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Vaping may increase the cytotoxic effects of e-cigarette liquid (ECL). We compared the effect of unvaped ECL to e-cigarette vapour condensate (ECVC) on alveolar macrophage (AM) function.


Romantic courtship is often described as taking place in a dating market where men and women compete for mates, but the detailed structure and dynamics of dating markets have historically been difficult to quantify for lack of suitable data. In recent years, however, the advent and vigorous growth of the online dating industry has provided a rich new source of information on mate pursuit. We present an empirical analysis of heterosexual dating markets in four large U.S. cities using data from a popular, free online dating service. We show that competition for mates creates a pronounced hierarchy of desirability that correlates strongly with user demographics and is remarkably consistent across cities. We find that both men and women pursue partners who are on average about 25% more desirable than themselves by our measures and that they use different messaging strategies with partners of different desirability. We also find that the probability of receiving a response to an advance drops markedly with increasing difference in desirability between the pursuer and the pursued. Strategic behaviors can improve one’s chances of attracting a more desirable mate, although the effects are modest.


In a changing climate, there is an ever-increasing societal demand for accurate and reliable interannual predictions. Accurate and reliable interannual predictions of global temperatures are key for determining the regional climate change impacts that scale with global temperature, such as precipitation extremes, severe droughts, or intense hurricane activity, for instance. However, the chaotic nature of the climate system limits prediction accuracy on such timescales. Here we develop a novel method to predict global-mean surface air temperature and sea surface temperature, based on transfer operators, which allows, by-design, probabilistic forecasts. The prediction accuracy is equivalent to operational forecasts and its reliability is high. The post-1998 global warming hiatus is well predicted. For 2018-2022, the probabilistic forecast indicates a warmer than normal period, with respect to the forced trend. This will temporarily reinforce the long-term global warming trend. The coming warm period is associated with an increased likelihood of intense to extreme temperatures. The important numerical efficiency of the method (a few hundredths of a second on a laptop) opens the possibility for real-time probabilistic predictions carried out on personal mobile devices.


Many motile microorganisms react to environmental light cues with a variety of motility responses guiding cells towards better conditions for survival and growth. The use of spatial light modulators could help to elucidate the mechanisms of photo-movements while, at the same time, providing an efficient strategy to achieve spatial and temporal control of cell concentration. Here we demonstrate that millions of bacteria, genetically modified to swim smoothly with a light controllable speed, can be arranged into complex and reconfigurable density patterns using a digital light projector. We show that a homogeneous sea of freely swimming bacteria can be made to morph between complex shapes. We model non-local effects arising from memory in light response and show how these can be mitigated by a feedback control strategy resulting in the detailed reproduction of grayscale density images.


Loneliness and social isolation markedly increase mortality risk, and are linked to numerous mental and physical comorbidities, including sleep disruption. But does sleep loss causally trigger loneliness? Here, we demonstrate that a lack of sleep leads to a neural and behavioral phenotype of social withdrawal and loneliness; one that can be perceived by other members of society, and reciprocally, makes those societal members lonelier in return. We propose a model in which sleep loss instigates a propagating, self-reinforcing cycle of social separation and withdrawal.


Understanding the origin and evolution of near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) is an issue of scientific interest and practical importance because NEAs are potentially hazardous to the Earth. However, when and how NEAs formed and their evolutionary history remain enigmas. Here, we report the U-Pb systematics of Itokawa particles for the first time. Ion microprobe analyses of seven phosphate grains from a single particle provide an isochron age of 4.64 ± 0.18 billion years (1σ). This ancient phosphate age is thought to represent the thermal metamorphism of Itokawa’s parent body, which is identical to that of typical LL chondrites. In addition, the incorporation of other particles suggests that a significant shock event might have occurred 1.51 ± 0.85 billion years ago (1σ), which is significantly different from the shock ages of 4.2 billion years of the majority of shocked LL chondrites and similar to that of the Chelyabinsk meteorite. Combining these data with recent Ar-Ar studies on particles from a different landing site, we conclude that a globally intense impact, possibly a catastrophic event, occurred ca. 1.4 Ga ago. This conclusion enables us to establish constraints on the timescale of asteroid disruption frequency, the validity of the crater chronology and the mean lifetime of small NEAs.


The current review highlights the evidence supporting the use of ketogenic diet therapies in the management of adult epilepsy, adult malignant glioma and Alzheimer’s disease. An overview of the scientific literature, both preclinical and clinical, in each area is presented and management strategies for addressing adverse effects and compliance are discussed.


Contact lenses, when worn and cared for properly, are a safe and effective form of vision correction used by an estimated 45 million Americans. However, contact lens wearers are at risk for contact lens-related eye infections, especially when wearers do not practice proper contact lens wear and care habits. These infections, affecting the cornea and known as microbial keratitis (Figure), can lead to serious adverse health outcomes. Because contact lenses are regulated by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as medical devices, contact lens-related corneal infections should be reported to FDA as an adverse event. To illustrate their serious health implications, six cases of contact lens-related corneal infection, in which sleeping in lenses was reported as the main risk factor, are presented. Consequences of infection reported among the identified cases included the need for frequent administration of antibiotic eye drops, multiple follow-up medical appointments, and permanent eye damage. Health education measures directed toward contact lens wearers should emphasize raising awareness of the risks of sleeping in contact lenses as well as adherence to all recommendations for the wear and care of contact lenses. Additional measures are needed to educate eye care professionals about the need to report contact lens-related corneal infections to MedWatch, the FDA Safety Information and Adverse Event Reporting program (


Opioid use by pregnant women represents a significant public health concern given the association of opioid exposure and adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes, including preterm labor, stillbirth, neonatal abstinence syndrome, and maternal mortality (1,2). State-level actions are critical to curbing the opioid epidemic through programs and policies to reduce use of prescription opioids and illegal opioids including heroin and illicitly manufactured fentanyl, both of which contribute to the epidemic (3). Hospital discharge data from the 1999-2014 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) were analyzed to describe U.S. national and state-specific trends in opioid use disorder documented at delivery hospitalization. Nationally, the prevalence of opioid use disorder more than quadrupled during 1999-2014 (from 1.5 per 1,000 delivery hospitalizations to 6.5; p<0.05). Increasing trends over time were observed in all 28 states with available data (p<0.05). In 2014, prevalence ranged from 0.7 in the District of Columbia (DC) to 48.6 in Vermont. Continued national, state, and provider efforts to prevent, monitor, and treat opioid use disorder among reproductive-aged and pregnant women are needed. Efforts might include improved access to data in Prescription Drug Monitoring Programs, increased substance abuse screening, use of medication-assisted therapy, and substance abuse treatment referrals.


In on-line forums, parents have been reporting that their children are experiencing what is described here as “rapid-onset gender dysphoria,” appearing for the first time during puberty or even after its completion. The onset of gender dysphoria seemed to occur in the context of belonging to a peer group where one, multiple, or even all of the friends have become gender dysphoric and transgender-identified during the same timeframe. Parents also report that their children exhibited an increase in social media/internet use prior to disclosure of a transgender identity. The purpose of this study was to document and explore these observations and describe the resulting presentation of gender dysphoria, which is inconsistent with existing research literature.