Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Journal: Academic radiology


As a component of the practice-based core competency of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, all residents must receive training to be able to evaluate and improve their patient care practices. To further enhance our overall resident quality improvement (QI) educational experience, and to ensure resident involvement in the many aspects of a quality assurance program, we have established a resident educational leadership role and have appointed a resident as resident QI director.

Concepts: Better, Improve, Quality control, Physician, Management, Quality assurance, Medical school, Teacher


(23)Na magnetic resonance imaging is a promising technique for the noninvasive imaging of renal function. Past investigations of the renal corticomedullary [(23)Na] gradient have relied on imaging only in the coronal plane and on cumbersome calculations of [(23)Na], which require the use of external phantoms. The aim of this study is therefore two-fold: to use an isotropic three-dimensional data set to compare coronal measurements of renal [(23)Na] relative to measurements obtained in planes along the corticomedullary gradients and to investigate cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) (23)Na signal as an internal reference standard, obviating the need for time-intensive [(23)Na] calculations.

Concepts: Brain, Statistics, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Multiple sclerosis, Data set, Cerebrospinal fluid, Level set


In radiology, multireader, multicase (MRMC) receiver-operating characteristic studies are commonly used to evaluate the accuracy of diagnostic imaging systems. The special feature of an MRMC receiver-operating characteristic study requires that the same set of patients' images be examined by the same set of doctors. One main difficulty of analyzing MRMC data is a complicated correlation structure. Four commonly used methods are available for dealing with this complicated correlation structure. The authors conducted an extensive simulation study to assess the performance of these methods in finite sample sizes. They summarize the relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods and make recommendations on the use of these methods.

Concepts: Scientific method, Statistics, Sample size, Data, Psychometrics, Java, Field, Biostatistics


The recent increasing utilization of imaging has increased the population exposure to ionizing radiation. With increasing knowledge of the potential harm of radiation exposure, efforts should be made to minimize patient radiation whenever possible, especially in young children. The purpose of this study was to use the exposure index (EI) standard to assess the potential for reducing radiation dose to babies by removing a soft comfort pad, often placed underneath the baby. The pad is located between the baby and the image detector plate. As such it absorbs x-rays that have already passed through the baby but have not yet reached the imaging detector plate.

Concepts: Infant, Ionizing radiation, X-ray, Radiobiology, Background radiation, Gray, Equivalent dose, Photographic film


To intraindividually compare the delineation of intracranial arterial vasculature in nonenhanced versus contrast-enhanced magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo (MPRAGE) imaging at 7 Tesla (T).


To investigate the conventional magnetic resonance (MR) findings of cervical spinal cord, to explore the possible changes on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and to assess the correlations between the changes on DTI and clinical parameters in patients with ALS.

Concepts: Magnetic resonance imaging, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Diffusion MRI, Lou Gehrig


To compare Hounsfield unit (HU) data obtained from true-unenhanced (TUE) and virtual-unenhanced (VUE) imaging obtained with a fast kv-switching dual-energy computed tomography (CT) scanner using multimaterial decomposition algorithm.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Radiography, Radiology, Computer, IMAGE, Godfrey Hounsfield, Hounsfield scale


In medicine, an eponym is a word-typically referring to an anatomic structure, disease, or syndrome-that is derived from a person’s name. Medical eponyms are ubiquitous and numerous. They are also at times controversial. Eponyms reflect medicine’s rich and colorful history and can be useful for concisely conveying complex concepts. Familiarity with eponyms facilitates correct usage and accurate communication. In this article, 22 eponyms used to describe anatomic structures of the head and neck are discussed. For each structure, the author first provides a biographical account of the individual for whom the structure is named. An anatomic description and brief discussion of the structure’s clinical relevance follow.

Concepts: Medicine, Head and neck anatomy, Head and neck, Hierarchy, Anatomy, Medical school, Eponym, Medical eponyms


Pulmonary nodules can be missed on the non-breath hold computed tomography (CT) portion of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT), and for this reason prior studies have advocated for routinely performing dedicated breath hold CT of the chest in addition to PET/CT for routine staging of malignancy. We evaluated the rate of pulmonary nodule detection on standard CT images from whole body PET/CT studies (WB-PET/CT), high-resolution lung reconstruction CT images from PET/CT studies (HR-PET/CT), and diagnostic breath hold chest CT (BH-CT).

Concepts: Cancer, Pulmonology, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Pneumonia, Heart, Positron emission tomography, Solitary pulmonary nodule


Renal perfusion measurements using noninvasive arterial spin-labeled (ASL) magnetic resonance imaging techniques are gaining interest. Currently, focus has been on perfusion in the context of renal transplant. Our objectives were to explore the use of ASL in patients with renal cancer, and to evaluate three-dimensional (3D) fast spin echo (FSE) acquisition, a robust volumetric imaging method for abdominal applications. We evaluate 3D ASL perfusion magnetic resonance imaging in the kidneys compared to two-dimensional (2D) ASL in patients and healthy subjects.

Concepts: Chronic kidney disease, Kidney, Spin, Medical imaging, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Magnetic resonance imaging, Spin echo, 2D computer graphics