Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Zest


Citrus has an extended juvenile phase and trees can take 2-20 years to transition to the adult reproductive phase and produce fruit. For citrus variety development this substantially prolongs the time before adult traits, such as fruit yield and quality, can be evaluated. Methods to transform tissue from mature citrus trees would shorten the evaluation period via the direct production of adult phase transgenic citrus trees.

Concepts: Citrus, Fruit, Orange, Grapefruit, Citron, Rutaceae, Zest, Pomelo


Protective effects of sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) peel and their bioactive compounds on oxidative stress were investigated. According to HPLC-DAD and HPLC-MS/MS analysis, hesperidin (HD), hesperetin (HT), nobiletin (NT), and tangeretin (TT) were present in water extracts of sweet orange peel (WESP). The cytotoxic effect in 0.2mM t-BHP-induced HepG2 cells was inhibited by WESP and their bioactive compounds. The protective effect of WESP and their bioactive compounds in 0.2mM t-BHP-induced HepG2 cells may be associated with positive regulation of GSH levels and antioxidant enzymes, decrease in ROS formation and TBARS generation, increase in the mitochondria membrane potential and Bcl-2/Bax ratio, as well as decrease in caspase-3 activation. Overall, WESP displayed a significant cytoprotective effect against oxidative stress, which may be most likely because of the phenolics-related bioactive compounds in WESP, leading to maintenance of the normal redox status of cells.

Concepts: Adenosine triphosphate, Antioxidant, Reactive oxygen species, Citrus, Fruit, Orange, Zest, Hesperidium


In the present work, molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) microspheres were packed in polypropylene hollow fiber (HF) segments for the micro solid-phase extraction and clean-up of thiabendazole (TBZ) in citrus samples. Experimental parameters affecting TBZ extraction were carefully optimized. Hollow fiber membrane was able to protect MIP beads from solid matrix allowing the extraction and clean-up without the inclusion of further filtration and/or centrifugation steps. Under optimum experimental conditions, recoveries for TBZ at 0.83 mg kg-1 concentration level ranged from 5.1 to 6.1%, depending upon the sample analyzed (orange or lemon peel samples), with relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 4%. The limits of detection were 0.004 mg kg-1 in orange and 0.009 mg kg-1 in lemon, low enough for the determination of TBZ according to European Union legislation.

Concepts: Citrus, Orange, Lemon, Citron, Rutaceae, Zest, Peel, Marmalade


The influence of natural, hot-air and infrared drying on chemical composition and bioactivity of lemon peel essential oil are investigated in this study. The results showed that drying resulted in losses or increases of some components or production of some new substances, but the d-limonene (59.52-70.01%) was found as the main component of essential oil. Drying brought about decreases in the yield, antioxidant and antibacterial activity of essential oil. However, the natural drying had little effect, while the hot-air and infrared drying resulted in significant decreases in these parameters, especially at the higher temperature. The yield was the lowest under hot-air drying (60 °C) and decreased by 78%, while infrared drying (60 °C) sample exhibited the lowest antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Infrared drying was easier to lead to the decrease in bioactivity than hot-air drying at the same temperature. These results provided the theoretical basis for drying lemon peel.

Concepts: Thermodynamics, Citrus, Orange, The Higher, Essential oil, Lemon, Zest


Glucosylated forms of tyramine and some of its N-methylated derivatives are here reported for the first time to occur in Citrus genus plants. The compounds tyramine-O-β-d-glucoside, N-methyltyramine-O-β-d-glucoside, and N,N-dimethyltyramine-O-β-d-glucoside were detected in juice and leaves of sweet orange, bitter orange, bergamot, citron, lemon, mandarin, and pomelo. The compounds were identified by mass spectrometric analysis, enzymatic synthesis, and comparison with extracts of Stapelia hirsuta L., a plant belonging to the Apocynaceae family in which N,N-dimethyltyramine-O-β-d-glucoside was identified by others. Interestingly, in Stapelia hirsuta we discovered also tyramine-O-β-d-glucoside, N-methyltyramine-O-β-d-glucoside, and the tyramine metabolite, N,N,N-trimethyltyramine-O-β-glucoside. However, the latter tyramine metabolite, never described before, was not detected in any of the Citrus plants included in this study. The presence of N-methylated tyramine derivatives and their glucosylated forms in Citrus plants, together with octopamine and synephrine, also deriving from tyramine, supports the hypothesis of specific biosynthetic pathways of adrenergic compounds aimed to defend against biotic stress.

Concepts: Citrus, Fruit, Orange, Essential oil, Lemon, Citron, Rutaceae, Zest


Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments belonging to the flavonoid family. They are typically present in the flesh and peel in the blood orange cultivars. Although blood orange young shoots and flowers are not anthocyanin-colored, lemon, citron, rangpur lime, and Meyer lemon young shoots and flowers exhibit marked pigmentation due to anthocyanins, demonstrating that anthocyanin biosynthesis in the Citrus genus is tissue- and genotype-dependent. This study aimed to examine the qualitative and quantitative anthocyanin profile of fruit and other tissues from different Citrus species.

Concepts: Citrus, Qualitative research, Fruit, Orange, Lemon, Citron, Rutaceae, Zest


The objective of this study is to check the regulation of crystal matrix proteins and inflammatory mediators by citrus bioflavonoids (CB) and Lemon peel (LP) extract in hyperoxaluric rats. The animals were divided into six groups with 6 animals each. Group 1: Control, Group 2: Urolithic (Ethylene glycol (EG)-0.75%); Group 3& 5: Preventive study (EG + CB (20 mg/kg body weight) and LP (100 mg/kg body weight) extract administration from 0th-7th week) respectively; Group 4 & 6: Curative study (EG + CB and LP extract administration from 4th-7th week) respectively by oral administration. Urinary lithogenic factors (Calcium, oxalate, phosphate and citrate) were normalized in CB & LP supplemented rats, while serum parameters revealed the nephroprotective nature of the intervening agents compared to urolithic rats (p < 0.001). Immunoblotting studies showed significantly increased expression of THP, osteopontin and transferrin in kidneys of urolithic rats (p < 0.001), while preventive and curative study showed near normal expression of these proteins. Expression of NF-κB, TNF-α and IL-6 were raised significantly (p < 0.001), while a very minimal increase in MCP-1 expression was observed in urolithic rats compared to control. Hence, supplementation of CB and LP reduced the crystal promoting factors and provides protection from crystal induced renal damage.

Concepts: DNA, Kidney, Gene, Citrus, Orange, Ethylene glycol, Lemon, Zest


Chlorophyll degradation naturally occurs during plant senescence. However, in fruit such as citrus, it is a positive characteristic, since degreening is an important colour development contributing to fruit quality. In the present work, Citrus sinensis Osbeck, cv. Newhall fruit was used as a model for chlorophyll degradation. An ethylene response factor, CitERF13, was isolated and its transcriptional changes were closely correlated with fruit peel degreening during development or in response to ethylene. Dual luciferase and yeast one-hybrid assays, as well as motif mutation, indicated that CitERF13 directly binds to the CitPPH promoter and enhances its activity. Transient and stable over-expression of CitERF13 resulted in rapid chlorophyll degradation in Nicotiana tabacum leaves and led to accumulation of pheophorbide (Pheide) a, a metabolite of pheophorbide hydrolase (PPH). Similar results were observed from transient transformation of CitERF13 in citrus fruit peel. Moreover, this function of CitERF13 was conserved within Arabidopsis and tomato, as the homologs AtERF17 and SlERF16 similarly acted as activators of PPH genes and accelerators of chlorophyll degradation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Citrus, Fruit, Orange, Copyright, Grapefruit, Zest, Peel, Hesperidium


Fruit cuticle, which is composed of cutin and wax and biosynthesized during fruit development, plays important roles in the prevention of water loss and the resistance to pathogen infection during fruit development and postharvest storage. However, the key factors and mechanisms regarding the cuticle biosynthesis in citrus fruits are still unclear. Here, fruit cuticle of ‘Newhall’ navel orange (Citrus sinensis Osbeck) was studied from the stage of fruit expansion to postharvest storage from the perspectives of morphology, transcription and metabolism. The results demonstrated that cutin accumulation is synchronous with fruit expansion, while wax synthesis is synchronous with fruit maturation. Metabolic profile of fruits peel revealed that transition of metabolism of fruit peel occurred from 120 to 150 DAF and ABA was predicted to regulate citrus wax synthesis during the development of Newhall fruits. RNA-seq analysis of the peel from the above two stages manifested that the genes involved in photosynthesis were repressed, while the genes involved in the biosynthesis of wax, cutin and lignin were significantly induced at later stages. Further real-time PCR predicted that MYB transcription factor GL1-like regulates citrus fruits wax synthesis. These results are valuable for improving the fruit quality during development and storage.

Concepts: Gene expression, Metabolism, Citrus, Fruit, Orange, Grapefruit, Zest, Hesperidium


Four main flavanone glycosides (FGs) and four main polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs) were determined in fruits of ‘Cara Cara’ navel orange, ‘Seike’ navel orange, ‘Anliu’ and ‘Honganliu’ sweet orange (Citrus sinensis). No bitter neohesperidosides were detected in the FG profiles, indicating the functional inability of 1,2-rhamnosyltransferase, though relatively high transcription levels were detected in the fruit tissues of ‘Anliu’ and ‘Honganliu’ sweet oranges. Different to the FGs, the PMFs only exist abundantly in the peel and decreased gradually throughout fruit development of sweet oranges, suggesting the expression of methylation-related genes accounting for PMF biosynthesis have tissue-specificity. Significant changes in production of the eight flavonoids were found between red-flesh and blonde-flesh sweet oranges, indicating that lycopene accumulation might have direct or indirect effects on the modification of flavonoid biosynthesis in these citrus fruits.

Concepts: Citrus, Fruit, Flavonoid, Orange, Grapefruit, Lemon, Rutaceae, Zest