SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

23

A 54-year-old African-American man presented with 2 years of progressively worsening dyspnea and anasarca. Over the past 6 months he gained 30 lbs with worsening lower extremity, abdominal wall, and scrotal edema. A recent workup for cardiac, renal, and liver disease, including two-dimensional echocardiogram, liver and renal function tests, and abdominal ultrasound, was unremarkable. He reported a 15-pack year history of smoking and quit 3 years ago. Chest radiograph at that time revealed bilateral pleural effusions that were both reportedly milky in appearance when drained by thoracenteses.

Concepts: Medical imaging, Organ, Liver function tests, Pleural effusion, Peritoneum, Thorax, Abdominal cavity

23

Given its proximity to northern Africa, southern Spain is regularly affected by high-altitude African intrusions. This determines a well-defined wind dynamics at surface levels. Although this weather event-mainly recorded in spring and summer-coincides with the flowering season of many wind pollinated species, its potential influence on long term airborne pollen transport has been not investigated in detail. We analyse their influence on olive pollen transport at surface level in south Spain. Daily and bi-hourly olive pollen data from 2010 to 2015, recorded at two sites 150km apart, Málaga (coast) and Córdoba (inland), were analysed together with 1) air masses at 300m above ground level (m.a.g.l.), 2) surface wind direction and 3) surface wind speed over the same period. Air masses at 3000m.a.g.l. were used to identify the periods under the influence of African intrusions. The combined analysis has enabled the identification of different pollen patterns and source contributions. In Málaga, hourly pollen peaks were recorded during the early morning coinciding with the arrival of north-westerly winds (developing sea-land breezes), with a minimal impact of local pollen sources; in Córdoba, by contrast, pollen concentrations reflected the joint contribution of local and long term sources, being the maximum concentrations associated with the arrival of southerly air masses in the afternoon. These results help to understand the potential distant sources and back-trajectories of olive pollen detected. In our case pollen from sources located at the west-northwest areas in the case of Malaga, and from the south in Cordoba. These results reinforce the idea that combined studies between synoptic meteorological and aerobiological data together with different atmospheric height air masses data, offer us a better explanation and understanding of the behaviour and the potential sources of recorded airborne data in a given place.

Concepts: Weather, Transport, Spain, Meteorology, Southern United States, Wind, Wind power, Wind speed

23

A detailed investigation was conducted to study heavy metal contamination in road dust from four regions of Xi'an, Northwest China. The concentrations of eight heavy metals Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn and V were determined by X-Ray Fluorescence. The mean concentrations of these elements were: 30.9mgkg(-1) Co, 145.0mgkg(-1) Cr, 54.7mgkg(-1) Cu, 510.5mgkg(-1) Mn, 30.8mgkg(-1) Ni, 124.5mgkg(-1) Pb, 69.6mgkg(-1) V and 268.6mgkg(-1) Zn. There was significant enrichment of Pb, Zn, Co, Cu and Cr based on geo-accumulation index value. Multivariate statistical analysis showed that levels of Cu, Pb, Zn, Co and Cr were controlled by anthropogenic activities, while levels of Mn, Ni and V were associated with natural sources. Principle component analysis and multiple linear regression were applied to determine the source apportionment. The results showed that traffic was the main source with a percent contribution of 53.4%. Natural sources contributed 26.5%, and other anthropogenic pollution sources contributed 20.1%. Clear heavy metal pollution hotspots were identified by GIS mapping. The location of point pollution sources and prevailing wind direction were found to be important factors in the spatial distribution of heavy metals.

Concepts: Regression analysis, Statistics, Multivariate statistics, Lead, Heavy metal music, Wind, Heavy metal, Tungsten

23

This short historical overview explains the development of enhanced recovery from a small group of surgeons in European academic centers to the establishment of ERAS(®)Society, a not-for-profit multiprofessional multidisciplinary medical-academic society, reaching all major continents and involving a wide range of surgical and anesthesia disciplines.

Concepts: Surgery, Physician, Anesthesia, Al-Andalus, Surgeon, ASA physical status classification system, Humanities

23

In recent years, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has emerged as an efficient tool for arthropod identification. Its application for field monitoring of adult mosquitoes was demonstrated, but identification of larvae has been limited to laboratory-reared specimens. Study aim was to test the success of MALDI-TOF MS in correctly identifying mosquito larvae collected in the field. Collections were performed at 13 breeding sites in urban areas of Marseille, a city in the South of France. A total of 559 larvae were collected. Of these, 73 were accurately morphologically identified, with confirmation either by molecular identification (n = 31) or analysis with MALDI-TOF MS (n = 31) and 11 were tested using both methods. The larvae identified belonged to six species including Culiseta longiareolata, Culex pipiens pipiens, Culex hortensis, Aedes albopictus, Ochlerotatus caspius and Anopheles maculipennis. A high intra-species reproducibility and inter-species specificity of whole larva MS spectra was obtained and was independent of breeding site. More than 92% of the remaining 486 larvae were identified in blind tests against the MS spectra database. Identification rates were lower for early and pupal stages, which is attributed to lower protein abundance and metamorphosis, respectively. The suitability of MALDI-TOF MS for mosquito larvae identification from the field has been confirmed.

Concepts: Mass spectrometry, Insect, Larva, Arthropod, Mosquito, Aedes, Culicidae, Culiseta longiareolata

23

The present study aimed to describe change in feeding intentions and predictors of breast-feeding intentions during the course of pregnancy.

Concepts: Present, Time, Pregnancy, Childbirth, Infant, Breastfeeding

23

The purpose of present approach is to target C-Type lectin (CTL) receptors for preferential uptake by the macrophages/dendritic cells and improving the cross-presentation of ovalbumin.

Concepts: Immune system, Immunotherapy, Cancer immunotherapy

23

The aim of this study is to examine the elevation of MYOC in long-term treatment of human trabecular meshwork (HTM) cells using dexamethasone (DEX) encapsulated pentablock (PB) copolymer-based nanoparticles (NPs) (DEX-PB-NPs).

Concepts: In vitro fertilisation, In vitro, Trabecular meshwork, Dexamethasone

23

Splenic ectopic pregnancy refers to the implantation of the oosperm in the spleen. If not diagnosed early, the results of this phenomenon would almost certainly be splenic rupture, which is equivalent to the spontaneous rupture of the spleen. If the patient has no history of trauma, it is difficult to diagnose this condition early and an explicit diagnosis is often obtained by exploratory laparotomy. We report the case of a 27-year-old woman who was admitted to the hospital due to abdominal pain and hemorrhagic shock. Under emergency general anesthesia, gynecologist and hepatobiliary surgeons worked together to conduct an exploratory laparotomy. It was confirmed during surgery that this was ectopic pregnancy in the spleen, which caused rupture of the spleen. Hence, splenectomy was conducted. Postoperative recovery was good.

Concepts: Pregnancy, Diagnosis, Hospital, Surgery, Obstetrics, Greek loanwords, Spleen, Splenectomy

23

Although oral contraceptives (OCs) are the most common treatment in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), their effects and safety on the metabolic profiles of these patients are relatively unknown. In this meta-analysis the effects of the different durations (from 3months to 1year) of OC treatment using cyproterone acetate (CA) or third generation progestins on metabolic profile of patients with PCOS were assessed.

Concepts: Syndromes, Menstrual cycle, Polycystic ovary syndrome