Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.


To develop and validate a set of practical prediction tools that reliably estimate the outcome of subarachnoid haemorrhage from ruptured intracranial aneurysms (SAH).

Concepts: Subarachnoid hemorrhage


To quantify the effects of varying opioid prescribing patterns after surgery on dependence, overdose, or abuse in an opioid naive population.

Concepts: Cohort study, Cohort, Medical prescription


The local inflammatory tissue response after acute myocardial infarction (MI) determines subsequent healing. Systemic interaction may induce neuroinflammation as a precursor to neurodegeneration.

Concepts: Inflammation, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Scar, Heart failure, Infarction, Troponin, Necrosis


Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) is a rare lipid disorder characterized by premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). There are sparse data for clinical management and cardiovascular outcomes in ARH.

Concepts: Medicine, Myocardial infarction, Atherosclerosis, Blood vessel, Cardiovascular disease


Patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB) often respond to cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) improvement. Guideline-directed medical therapy (GDMT), not CRT, is first-line therapy for patients with reduced LVEF with LBBB. However, there are little data on how patients with reduced LVEF and LBBB respond to GDMT.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Cardiology, Heart failure, Ejection fraction, Cardiac electrophysiology, Left ventricle


Oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs) are proinflammatory, and elevated levels in plasma predict cardiovascular events.

Concepts: Immune system


Heart failure is a complex clinical syndrome, the incidence and prevalence of which is increased in diabetes mellitus, pre-diabetes, and obesity. Although this may arise from underlying coronary artery disease, it often occurs in the absence of significant major epicardial coronary disease, and most commonly manifests as heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Despite epidemiological evidence linking diabetes to heart failure incidence and outcome, the presence of a distinct primary “diabetic” cardiomyopathy has been difficult to prove, because the link between diabetes and heart failure is confounded by hypertension, microvascular dysfunction, and autonomic neuropathy. Nonetheless, several mechanistic associations at systemic, cardiac, and cellular/molecular levels explain different aspects of myocardial dysfunction, including impaired cardiac relaxation, compliance, and contractility. This review seeks to describe recent advances and limitations pertinent to integrating molecular mechanisms, clinical screening, and potential therapeutic avenues for this condition.

Concepts: Myocardial infarction, Hypertension, Coronary artery disease, Diabetes mellitus, Cardiology, Heart failure, Heart, Obesity


Atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) disease remains a major health concern affecting more than 200 million adults worldwide, and lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Treatment strategies to reduce the burden of major adverse CV events and limb events have mainly involved the use of antiplatelet and statin medications. Unlike other types of atherosclerotic CV disease, the evidence base is not well developed for therapies in patients with PAD. Recently, studies from subgroups of patients with PAD and a large clinical trial of PAD patients have been published, signaling a burgeoning interest in studying this higher risk population. This review outlines the inherent CV risks of patients with PAD, risk reduction strategies, emerging clinical trial data, and opportunities for the CV community to generate evidence in real-world settings and translate evidence into practice as new therapies become available.

Concepts: Medicine, Epidemiology, Clinical trial, Atherosclerosis, The Canon of Medicine, Cardiovascular disease, Statin, Avicenna


Colloidal systems offer unique opportunities for the study of phase formation and structure since their characteristic length scales are accessible to visible light. As a model system the two-dimensional assembly of colloidal magnetic and non-magnetic particles dispersed in a ferrofluid (FF) matrix is studied by transmission optical microscopy. We present a method to statistically evaluate images with thousands of particles and map phases by extraction of local variables. Different lattice structures and long-range connected branching chains are observed, when tuning the effective magnetic interaction and varying particle ratios.

Concepts: Scientific method, Electron, Statistics, Mathematics, Actuarial science, Sociology, System, Carl Friedrich Gauss


The natural history of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is complex and may run through different immune phases that may overlap. In particulars, the immune-tolerant phase is the most interesting and not as well understood as we thought. The concept of true immune tolerance have been under challenged from immunology points of view. The major international guidelines have not yet reached a consensus on the definition of the immune-tolerant phase. While positive hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg), high serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA and normal serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels are the three key features of this phase, some guidelines also put age into consideration. A new nomenclature, Phase 1 or HBeAg-positive chronic HBV infection, is given by the latest European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) published in April 2017. While current guidelines advise against starting antiviral treatment for immune-tolerant CHB patients, some new data suggest treating such patients may reduce the risk of liver fibrosis progression and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Concepts: Immune system, Cirrhosis, Hepatitis, Hepatocellular carcinoma, Alanine transaminase, Hepatitis C, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis A