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Concept: Zingiber


The rhizomes of Zingiber officinale (ginger) have been used since ancient times as a traditional remedy for gastrointestinal complaints. The most active ingredients in ginger are the pungent principles, particularly gingerols and shogaols. Various preclinical and clinical studies have evaluated ginger as an effective and safe treatment for nausea and vomiting in the context of pregnancy and as an adjuvant treatment for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Here, we provide an update and analysis of ginger use for the prevention of nausea and vomiting, with a focus on the types and presentations of ginger available. We also examine the pharmacokinetic properties of ginger and highlight the type and posology of ginger and its metabolites.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Clinical trial, Effectiveness, Pharmacokinetics, Nausea, Ginger, Morning sickness, Zingiber


Ginger, Zingiber officinale Roscoe, is a common spice and also a widely used medicinal plant in ancient China. Ginger is an ingredient of Ge-Gen-Tang (Kakkon-to; GGT). GGT has been proved to have antiviral activity against human respiratory syncytial virus (HRSV). However, it is unknown whether ginger is effective against HRSV.

Concepts: Cell, Organism, Respiratory system, Human respiratory syncytial virus, Ginger, Zingiberaceae, Spice, Zingiber


Nausea and vomiting in early pregnancy (NVEP) is commonly encountered in family medicine. Ginger (Zingiber officinale) is a popular nonpharmacological treatment but consensus of its use is lacking.

Concepts: Vomiting, Nausea, Ginger, Morning sickness, Zingiberaceae, Zingiber, Motion sickness, Seasickness


6-Gingerol, a major pungent component of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe, Zingiberaceae), has been reported to have antitumor activities. However, the metabolic fate of 6-gingerol and the contribution of its metabolites to the observed activities are still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the biotransformation of 6-gingerol in different cancer cells and in mice, purified and identified the major metabolites from human lung cancer cells, and determined the effects of the major metabolites on the proliferation of human cancer cells. Our results show that 6-gingerol is extensively metabolized in H-1299 human lung cancer cells, CL-13 mouse lung cancer cells, HCT-116 and HT-29 human colon cancer cells, and in mice. The two major metabolites in H-1299 cells were purified and identified as (3R,5S)-6-gingerdiol (M1) and (3S,5S)-6-gingerdiol (M2) based on the analysis of their 1D and 2D NMR data. Both metabolites induced cytotoxicity in cancer cells after 24 h, with M1 having a comparable effect to 6-gingerol in H-1299 cells.

Concepts: Cancer, Metastasis, Lung cancer, Cancer staging, Colorectal cancer, Ginger, Zingiberaceae, Zingiber


The study was carried out to determine the effect of ginger on the plasma pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin and Isoniazid in a rat model in phase 1. The effects of the herb on the penetration of ciproflacin and Isoniazid into the lung tissues were also determined in phase 2. In phase 1, Albino rats of both sexes (n = 20) were divided into 4 groups of 5 rats per group. Two groups received oral ciprofloxacin (20 mg/kg) and isoniazid (15 mg/kg). Other groups were fed with ginger (5 mg/kg) for 10 days followed by the drug administration on the 11th day. Blood samples were collected from each group at 0-, 0.5-, 1-, 2-, 5-, 8-, 12-, and 24-hour intervals. Plasma concentrations of the drugs were determined by a spectrophotometric method and the pharmacokinetic parameters determined using noncompartmental method as implemented in the winNonlin program. In phase 2, where the effects of the herb on the penetration of the drugs were determined, the concentrations of ciprofloxacin and isoniazid attained in the lung fluid of rats in the presence and absence of the herb were compared after a single oral dose of the drugs used in the same dose range as in phase 1. In the first phase, treatment with ginger significantly increased the area under the concentration-time curve of ciprofloxacin, whereas Vz and Cl were decreased. Ginger significantly decreased the area under the concentration-time curve of isoniazid, whereas Vz and Cl were increased. Ginger enhanced the penetration of ciprofloxacin and Isoniazid into the lung tissues; however, their rates of penetration were delayed.

Concepts: Pharmacology, Rat, Pharmacokinetics, Herb, Ginger, Zingiberaceae, Spice, Zingiber


The essential oils of ginger (Zingiber officinale) and turmeric (Curcuma longa) contain a large variety of terpenoids, some of which possess anticancer, antiulcer, and antioxidant properties. Despite their importance, only four terpene synthases have been identified from the Zingiberaceae family: (+)-germacrene D synthase and (S)-β-bisabolene synthase from ginger rhizome, and α-humulene synthase and β-eudesmol synthase from shampoo ginger (Zingiber zerumbet) rhizome. We report the identification of 25 mono- and 18 sesquiterpene synthases from ginger and turmeric, with 13 and 11, respectively, being functionally characterized. Novel terpene synthases, (-)-caryolan-1-ol synthase and α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene synthase, which is responsible for formation of the major sesquiterpenoids in ginger and turmeric rhizomes, were also discovered. These suites of enzymes are responsible for formation of the majority of the terpenoids present in these two plants. Structures of several were modeled, and a comparison of sets of paralogs suggests how the terpene synthases in ginger and turmeric evolved. The most abundant and most important sesquiterpenoids in turmeric rhizomes, (+)-α-turmerone and (+)-β-turmerone, are produced from (-)-α-zingiberene and (-)-β-sesquiphellandrene, respectively, via α-zingiberene/β-sesquiphellandrene oxidase and a still unidentified dehydrogenase.

Concepts: Terpene, Ginger, Rhizome, Curcuma, Turmeric, Zingiberaceae, Zingiber, Zingiber zerumbet


Monogenean infections of commercially farmed fishes are responsible for significant economic losses and existing chemical therapeutants, often stressful to the fish, pose associated risks. As part of a recent trend to move towards the use of alternative, plant-based remedies for commonly occurring aquaculture-related diseases, the efficiency of ginger (Zingiber officinale) was investigated against the monogenean parasite Gyrodactylus turnbulli in the guppy. In vitro trials revealed the clear anti-parasitic effects of ginger. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts, prepared from freeze dried ginger, were tested. An increase in extract concentration was associated with reduced time to parasite immobilisation, with ethanolic extract being more efficient; at 75 and 200ppt aqueous ginger extract parasites died at 65.6±2.8 and 1.8±0.2min, respectively, whereas at 5 and 40ppt ethanolic extract parasites died at 26.1±0.7 and 4.9±0.3min, respectively. Bathing G. turnbulli-infected fish in ethanolic ginger extract (i.e. 5 and 7.5ppt for 90 and 30min, respectively) significantly reduced infection prevalence and intensity when compared to the water and ethanol controls. The higher concentration (i.e. 7.5ppt) proved as equally effective as Praziquantel, the conventionally used chemical treatment for gyrodactylosis, with the fish appearing to be completely cleared of the infection in both cases. Oral treatments of G. turnbulli-infected guppies with diets supplemented with 10 and 20% ginger powder proved to be ineffective in decreasing parasite load. These findings demonstrate that immersion in ginger extract offers an effective, alternative treatment against monogenean infection in fish.

Concepts: Disease, Parasites, Guppy, Ginger, Tetrahydrogestrinone, Poeciliidae, Poecilia, Zingiber


The potential effect of ginger on platelet aggregation is a widely-cited concern both within the published literature and to clinicians; however, there has been no systematic appraisal of the evidence to date.

Concepts: Systematic review, Platelet, Dustin Thomason, Ginger, Zingiberaceae, Zingiber, Ginger beer


Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication of long-standing diabetes. Several complex interconnecting biochemical pathways are activated in response to hyperglycemia. These pathways culminate into proinflammatory and angiogenic effects that bring about structural and functional damage to the retinal vasculature. Since Zingiber officinale (ginger) is known for its anti-inflammatory and antiangiogenic properties, we investigated the effects of its extract standardized to 5% 6-gingerol, the major active constituent of ginger, in attenuating retinal microvascular changes in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

Concepts: Nutrition, Diabetes mellitus, Obesity, Retina, Diabetic retinopathy, Ginger, Hyperglycemia, Zingiber


Antibiotic usage in animals as a growth promoter is considered as public health issue due to its negative impact on consumer health and environment. The present study aimed to evaluate effectiveness of herbal residue (ginger, Zingiber officinale, dried rhizome powder) and prebiotic (inulin) as an alternative to antibiotics by comparing fecal microflora composition using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. The grower pigs were offered feed containing antibiotic (tetracycline), ginger and inulin separately and un-supplemented group served as control. The study revealed significant changes in the microbial abundance based on operational taxonomic units (OTUs) among the groups. Presumptive identification of organisms was established based on the fragment length of OTUs generated with three restriction enzymes (MspI, Sau3AI and BsuRI). The abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Eubacterium oxidoreducens, Selonomonas sp., Methylobacterium sp. and Denitrobacter sp. was found significantly greater in inulin supplemented pigs. Similarly, the abundance of OTUs representing Bacteroides intestinalis, Selonomonas sp., and Phascolarcobacterium faecium was found significantly greater in ginger supplemented pigs. In contrast, the abundance of OTUs representing pathogenic microorganisms Atopostipes suicloacalis and Bartonella quintana str. Toulouse was significantly reduced in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The OTUs were found to be clustered under two major phylotypes; ginger-inulin and control-tetracycline. Additionally, the abundance of OTUs was similar in ginger and inulin supplemented pigs. The results suggest the potential of ginger and prebioticsto replace antibiotics in the diet of grower pig.

Concepts: Bacteria, Gut flora, Enzyme, Antibiotic, Microorganism, Restriction fragment length polymorphism, Ginger, Zingiber