Emerin is a nuclear envelope protein that contributes to genome organization and cell mechanics. Through its N-terminal LAP2-emerin-MAN1 (LEM)-domain, emerin interacts with the DNA-binding protein barrier-to-autointegration (BAF). Emerin also binds to members of the linker of the nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex. Mutations in the gene encoding emerin are responsible for the majority of cases of X-linked Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (X-EDMD). Most of these mutations lead to an absence of emerin. A few missense and short deletion mutations in the disordered region of emerin are also associated with X-EDMD. More recently, missense and short deletion mutations P22L, ∆K37 and T43I were discovered in emerin LEM-domain, associated with isolated atrial cardiac defects (ACD). Here we reveal which defects, at both the molecular and cellular levels, are elicited by these LEM-domain mutations. Whereas K37 mutation impaired the correct folding of the LEM-domain, P22L and T43I had no impact on the 3D structure of emerin. Surprisingly, all three mutants bound to BAF, albeit with a weaker affinity in the case of K37. In human myofibroblasts derived from a patient’s fibroblasts, emerin ∆K37 was correctly localized at the inner nuclear membrane, but was present at a significantly lower level, indicating that this mutant is abnormally degraded. Moreover, SUN2 was reduced, and these cells were defective in producing actin stress fibers when grown on a stiff substrate and after cyclic stretches. Altogether, our data suggest that the main effect of mutation K37 is to perturb emerin function within the LINC complex in response to mechanical stress.
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease associated with a high prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) is commonly used to control disease activity in patients with SLE. We evaluated its potential additional therapeutic effect for reducing CVD in SLE patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study, in which one million participants were sampled from 23 million beneficiaries and data were collected from 2000 to 2013. In total, 826 SLE patients receiving HCQ medication were included after exclusion for previous CVD. The total number of SLE patients was 795 after follow-up for more than one year. After adjusting for chronic comorbidity, a significantly decreased hazard ratio (HR) for coronary artery disease (CAD) was found among SLE patients with a high usage of HCQ for at least 318 days (HR = 0.31, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.12-0.76). A low HR for CAD was observed in SLE patients with a high cumulative dose of at least 100,267 mg HCQ (HR = 0.25, 95% CI: 0.09-0.66). However, there was no significant lowering of the HR for stroke. Long-term HCQ therapy decreases the HR of CVD in SLE patients. The cardiovascular protective effect of HCQ therapy was associated with decrease in CAD, but not stroke.
Takotsubo syndrome is a disease of great clinical importance that remains underdiagnosed. It is a form of acute heart failure characterized by a transient wall motion abnormality of the left ventricular apex typically triggered by emotional or physical stress. Takotsubo syndrome is commonly associated with cancer and results in poor outcomes. Therefore, early recognition and prompt therapy are essential to improve prognosis. The aim of this manuscript is to review the consequences of the association between cancer and Takotsubo to summarize the available evidence to guide physicians to improve the management of these patients.
DNA nanorobots have emerged as new tools for nanomedicine with the potential to ameliorate the delivery and anticancer efficacy of various drugs. DNA nanostructures have been considered one of the most promising nanocarriers. In the present study, we report a DNA framework-based intelligent DNA nanorobot for selective lysosomal degradation of tumor-specific proteins on cancer cells. We site-specifically anchored an anti-HER2 aptamer (HApt) on a tetrahedral framework nucleic acid (tFNA). This DNA nanorobot (HApt-tFNA) could target HER2-positive breast cancer cells and specifically induce the lysosomal degradation of the membrane protein HER2. An injection of the DNA nanorobot into a mouse model revealed that the presence of tFNA enhanced the stability and prolonged the blood circulation time of HApt, and HApt-tFNA could therefore drive HER2 into lysosomal degradation with a higher efficiency. The formation of the HER2-HApt-tFNA complexes resulted in the HER2-mediated endocytosis and digestion in lysosomes, which effectively reduced the amount of HER2 on the cell surfaces. An increased HER2 digestion through HApt-tFNA further induced cell apoptosis and arrested cell growth. Hence, this novel DNA nanorobot sheds new light on targeted protein degradation for precision breast cancer therapy.
There is a need to find interventions able to reduce the extent of injury in reperfused ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) beyond timely reperfusion. In this review, we summarise the clinical impact of STEMI from epidemiological, clinical and biological perspectives. We also revise the pathophysiology underlying the ischaemia/reperfusion syndrome occurring in reperfused STEMI, including the several players involved in this syndrome, such as cardiomyocytes, microcirculation and circulating cells. Interventions aimed to reduce the resultant infarct size, known as cardioprotective therapies, are extensively discussed, putting the focus on both mechanical interventions (i.e. ischaemic conditioning) and promising pharmacological therapies, such as early intravenous metoprolol, exenatide and other glucose modulators, N-acetylcysteine as well as on some other classic therapies which have failed to be translated to the clinical arena. Novel targets for evolving therapeutic interventions to ameliorate ischaemia/reperfusion injury are also discussed. Finally, we highlight the necessity to improve the study design of future randomised clinical trials in the field, as well as to select patients better who can most likely benefit from cardioprotective interventions.
Bumble bees are generalist pollinators that typically collect floral rewards from a wide array of flowering plant species. Among the greatest threats to wild bumble bee populations worldwide, many of which are declining, is a loss of floral resource abundance and diversity in the landscapes they inhabit. We examined how composition of pollen diet impacts early nesting success in laboratory-reared queens of the bumble bee Bombus impatiens. Specifically, we provided queens and their young nests with one of three pollen diets, each of which was dominated by a single pollen type, and explored how this diet treatment influenced the length of time until queens initiated nests, total counts of brood in the nest at the end of the experiment (8 wk later), and the size and weight of adult offspring produced. We found that the amount of later-stage brood (pupae and/or adults) produced by recently-initiated nests was strongly impacted by pollen diet. For example, on average 66% fewer later-stage brood were found in nests provided with the Cistus pollen Linnaeus (Cistaceae), relative to the predominantly Asteraceae pollen. This finding suggests that particular pollen diet compositions may delay larval growth, which delays colony development and may ultimately be detrimental for young nests. This study sheds light on how one of the leading stressors for bumble bees (nutritional stress) may negatively impact populations through its influence on brood production during the nest-founding stage of the colony cycle.
The efficacy and safety of aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD) remain debatable.
The taxonomy of cardiovascular (CV) diseases is divided into a broad spectrum of clinical entities. Many such diseases coincide in specific patient groups and suggest shared predisposition.
Genetic variants currently known to affect coronary artery disease (CAD) risk explain less than one-quarter of disease heritability. The heritability contribution of gene regulatory networks (GRNs) in CAD, which are modulated by both genetic and environmental factors, is unknown.
Data on PCSK9 inhibition in chronic kidney disease (CKD) is limited.