SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

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Long-term mechanical circulatory support (LT-MCS) is an important treatment modality for patients with severe heart failure. Different devices are available, and many-sometimes contradictory-observations regarding patient selection, surgical techniques, perioperative management and follow-up have been published. With the growing expertise in this field, the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery (EACTS) recognized a need for a structured multidisciplinary consensus about the approach to patients with LT-MCS. However, the evidence published so far is insufficient to allow for generation of meaningful guidelines complying with EACTS requirements. Instead, the EACTS presents an expert opinion in the LT-MCS field. This expert opinion addresses patient evaluation and preoperative optimization as well as management of cardiac and non-cardiac comorbidities. Further, extensive operative implantation techniques are summarized and evaluated by leading experts, depending on both patient characteristics and device selection. The faculty recognized that postoperative management is multidisciplinary and includes aspects of intensive care unit stay, rehabilitation, ambulatory care, myocardial recovery and end-of-life care and mirrored this fact in this paper. Additionally, the opinions of experts on diagnosis and management of adverse events including bleeding, cerebrovascular accidents and device malfunction are presented. In this expert consensus, the evidence for the complete management from patient selection to end-of-life care is carefully reviewed with the aim of guiding clinicians in optimizing management of patients considered for or supported by an LT-MCS device.

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The hydrogenated black TiO2 is receiving ever-increasing atten-tion, primarily due to the ability of capturing low energy photons in the solar spectrum and the highly efficient redox reactivity for solar-driven water splitting. However, an in-depth understanding of the physical insight into the redox reactivity is still missing. In this work, we conducted the density functional theory (DFT) study based on the model obtained from spectroscopic and aber-ration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (AC-STEM) characterizations to reveal the synergy of H heteroatoms located at different surface sites where six-coordinated Ti (Ti6C) atom is converted from an inert trapping site to an interchange site of the photoexcited electrons. This in-depth understanding may be applicable to the rational design of highly efficient solar-harvesting catalysts.

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Two new zirconium based metal-organic frameworks with the composition [Zr6O4(OH)4(OAc)6(BDC)3] (CAU-26) and [Zr5O4(OH)4(OAc)4(BDC)2] (CAU-27) are reported, which were synthesized from acetic acid, a rarely utilized but green and sustainable solvent (BDC2-: 1,4-benzenedicarboxylate). Structure determination aided by automated electron diffraction tomography revealed that CAU-26 is composed of layers of well-known {Zr6O8} clusters interconnected by terephthalate ions. In contrast CAU-27 exhibits a three dimensional structure with a so far unknown type of one-dimensional inorganic building unit (IBU), which can be rationalized as condensed polyhedron-sharing chains of {Zr6O8} clusters. CAU-26 occurs as an intermediate of the CAU-27 synthesis and can be isolated easily, when reaction temperature and time are decreased. We were also able to synthesize two isoreticular derivatives of CAU-27 with extended linker molecules by implementing 4,4'-biphenyldicarboxylic acid (H2BPDC) and 5,5'-dicarboxy-2,2'-bipyridine (H2BIPY). All materials show high thermal and chemical stability as well as permanent microporosity. The excellent stability of CAU-27-BIPY was exploited to synthesize a performant iridium-supported heterogeneous MOF-based catalyst for the direct C-H borylation of arenes.

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To find more effective test and intervention measures, and to achieve the first 90 of the 90-90-90 target, this study was conducted for the first time to develop and assess an innovative HIV anonymous urine test service-based vending machine and Internet at universities of China. From June to December 2016, 11 vending machines were placed in 7 pilot universities in Beijing, Sichuan, Yunnan and Heilongjiang provinces. A total of 957 HIV urine collection kits were dispensed free and also through vending machines and 378 (39.5%) urine samples were returned and 376 (99.5%) of them were qualified to be tested for HIV antibody in professional laboratories. Participants searched for confidential test results using an ID code online. Only seven (1.86%) urine samples were positive. Monitoring data showed 67.8% (255/376) participants searched for test results online, 72.2% of kits were purchased in dormitory buildings and 27.8% were purchased in teaching buildings and 88.9% were purchased between 21:00 and 24:00. In conclusion, this study analyzes the acceptability, feasibility and effectiveness of HIV testing and intervention service.

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Isochorismate synthase (ICS) plays an essential role in the accumulation of salicylic acid (SA) and plant disease resistance. Diseases caused by Botryosphaeria dothidea (B. dothidea) affect apple yields. Thus, it is important to understand the role of ICS1 in disease resistance to B. dothidea in apple. In this study, SA treatment enhanced the resistance to B. dothidea. MdICS1 was induced by B. dothidea and enhanced the resistance to B. dothidea. MdICS1 promoter analysis indicated that the W-box was vital for the response to B. dothidea treatment. MdWRKY15 was found to interact with the W-box using yeast one-hybrid screening. Subsequently, the interaction was confirmed by EMSA, yeast one-hybrid, ChIP-PCR and quantitative PCR assays. Moreover, luciferase and GUS analysis further indicated that MdICS1 was transcriptionally activated by MdWRKY15. Finally, we found the function of MdWRKY15 in the resistance to B. dothidea was partially dependent on MdICS1 from the phenotype of transgenic apples and calli. In summary, we revealed that MdWRKY15 activated the transcription of MdICS1 by directly binding to its promoter to increase the accumulation of SA and the expression of disease-related genes, thereby resulting in the enhanced resistance to B. dothidea in the SA biosynthesis pathway. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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Designing hollow/porous structure is regarded as an effective approach to address the dramatic volumetric variation issue for Si-based anode materials in Li-ion batteries (LIBs). Pioneer works mainly focused on acid/alkali etching to create hollow/porous structures, which are, however, highly corrosive and may lead to complicated synthetic process. In this paper, a dual carbon conductive networks encapsulated hollow SiOx (DC-HSiOx) is fabricated through a green route where polyacrylic acid is adopted as an eco-friendly soft template. Low electrical resistance and integrated electrode structure can be maintained during cycles due to the dual carbon conductive networks distributed both on the surface of single particle formed by amorphous carbon and among particles constructed by reduced graphene oxide. Importantly, hollow space is reserved within SiOx spheres to accommodate the huge volumetric variation and shorten the transport pathway of Li+ ions. As a result, the DC-HSiOx composite delivers a large reversible capacity of 1113 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1, an excellent cycling performance up to 300 cycles with capacity retention of 92.5% at 0.5 A g-1, and a good rate capability. Furthermore, the DC-HSiOx//LiNi0.8Co0.1Mn0.1O2 full cell exhibits high energy density (419 Wh kg-1) and superior cycling performance. These results render an opportunity for the unique DC-HSiOx composite as a potential anode material for use in high-performance LIBs.

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Hypercholesterolemia is a main risk factor of cardiovascular disease. Probiotics are a safe approach to reduce elevated cholesterol without any deleterious effect to human health. Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 probiotic properties are well documented in a context of intestinal dysbiosis. Recent in vitro and preclinical studies have suggested its potential effects on dyslipidemia. This is the first controlled study investigating the effects of S. boulardii CNCM I-745 on lipidemic profile and gut microbiota in a hamster hypercholesterolemic model. Daily administration (3 g/kg) of S. boulardii for 21 or 39 days in hamsters fed a 0.3% cholesterol-diet significantly reduced total plasma cholesterol (P<0.001) and increased faecal total cholesterol (P<0.05) compared to vehicle-treated animals. S. boulardii significantly modified the gut microbiota composition of the hamster fed a 0.3% cholesterol-diet. These microbial abundancy modifications of the microbiota were correlated to variations of lipidemic values or liver genes expressions. In particularly we found that abundance of g_Allobaculum, the most modified taxon after S. boulardii treatment (+236%; P<0.05), was correlated to variations in plasmatic lipoproteins level and ABCG5 hepatic gene expression. We also observed a not previously described correlation between the levels of g_Oxalobacter in the gut microbiota and total cholesterol plasma concentration. In conclusion, we confirmed the cholesterol-lowering effects of S. boulardii intake and we demonstrated for the first time the S. boulardii effect on gut microbiota in the context of hypercholesterolemia in hamsters. Our results provide new insights for a beneficial and safe approach of hypercholesterolemia treatment and could be considered for clinical development, alone or in addition to conventional treatment.

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The development of high-efficiency and low-cost organic emissive materials and devices is intrinsically limited by the energy-gap law and spin statistics, especially in the near-infrared (NIR) region. A novel design strategy is reported for realizing highly efficient thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials via J-aggregates with strong intermolecular charge transfer (CT). Two organic donor-acceptor molecules with strong and planar acceptor are designed and synthesized, which can readily form J-aggregates with strong intermolecular CT in solid states and exhibit wide-tuning emissions from yellow to NIR. Experimental and theoretical investigations expose that the formation of such J-aggregates mixes Frenkel excitons and CT excitons, which not only contributes to a fast radiative decay rate and a slow nonradiative decay rate for achieving nearly unity photoluminescence efficiency in solid films, but significantly decreases the energy gap between the lowest singlet and triplet excited states (≈0.3 eV) to induce high-efficiency TADF even in the NIR region. These organic light-emitting diodes exhibit external quantum efficiencies of 15.8% for red emission and 14.1% for NIR emission, which represent the best result for NIR organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) based on TADF materials. These findings open a new avenue for the development of high-efficiency organic emissive materials and devices based on molecular aggregates.

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This study discusses the influence of six bulking materials (peat, bark, oat husks, sawdust, food waste, and wheat bran) on the composting of blackwater solids (feces, urine and toilet paper) from low flush vacuum toilets (0.8 L/flush). The focus was on faecal indicator reduction, nutrient recycling, and carbon dioxide and methane emissions. In a composting experiment lasting 60 days, bulking materials were combined and mixed with blackwater solids, composted without stirring and with controlled aeration in a bench scale experiment. The bulking materials combination of oat husks, wheat bran and bark and of oat husks and wheat bran composted with blackwater solids showed the best results in terms of faecal indicator reduction (2.8 log10 reduction of Escherichia coli and 3.2 log10 reduction of faecal streptococci, respectively). Oat husks, bark and wheat bran combination had the smallest nutrient losses of 7.5% total nitrogen, 3.8% total phosphorus and 28% total potassium, while the highest accumulation in total phosphorus was 76.4% occurred in the mixture with oat husks and wheat bran. Peat and food waste improved the sorption of ammonia. The highest methane emissions (average 15.4%) were detected after 28 days of composting in the mixture with bran and food waste. Methane and carbon dioxide levels decreased in all the mixtures towards the end of composting indicating high organic matter degradation. Our findings show that a variety of natural and inexpensive materials can be used and adapted when composing blackwater in remote and sensitive areas.

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Inflammation and insomnia are two types of symptoms very likely occur in life, seriously perplexing people’s work and life. How to alleviate these symptoms is an urgent medical problem. Lucidone D (LUC) is a terpene from the ethanol extract of Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body. Triterpenoids are also the main pharmacological components of Ganoderma lucidum. In recent years, people pay more and more attention to its anti-inflammatory effect. In this study, LPS induced RAW264.7 macrophage inflammatory response model was used to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of LUC. The results showed that LUC could significantly inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators NO, which may play a role by down-regulating the expression level of iNOS and COX-2 proteins. Meanwhile, the production of TNF-α and IL-6 was significantly inhibited. These results indicate that LUC has obvious anti-inflammatory activity. Writhing and sedation tests in ICR male mice showed that LUC showed significant analgesic and sedative effects. In conclusion, these results suggest the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and sedative effects of LUC in vitro and in vivo.