SciCombinator

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Electrochemical water splitting stores energy as equivalents of hydrogen and oxygen and presents a potential route to the scalable storage of renewable energy. Widespread implementation of such energy storage, however, will be facilitated by abundant and accessible sources of water. We describe herein a means of utilizing impure water sources (e.g., saltwater) for electrochemical water splitting by leveraging forward osmosis. A concentration gradient induces the flow of water from an impure water source into a more concentrated designed electrolyte. This concentration gradient may subsequently be maintained by water splitting, where rates of water influx (i.e., forward osmosis) and effective outflux (i.e., water splitting) are balanced. This approach of coupling forward osmosis to water splitting allows for the use of impure and natural sources without pretreatment and with minimal losses in energy efficiency.

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Over the past year, the novel coronavirus has been a topic of significant research. Multiple gastroenterological symptoms have been associated with this infection, in addition to the well-established pulmonary presentations. Gastrointestinal bleeding can be a complication of infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, which can be exacerbated by the anticoagulants used to treat its thrombotic sequelae. We describe the clinical cases of four patients infected with the novel coronavirus, with significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding requiring endoscopic visualization, along with their clinical outcomes.

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To describe the radiological features, diagnostic accuracy and features of imaging studies and their relation with clinical course of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia in pregnant women.

20

Objective: To compare the effects of artesunate (Art) and fuzheng huayu decoction on mitochondrial autophagy in the treatment of schistosomiasis liver fibrosis. Methods: Eighty C57BL/6 female mice were randomly divided into healthy control group, infection group, Art treatment group and Fuzheng Huayu Decoction treatment group, with 20 mice in each group. Mice in the infection group and treatment group were infected with 16 Schistosoma japonicum cercariae. After 6 weeks, praziquantel (300 mg/kg) was used for 2 days to kill the worms. The Art treatment group was treated with intraperitoneal injection of 100 mg/kg/day, while the Fuzheng Huayu Decoction treatment group was fed 16g of fuzheng huayu decoction per 1kg per day. After 6 weeks, fresh liver tissues of the four groups were collected. Masson staining and Western blot were used to observe the succinate dehydrogenase subunit A (SDHA) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH2), citrate synthase (CS), ketoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH), and target of rapamycin 1 (mTORC1) pathway involved in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle in liver tissues. The relative expression levels of adenylate activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mitochondrial autophagy pathway kinase (PINK1) were detected. Liver tissue samples were extracted from each group to detect the mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate. Two-way ANOVA was used to compare the significance and difference between two sets of samples. Results: Masson staining showed that the infection group mice had significantly higher liver fibrosis area than the healthy control group, while the Art treatment group and Fuzheng Huayu Decoction treatment group mice had lower liver fibrosis area than the infection group. Western blot analysis showed that the infection group (0.82±0.05) had significantly lower relative expression of SDHA protein than the healthy control group (1.00±0.05) (t = 11.23, P = 0.0035), while the Art treatment group (0.73±0.05) had significantly higher relative expression of SDHA protein than the infection group (t = 10.79, P = 0.0073). However, there was no significant change in Fuzheng Huayu Decoction treatment group (0.98±0.05) (t = 1.925,P= 0.1266). The relative expression of p-AMPK protein was significantly higher in the infection group (1.15 ±0.05) than in the healthy control group (0.98±0.07,t= 12.18, P = 0.0029), and the expression of p-AMPK in the Art treatment group (0.50±0.05) was significantly lower than the infection group (t = 11.78,P= 0.0032). The relative protein expression of AMPK was significantly lower in the infection group (0.80±0.05) than in the healthy control group (1.00±0.05, t= 10.53, P= 0.0046). The expression of AMPK was significantly lower in the Art treatment group (0.54±0.05) than in the infection group (T = 13.98, P = 0.0036). The relative expression of p-mTORC1 protein (0.93±0.08) was not significantly different in the infection group than in the healthy control group (t = 2.28, P = 0.065), while the Art treatment group (0.63±0.05) had significantly lower relative expression of p-mTORC1 protein than the infection group (t = 10.58, P = 0.029). The expression of p-mTORC1/m-TORC1 was not significantly different in the infection group (0.98±0.03) than in the healthy control group (0.97±0.03, t = 0.98, P = 0.085), while the Art treatment group (0.63±0.05) had significantly lower relative expression of p-mTORC1/m-TORC1 than the infection group (t = 14.58, P = 0. 009). The relative protein expression of PINK1 was significantly lower in the infection group (0.55±0.05) than in the healthy control group (1.00±0.03, t = 13.49, P = 0.0011), while the Art treatment group (1.21±0.05, t = 9.98, P = 0.0046) and Fuzheng Huayu Decoction treatment group (1.31 ±0.35, t = 6.98, P = 0.027) had significantly higher relative protein expression of PINK1 than the infection group. Mitochondrial function tests showed that after adding substrate complex II, the oxygen consumption of the infection group was lower than the healthy control group, while the Art treatment group and the Fuzheng Huayu Decoction treatment group had higher oxygen consumption than the infection group. The oxygen consumption was significantly lower after adding the substrate complex III in the infection group than the healthy control group, while the Art treatment group and Fuzheng Huayu Decoction treatment group had higher oxygen consumption than the infection group. Conclusion: Art can alleviate schistosomiasis liver fibrosis by inhibiting AMPK/mTORC1 signaling pathway activity and enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption, autophagy and SDHA expression.

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Nanoscale artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) are promising to activate T cells directly for cancer immunotherapy, while feasible and flexible strategy to develop nanoscale aAPCs remains highly desirable. Metabolic glycoengineering is used to decorate chemical tags on cells which enables bioorthogonal chemical conjugation of functional molecules. Herein, we develop a nanoscale aAPC by metabolic dendritic cell (DC) labeling to mobilize T-cell based antitumor immunity. We coat azido-labeled DC membrane on imiquimod-loaded polymeric nanoparticles and sequentially modify anti-CD3ε antibody via click chemistry. The nanoscale aAPCs perform improved distribution in lymph nodes and stimulate T cells and resident APCs. Significant inhibition of tumor inoculation and growth is observed after the vaccination, which can be further improved by combining antiprogrammed cell death receptor 1 (PD1) therapy. Our results demonstrate the promising application of metabolically labeled DCs for designing nanoscale aAPCs, which provide a simple and general strategy to potentiate cancer immunotherapy.

20

RARS is a challenging clinical problem that impacts many patients. This article seeks to systematically review the literature on RARS management.

0

By nature of their specialty, otolaryngologists are disproportionately exposed to coronavirus disease 2019 through aerosol-generating procedures and close proximity to the oropharynx during examination.

0

Surgical treatment of varicocele is still one of the most common important treatments for male infertility. Surgery regimens for varicocele (VC) is various, including high ligation, sub-inguinal, inguinal, retroperitoneal, laparoscopic, and microsurgery. The surgery regimens applied for VC patients are various in clinic, however, the significance, advantages, and disadvantages of different varicocelectomies for male infertility are still in controversial. Therefore, this network meta-analysis is mainly to assess the relative efficacy and safety of different surgery regimens for VC patients with infertility.

0

Changeover phases are essential and inevitable times in professional life, which let the learners adapt and grasp emerging opportunities for learning based on the past experiences with the catering of novel creativity as required in the present as well as emerging time. This study was carried out to examine the effectiveness of a professionalism course, during the transition from a non-clinical to clinical setting, within the context of undergraduate medical education.This observational study was conducted during 2019 to 2020, with pre- and post-professionalism course evaluation. We used the Dundee Poly-professionalism inventory-1: Academic Integrity, among the undergraduate medical students.Our results are based on the medical student’s professional progress with the transition from 2nd year to 3rd year. During the 1st phase of the study, the participants at their Pre-Professionalism Course (PrPC) level in their 2nd medical year (only attended the introductory lectures for professionalism), showed a good understanding of professionalism. For the 2nd phase, when the same students, at their Post-Professionalism Course (PoPC) level, in their 3rd year (completed professionalism course) filled the same survey and it was found that there was no decline in their understanding of the topic, even after more than a year. They were even more aware of the significance of professionalism in their clinical settings.Despite a year gap, the understanding of professionalism among students was stable. Results helped us infer that time laps did not affect the professionalism concept learned earlier; rather during clinical settings, students become more aware of professionalism.

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Colonoscopy is an uncomfortable procedure. Distraction is thought to reduce pain by decreasing the amount of attention a person spends on a painful stimulus. We aimed to assess the usefulness of smartphones on discomfort associated with the colonoscopy.