SciCombinator

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Cryoglobulinemia is defined as the persistent presence in serum of abnormal immunoglobulins (Igs) that precipitate at low temperatures and dissolve again upon warming. Cryoglobulins may be composed only of a monoclonal Ig (simple type I cryoglobulinemia), of a monoclonal Ig bound to the constant domain of polyclonal Ig heavy chains (mixed type II cryoglobulinemia), or only of polyclonal Igs (mixed type III cryoglobulinemia). The manifestations of type I cryoglobulinemia are often related to intravascular obstruction, whereas those seen in the mixed cryoglobulinemias often originate in true immune complex-mediated vasculitis. The main clinical manifestations affect the skin (purpura, necrotic ulcers), joints, peripheral nervous system, and kidneys (membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis). Patients with type I cryoglobulinemia should be investigated for hematological malignancies (myeloma and B-cell lymphoma). Hepatitis C is the main diagnosis to consider in patients with mixed cryoglobulinemia, followed by connective tissue disease and B-cell non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. The treatment depends mainly on the cause of the cryoglobulinemia. For instance, hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradication is in order in patients with HCV-associated cryoglobulinemia vasculitis, and the underlying hematological malignancy must be treated in patients with type I cryoglobulinemia.

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Tetraspanins are exposed at the surface of cellular membranes, which allows for the fixation of cognate antibodies. Developing specific antibodies in conjunction with genetic data would largely contribute to deciphering their biological behavior. In this short review, we summarize the main functions of Tspan8/Co-029 and its role in the biology of tumor cells. Based on data collected from recently reported studies, the possibilities of using antibodies to target Tspan8 in immunotherapy or radioimmunotherapy approaches are also discussed.

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The main aim of the research was to develop a complementary analytical approach consisting of bespoke speciation analysis and non-targeted speciation analysis of As, Sb, and Cr in flavored bottled drinking water samples using HPLC/ICP-DRC-MS and ESI-MS/MS. The scope of two previously developed analytical procedures, (1) multielemental speciation procedure for AsIII, AsV, CrVI, SbIII, and SbV analysis and (2) arsenic speciation procedure for AsB, AsIII, DMA, MMA, and AsV quantification, was extended to the analysis of a new sample type in terms of bespoke speciation analysis. As for the non-targeted speciation, analysis size exclusion chromatography was used with ICP-MS and a complementary technique, ESI-MS/MS, was used for the organic species of As, Sb, and Cr screening. Full validation of procedures 1 and 2 was conducted. Procedure 1 and 2 were characterized with precision values in the range from 2.5% to 5.5% and from 3.6% to 7.2%, respectively. Obtained recoveries ranged from 97% to 106% and from 99% to 106% for procedures 1 and 2, respectively. Expanded uncertainties calculated for procedures 1 and 2 ranged from 6.1% to 9.4% and from 7.4% to 9.9%, respectively. The applicability of the proposed procedures was tested on bottled drinking water samples. Results for the real samples in procedure 1 were in the range from 0.286 ± 0.027 [μg L-1] to 0.414 ± 0.039 [μg L-1] for AsIII, from 0.900 ± 0.083 [μg L-1] to 3.26 ± 0.30 [μg L-1] for AsV, and from 0.201 ± 0.012 [μg L-1] to 0.524 ± 0.032 [μg L-1] for SbV. CrVI and SbIII were not detected in any sample. As for procedure 2, results were in the range from 0.0541 ± 0.0053 [μg L-1] to 0.554 ± 0.054 [μg L-1] for AsB. Results for AsIII and AsV obtained with procedure 2 were in good accordance with results obtained with procedure 1. DMA and MMA were not detected in any sample.

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Background: Pregnant women should receive two vaccines during pregnancy due to maternal-foetal complications and risks as well as the influenza and pertussis vaccinations. The goal was to evaluate vaccination coverage against influenza and pertussis in pregnant women, following midwife professional advice during the pregnancy follow-up; Methods: Prospective cohort study of 1017 pregnancies during the vaccination campaign in 2015⁻2016. To estimate the degree of consistency between the coverage declared by mothers and that registered in the Nominal Vaccination Registry (NVR), we used the Cohen’s kappa index (k); Results: 95.4% were registered in the NVR. Vaccination coverage recorded against influenza was 64.2% (95% CI: 61.2⁻67.2), and 89.8% (95% CI: 87.9⁻91.7) against pertussis. The coverage of the pregnant women interviewed was 61.7% (95% CI: 58.1⁻67.3)) for influenza and 92.3% (95% CI: 91.4⁻95.3) for pertussis. Subsequent interviews of 67.2% of the women produced a kappa agreement index between the data obtained from interviews and those recorded in the NVR of 0.974 (IC95%: 98.0⁻99.6) for influenza, and 0.921 (IC95%: 98.1⁻99.7) for pertussis. The women identified midwives as the main source of vaccination information and advice 88.4% (IC95%: 85.8⁻90.9); Conclusions: The NVR is an effective platform for estimating immunisation coverage in pregnant women. The degree of agreement between declared vaccinations and registered vaccinations was high for both vaccines.

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The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the quality of digital workflows generated by different scanners (Intra-oral digital scanners (I.O.S.s)) focusing on marginal fit analysis. A customized chrome-cobalt (Cr-Co) implant abutment simulating a maxillary right first molar was fixed in hemi-maxillary stone model and scanned by eight different I.O.S.s: Omnicam ® (Denstply Sirona, Verona, Italy) CS3500 ® , CS3600 ® , (Carestream Dental, Atlanta, GA, USA), True Definition Scanner ® (3M, St. Paul, MN, USA), DWIO ® (Dental Wings, Montreal, Quebec, Canada), PlanScan ® (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland), 3D PROGRESS Plus ® (MHT, Verona, Italy), TRIOS 3 ® (3Shape, Copenhagen, Denmark). Nine scans were performed by each tested I.O.S. and 72 copings were designed using a dental computer-assisted-design/computer-assisted-manufacturing (CAD/CAM) software (exocad GmbH, Darmstadt, Germany). According to CAD data, zirconium dioxide (ZrO₂) copings were digitally milled (Roland DWX-50, Irvine, CA, USA). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) direct vision allowed for marginal gap measurements in eight points for each specimen. Descriptive analysis was performed using mean, standard deviation, and median, while the Kruskal⁻Wallis test was performed to determine whether the marginal discrepancies were significantly different between each group (significance level p < 0.05). The overall mean marginal gap value and standard deviation were 53.45 ± 30.52 μm. The minimum mean value (40.04 ± 18.90 μm) was recorded by PlanScan®, then 3D PROGRESS Plus® (40.20 ± 21.91 μm), True Definition Scanner ® (40.82 ± 26.19 μm), CS3500 ® (54.82 ± 28.86 μm) CS3600® (59,67 ± 28.72 μm), Omnicam® (61.57 ± 38.59 μm), DWIO® (62.49 ± 31.54 μm), while the maximum mean value (67.95 ± 30.41 μm) was recorded by TRIOS 3®. The Kruskal⁻Wallis tests revealed a statistically significant difference (p-value < 0.5) in the mean marginal gaps between copings produced by 3D PROGRESS Plus ® , PlanScan, True Definition Scanner, and the other evaluated I.O.S.s. The use of an I.O.S. for digital impressions may be a viable alternative to analog techniques. Although in this in vitro study PlanScan ® , 3D PROGRESS Plus ® and True Definition Scanner ® may have showed the best performances, all I.O.S.s tested could provide clinically encouraging results especially in terms of marginal accuracy, since mean marginal gap values were all within the clinically acceptable threshold of 120 μm.

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This study presents the comprehensive elemental profile of Greek Graviera (Gruyère) cheeses. In total, 105 samples from nine different geographic regions produced from sheep, goat and cow milk and their mixtures were assessed. Elemental signatures of 61 elements were investigated for determination of geographic origin and milk type. Regional and milk type classification through Linear Discriminant Analysis was successful for almost all cases, while a less optimistic cross validation exercise presented lower classification rates. That points to further research using a much larger sample set, increasing confidence for cheese authentication utilizing also bioinformatics tools under development. This is the first study reporting signatures of 61 elements in dairy products including all sixteen rare earth elements and all seven precious metals. Safety and quality were assessed regarding toxic and nutritive elements. According to both EU and USA regulations and directives, Graviera is a nutritional source for trace and macro elements with low levels of toxic elements.

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Porphyrins show great promise for future purification demands. This is largely due to their unique features as host binding molecules that can be modified at the synthetic level, and largely improved by their incorporation into inorganic based materials. In this study, we assessed the efficacy of a hybrid material obtained from the immobilization of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)-porphyrin on silica surface to remove Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) ions from water. The new organic-inorganic hybrid adsorbent was fully characterized by adequate techniques and the results show that the hybrid exhibits good chemical and thermal stability. From batch assays, it was evaluated how the efficacy of the hybrid was affected by the pH, contact time, initial metal concentration, and temperature. The adsorption kinetic and isotherms showed to fit the recent developed fractal-like pseudo-second-order model and Langmuir⁻Freundlich model respectively. The highest adsorption capacities for Pb(II), Cu(II), Cd(II), and Zn(II) ions were 187.36, 125.17, 82.45, and 56.23 mg g-1, respectively, at pH 6.0 and 25 °C. This study also shows that metal cations from real river water samples can be efficient removed in the presence of the new adsorbent material.

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Poly(cyclohexylene dimethylene cyclohexanedicarboxylate) (PCCE) is a kind of copolyester polymer with excellent toughness and outstanding flexibility. However, the opacity caused by crystallization limits the widespread application of PCCE in products that have transparency requirements. The effects of 1,3:2,4-Di-p-methylbenzylidene sorbitol (MDBS) on the crystallization behavior, transparency, and mechanical properties of a PCCE melt were investigated via differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), spectrophotometry, and tensile testing. The results suggest that the transparency and mechanical properties of PCCE drastically improve and that its crystallization behaviors are obviously influenced by the addition of MDBS. PCCE with 0.6 wt% MDBS was then selected as a representative sample, and its thermal behavior and crystal morphology were further investigated by DSC, hot-staged polarizing microscopy (HSPLM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The quantitative results suggest that, compared to neat PCCE resin, PCCE/MDBS has a lower isothermal and nonisothermal crystallization activation energy, which indicates a rapid crystallization process. The results also show that, compared to the pure PCCE melt, the PCCE/MDBS melt experiences a greater increase in the number of crystals and a greater decrease in the crystal size during cooling. The acceleration of the crystallization process and reduction in crystal size can be both attributed to the nucleation effect of the MDBS. In conclusion, because the addition of the nucleating agent improves the transparency and tensile properties of PCCE by adjusting and controlling its thermal and crystallization behaviors, the proposed technique of using a compounding nucleating agent to control crystallization is therefore suitable for PCCE.

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MicroRNA (miRNA) is small RNA of 20 to 22 nucleotides in length and is stably present in plasma. Regulating the expression of miRNA taken into cells has been suggested as a general therapeutic approach. We identified the novel anti-inflammatory miRNA hsa-miR-766-3p and investigated its biological function in human rheumatoid arthritis (RA) fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A cells. To verify the function of the miRNA present in the plasma of RA patients, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the miRNA expression during abatacept treatment and identified eight miRNAs with significantly altered expression levels. Among these eight miRNAs, miR-766-3p was found to have a clear function. The expression of inflammatory genes in response to inflammatory stimuli was suppressed in MH7A transduced with miR-766-3p. We showed that miR-766-3p indirectly reduced the activation of NF-κB and clarified that this mechanism was partially involved in the reduction of the mineralocorticoid receptor expression. In addition, the inflammatory responses were suppressed in other types of cells. These results indicate the novel function of miR-766-3p, findings that may aid in the development of therapies to suppress inflammation, not only in RA but also in other diseases.

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The toxicity, especially the transgenerational toxicity of quantum dots (QDs) in vivo, is still scarcely understood in spite of great promising applications of QDs in biomedicine. In this study, the maternal status, pregnancy outcome, and fetus development of parental generation (P0) to offspring in three generations (F3) were investigated after Kunming mice perinatal (GD 13-PND 5) exposure to Cd containing QDs (CdSe/ZnS QDs) and CdCl₂. The results show CdSe/ZnS QDs induced placenta injuries in P0 and diminished placenta diameters in F1 and F2. Bodyweight growth decreased in the CdSe/ZnS QDs treatment group in the F1 and F2 generation. Additionally, CdSe/ZnS QDs significantly altered the expression of key genes in the Shh signal pathway. Overall, this study exhibited that the CdSe/ZnS QDs exposure during perinatal period impaired placenta growth in the first two generations, but not on the third generation. The toxicological actions of the CdSe/ZnS QDs might be through the effects on the Shh signal pathway.