enhanced depth imaging- optical coherence tomography (EDI-OCT) before and after verteporfin PDT (full-dose verteporfin, half-light dose) in 16 eyes in 16 patients with serous detachment of the fovea secondary to extrafoveal angiographic fluorescein leakage. Treatment was confined to the area of leakage, whereas choroidal thickness before and after treatment was assessed over a larger area of the fundus using OCT. Results:  Complete resolution of the serous detachment was seen in all 16 eyes within 1 month of extrafoveal PDT, while choroidal thickness in the area where PDT was applied decreased from 407 μm [mean; 95% confidence interval (CI(95) ) 356-458 μm] to 349 μm (mean; CI(95) 300-399 μm; p < 0.0001), and subfoveal choroidal thickness was reduced from 421 μm (mean; CI(95) 352-489 μm) to 346 μm (mean; CI(95) 278-414 μm; p = 0.0001). Initially, subfoveal choroidal thickness was significantly increased in the treated eye compared with the healthy fellow eye (mean 324 μm; CI(95) 273-376 μm; p = 0.0003), but after treatment, the difference was not significant. Discussion:  Photodynamic therapy of active CSC was followed by choroidal thickness reduction, not only locally but also at considerable distance from the treated area. Thus, the process that causes choroidal thickening in CSC appears to spread laterally within the choroid.

Concepts: Retina, Eye, Ophthalmology, Central serous retinopathy


Purpose:  To investigate the clinical value of assessment of peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer (RNFL) thickness with OCT in addition to the evaluation of retinal function measured by full-field electroretinography (ff-ERG) in patients with suspected vigabatrin (VGB)-attributed visual field defects. Methods:  Visual fields from adult patients in our clinical follow-up program for VGB medication were analysed. Twelve patients with suspected VGB-attributed visual field defects were selected for the study. They were re-examined with computerized kinetic perimetry, ff-ERG and OCT (2D circle scan). Results:  Constricted visual fields were found in all patients. Comparative analysis of ff-ERG parameters showed reduced b-wave amplitudes for the isolated and the combined rod and cone responses (p < 0.0001). The a-wave, reflecting photoreceptor activity, was reduced (p = 0.001), as well as the summed amplitude of oscillatory potentials (p = 0.029), corresponding to inner retinal function. OCT measurements demonstrated attenuation of the RNFL in nine of 12 patients, most frequently superiorly and/or inferiorly. No temporal attenuation was found. Significant positive correlations were found between the total averaged RNFL thickness, superior and inferior RNFL thickness and reduced ff-ERG parameters. Positive correlations were also found between RNFL thickness and isopter areas. Conclusion:  OCT measurements can detect attenuation of the RNFL in patients exposed to VGB medication. RNFL thickness correlates with reduced ff-ERG parameters and isopter areas of constricted visual fields, indicating that VGB is retino-toxic on several levels, from photoreceptors to ganglion cells. The study also supports previous studies, suggesting that OCT measurement of the RNFL thickness may be of clinical value in monitoring patients on vigabatrin therapy.

Concepts: Nervous system, Retina, Photoreceptor cell, Visual system, Ophthalmology, Optic nerve, Visual field, Nerve fiber layer


To investigate pathomechanisms involved in graft detachment after Descemet’s membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK) and its clinical implications.

Concepts: Corneal transplantation


Optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging of the eye has become an essential tool for the ophthalmologist, aiding diagnosis and assisting with treatment decisions, in many ocular diseases. However, there is an evolving role for OCT in informing on non-ocular diseases, which ophthalmologists should be aware of. The purpose of this review was to examine recent evidence for the role of ocular OCT imaging to evaluate disease beyond the orbit and to discuss possible opportunities and challenges arising from this, from the perspective of the ophthalmologist.

Concepts: Medicine, Disease, Optics, Medical imaging, Eye, Visual perception, Ophthalmology, Optical coherence tomography


To suggest a novel classification of neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) based on optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) and to correlate morphological characteristics based on optical coherence tomography (OCT)/OCTA with clinical criteria of disease activity.

Concepts: Medicine, Optics, Medical imaging, Retina, Ophthalmology, Macular degeneration, Neovascularization, Choroidal neovascularization


To systematically review anatomical and functional outcomes of switching therapy from bevacizumab and/or ranibizumab to aflibercept in patients with persistent macular oedema secondary to retinal vein occlusions (RVO). A systematic search of aflibercept for the treatment of persistent macular oedema secondary to branch and central RVO was performed in EMBASE, PubMed and Cochrane databases prior to June 2017. The main outcome variables described were best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central macular thickness (CMT). All results were analysed and pooled using random-effects models with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Eight studies met the inclusion criteria with a total of 137 eyes, incorporating both branch and central RVO. Meta-analysis demonstrated a nonsignificant change in BCVA at 6 and 12 months following switch to aflibercept (4.40 letters, 95% CI: -3.10 to 11.90, p = 0.25 and 3.10 letters, 95% CI: -1.74 to 7.94, p = 0.21, respectively). Significant improvement in mean CMT was observed after switch to aflibercept at 6 (-256.00 μm, 95% CI: -318.00 to -194.00, p < 0.001) but not 12 months (-118.00 μm, 95% CI: -261.00 to 25.00, p = 0.11). Switching from bevacizumab/ranibizumab to aflibercept may improve persistent macular oedema secondary to RVO. However, there may be a limitation in the potential of visual recovery.


To investigate whether intraocular silicone oil (SO) tamponade is associated with functional changes in patients with both macula-on and macula-off rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs).

Concepts: Retina, Retinal detachment


To evaluate the concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines in tear and aqueous humour of patients with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), relative to healthy controls.


To determine the myopia prevalence in a Danish cohort aged 16-17 years and its relation to physical activity and use of screen-based electronic devices.