SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

166

To determine patient, institution, and machine characteristics that contribute to variation in radiation doses used for computed tomography (CT).

142

To evaluate the associations between adiposity measures (body mass index, waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio) with decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and with all cause mortality.

132

Artificial intelligence is likely to perform several roles currently performed by humans, and the adoption of artificial intelligence-based medicine in gastroenterology practice is expected in the near future. Medical image-based diagnoses, such as pathology, radiology, and endoscopy, are expected to be the first in the medical field to be affected by artificial intelligence. A convolutional neural network, a kind of deep-learning method with multilayer perceptrons designed to use minimal preprocessing, was recently reported as being highly beneficial in the field of endoscopy, including esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, and capsule endoscopy. A convolutional neural network-based diagnostic program was challenged to recognize anatomical locations in esophagogastroduodenoscopy images, Helicobacter pylori infection, and gastric cancer for esophagogastroduodenoscopy; to detect and classify colorectal polyps; to recognize celiac disease and hookworm; and to perform small intestine motility characterization of capsule endoscopy images. Artificial intelligence is expected to help endoscopists provide a more accurate diagnosis by automatically detecting and classifying lesions; therefore, it is essential that endoscopists focus on this novel technology. In this review, we describe the effects of artificial intelligence on gastroenterology with a special focus on automatic diagnosis, based on endoscopic findings.

132

Endoscopic transpapillary or transanastomotic pancreatic duct drainage (PD) is the mainstay of drainage in symptomatic pancreatic duct obstruction or leakage. However, transpapillary or transanastomotic PD can be technically difficult due to the tight stricture or surgically altered anatomy (SAA), and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided PD (EUS-PD) is now increasingly used as an alternative technique. There are two approaches in EUS-PD: EUS-guided rendezvous (EUS-RV) and EUS-guided transmural drainage (EUS-TMD). In cases with normal anatomy, EUS-RV should be the first approach, whereas EUS-TMD can be selected in cases with SAA or duodenal obstruction. In our literature review, technical success and adverse event rates were 78.7% and 21.8%, respectively. The technical success rate of EUS-RV appeared lower than EUS-TMD due to the difficulty in guidewire passage. In future, development of dedicated devices and standardization of EUS-PD procedure are necessary.

50

To assess the association between intake of non-sugar sweeteners (NSS) and important health outcomes in generally healthy or overweight/obese adults and children.

22

The impact of diabetes on perioperative outcomes remains incompletely understood. Our purpose is to evaluate post-operative complications and mortality in patients with diabetes. Using the institutional and clinical databases of three university hospitals from 2009⁻2015, we conducted a matched study of 16,539 diabetes patients, aged >20 years, who underwent major surgery. Using a propensity score matching procedure, 16,539 surgical patients without diabetes who underwent surgery were also selected. Logistic regressions were used to calculate the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for post-operative complications and in-hospital mortality associated with diabetes. Patients with diabetes had a higher risk of postoperative septicemia (OR 1.33, 95% CI 1.01⁻1.74), necrotizing fasciitis (OR 3.98, 95% CI 1.12⁻14.2), cellulitis (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.46⁻3.03), acute pyelonephritis (OR 1.86, 95% CI 1.01⁻3.41), infectious arthritis (OR 3.89, 95% CI 1.19⁻12.7), and in-hospital mortality (OR 1.51, 95% CI 1.07⁻2.13) compared to people without diabetes. Previous admission for diabetes (OR 2.33, 95% CI 1.85⁻2.93), HbA1c >8% (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.64⁻2.33) and fasting glucose >180 mg/dL (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.68⁻2.16) were predictors for post-operative adverse events. Diabetes patients who underwent surgery had higher risks of infectious complications and in-hospital mortality compared with patients without diabetes who underwent similar major surgeries.

22

Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is well established for treating patients with severe aortic stenosis considered at intermediate to high surgical risk. Blood disorders such as anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acquired type 2A von Willebrand disease are relatively frequent in TAVR candidates, and multiple studies to date have highlighted their potential clinical association with mortality and/or bleeding complications post-TAVR. The present review provides an overview of various blood disorders observed pre- and post-TAVR, with special focus on their incidence, etiology, clinical association, and management.

22

Background/Study context: Posture and gait are complex sensorimotor functions affected by age. These difficulties are particularly apparent when performing cognitively demanding tasks. Characterizing the functional organization of brain networks involved in these associations remains a challenge because of the incompatibility of brain imagery techniques with gross body movements. The present study aimed at testing whether resting-state functional connectivity of sensorimotor networks is associated with posture and gait performance recorded offline, in young and older adults.

22

The global climate change-induced abiotic and biotic stresses are predicted to affect crop-growing seasons and crop yield. Heat stress transcription factors (Hsfs) have been suggested to play a significant role in various stress responses. They are an integral part of the signal transduction pathways that operate in response to environmental stresses. Brassica oleracea is one of the agronomical important crop species which consists of cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussels sprout, kohlrabi and kale. The identification and roles of Hsfs in this important Brassica species are unknown. The availability of whole genome sequence of B. oleracea provides us an opportunity for performing in silico analysis of Hsf genes in B. oleracea. Thirty-five putative genes encoding Hsf proteins were identified and classified into A, B and C classes. Their evolution, physical location, gene structure, domain structure and tissue-specific expression patterns were investigated. Further, a comparative analysis of the Hsf gene family in B. oleracea, B. rapa and B. napus highlighted the role of hybridisation and allopolyploidy in the evolution of the largest known Hsf gene family in B. napus. The presence of orthologous gene clusters, found in Brassica species, but not in A. thaliana, suggested that polyploidisation has resulted in the formation of new Brassica-specific orthologous gene clusters. Gene duplication analysis indicated that the evolution of the Hsf gene family was under strong purifying selection in these Brassica species. High-level synteny was observed within the B. napus genome. Conservation of physical location, the similarity of structure and similar expression profiles between the B. napus Hsf genes and the corresponding genes from B. oleracea and B. rapa suggest a high functional similarity between these genes. This study paves the way for further investigation of Hsf genes in improving stress tolerance in B. oleracea. The genes thus identified may be useful for developing crop varieties resilient to the global climate change.

22

Recently, the evaluation of spontaneous tail movement (STM) in zebrafish embryos has been proposed as a possible neurotoxicity marker in studies on behavioral changes due to chemical exposure. Currently, automated STM quantification can only be performed using high-cost commercial software. We have developed a simple and reliable MATLAB® script called ZebraSTM that allows the automatic analysis of STM in multiple zebrafish embryos.