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Concept: Yield surface


A strategy to halt dissolution of particle-coated air bubbles in water based on interfacial rheology design is presented. Whereas previously a dense monolayer was believed to be required for such an “armored bubble” to resist dissolution, in fact engineering a 2D yield stress interface suffices to achieve such performance at submonolayer particle coverages. We use a suite of interfacial rheology techniques to characterize spherical and ellipsoidal particles at an air-water interface as a function of surface coverage. Bubbles with varying particle coverages are made and their resistance to dissolution evaluated using a microfluidic technique. Whereas a bare bubble only has a single pressure at which a given radius is stable, we find a range of pressures over which bubble dissolution is arrested for armored bubbles. The link between interfacial rheology and macroscopic dissolution of [Formula: see text] 100 [Formula: see text]m bubbles coated with [Formula: see text] 1 [Formula: see text]m particles is presented and discussed. The generic design rationale is confirmed by using nonspherical particles, which develop significant yield stress at even lower surface coverages. Hence, it can be applied to successfully inhibit Ostwald ripening in a multitude of foam and emulsion applications.

Concepts: Volume, Physical chemistry, Design, Elasticity, Linear elasticity, Yield surface


Abstract Objective. This study evaluated the influence of framework material and vertical misfit on stress created in an implant-supported partial prosthesis under load application. Materials and methods. The posterior part of a severely reabsorbed jaw with a fixed partial prosthesis above two osseointegrated titanium implants at the place of the second premolar and second molar was modeled using SolidWorks 2010 software. Finite element models were obtained by importing the solid model into an ANSYS Workbench 11 simulation. The models were divided into 15 groups according to their prosthetic framework material (type IV gold alloy, silver-palladium alloy, commercially pure titanium, cobalt-chromium alloy or zirconia) and vertical misfit level (10 µm, 50 µm and 100 µm). After settlement of the prosthesis with the closure of the misfit, simultaneous loads of 110 N vertical and 15 N horizontal were applied on the occlusal and lingual faces of each tooth, respectively. The data was evaluated using Maximum Principal Stress (framework, porcelain veneer and bone tissue) and a von Mises Stress (retention screw) provided by the software. Results. As a result, stiffer frameworks presented higher stress concentrations; however, these frameworks led to lower stresses in the porcelain veneer, the retention screw (faced to 10 µm and 50 µm of the misfit) and the peri-implant bone tissues. Conclusion. The increase in the vertical misfit resulted in stress values increasing in all of the prosthetic structures and peri-implant bone tissues. The framework material and vertical misfit level presented a relevant influence on the stresses for all of the structures evaluated.

Concepts: Bone, Finite element method, Materials science, Osseous tissue, Partial differential equation, Finite element method in structural mechanics, Canine tooth, Yield surface


We report the development of a stress-responsive colorimetric film that can memorize the stress it has experienced. The system is designed by taking advantage of the plasmonic shift associated with the disassembly of one-dimensional gold nanoparticle chains driven by the plastic deformation of the surrounding polymer matrix. By modifying the plasticity of the polymer, we demonstrate that the plasmonic shift and colorimetric change respond to a large range of stresses. This novel pressure indicating film can be used to capture and record the pressure distribution and magnitude between two contacting or impacting surfaces by outputting color information.

Concepts: Nanoparticle, Polymer, Vector space, Gold, Elasticity, Solid mechanics, Yield surface, Plasticity


Selection for divergent performance optima has been proposed as a central mechanism underlying adaptive radiation. Uncovering multiple optima requires identifying forms associated with different adaptive zones and linking those forms to performance. However, testing and modeling the performance of complex morphologies like the cranium is challenging. We introduce a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the cranium that can be morphed into different shapes by varying simple parameters to investigate the relationship between two engineering-based measures of performance, mechanical advantage and von Mises stress, and four divergent adaptive zones occupied by New World leaf-nosed bats. To investigate these relationships,we tested the fit of Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models of evolution in mechanical advantage and von Mises stress using dated multi-locus phylogenies. The analyses revealed three performance optima for mechanical advantage among species from three adaptive zones: bats that eat nectar; generalized insectivores omnivores and some frugivores; and bats that specialize on hard canopy fruits. Only two optima, one corresponding to nectar feeding, were consistently uncovered for von Mises stress. These results suggest that mechanical advantage played a larger role than von Mises stress in the radiation of New World leaf-nosed bats into divergent adaptive zones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Evolution, Eating, Model, Materials science, All rights reserved, Copyright, Yield surface, Leaf-nosed bat


Understanding and controlling the glass transition temperature (Tg) and dynamics of polymers in confined geometries are of significance in both academia and industry. Here, we investigate how the thermal stress induced by a mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion affects the Tg behavior of polystyrene (PS) nanorods located inside cylindrical alumina nanopores. The size effects and molecular weight dependence of the Tg are also studied. A multi-step relaxation process was employed to study the relationship between thermal stress and cooling rate. At fast cooling rates, the imparted thermal stress would overcome the yield stress of PS and peel chains off the pore walls, while at slow cooling rates, chains are kept in contact with the pore walls due to timely dissipation of the produced thermal stress during vitrification. In smaller nanopores, more PS chains closely contact with pore walls, then stronger internal thermal stress would be generated between core and shell of PS nanorod, which results in a larger deviation between two Tgs. The core part of PS shows lower Tg than bulk value, which can induce faster dynamics in the center region. A complex and important role stress plays is supposed in complex confinement condition, e.g., in nanopores, during vitrification.

Concepts: Temperature, Force, Differential scanning calorimetry, Glass, Glass transition, Elasticity, Linear elasticity, Yield surface


The exceptional mechanical flexibility observed with certain organic crystals defies the common perception of single crystals as brittle objects. Here, we describe the morphostructural consequences of plastic deformation in crystals of hexachlorobenzene that can be bent mechanically at multiple locations to 360° with retention of macroscopic integrity. This extraordinary plasticity proceeds by segregation of the bent section into flexible layers that slide on top of each other, thereby generating domains with slightly different lattice orientations. Microscopic, spectroscopic and diffraction analyses of the bent crystal showed that the preservation of crystal integrity when stress is applied on the (001) face requires sliding of layers by breaking and re-formation of halogen-halogen interactions. Application of stress on the (100) face, in the direction where π···π interactions dominate the packing, leads to immediate crystal disintegration. Within a broader perspective, this study highlights the yet unrecognized extraordinary malleability of molecular crystals with strongly anisotropic supramolecular interactions.

Concepts: Crystal, Chemistry, Elasticity, Solid mechanics, Yield surface, Plasticity, Crystals, Molecular crystal


In this study, the sensitivity of the apparent response of trabecular bone to different constitutive models at the tissue-level was investigated using finite element modeling based on micro-computed tomography. Trabecular bone specimens from porcine femurs were loaded under a uniaxial compression experimentally and computationally. The apparent behaviors computed using von Mises, Drucker-Prager, and Cast Iron plasticity models were compared. Secondly, the effect of bone volume fraction was studied by changing the bone volume fraction of a trabecular bone sample and while keeping the same basic architecture. Also, constitutive models' parameters of the tissue were calibrated for porcine bone and the effects of different parameters on resulting apparent response were investigated through a parametric study. The calibrated effective tissue elastic modulus of porcine trabecular bone was 10±1.2 GPa, which is in the lower range of modulus values reported in the literature for human and bovine trabecular bones (4-23.8 GPa). It was also observed that, unlike elastic modulus, yield properties of tissue could not be uniquely calibrated by fitting an apparent response from simulations to experiments under a uniaxial compression. Our results demonstrated that using these three tissue constitutive models had only a slight effect on the apparent response. As expected, there was a significant change in the apparent response with varying bone volume fraction. Also, both apparent modulus and maximum stress had a linear relation with bone volume fraction.

Concepts: Iron, Effectiveness, Finite element method, Tensile strength, Young's modulus, Elasticity, Yield, Yield surface


The proper choice of coating materials and methods in core-shell nanowire (NW) engineering is crucial to assuring improved characteristics or even new functionalities of the resulting composite structures. In this paper, we have reported electron beam-induced reversible elastic-to-plastic transition in Ag/Al2O3 and Au/Al2O3 NWs prepared by coating of Ag and Au NWs with Al2O3 by low temperature atomic layer deposition. The observed phenomenon enabled freezing the bent core-shell NW at any arbitral curvature below the yield strength of the materials and later restoring its initially straight profile by irradiating the NW with electrons. In addition, we demonstrated that the coating efficiently protects core material from fracture and plastic yield, allowing it to withstand significantly higher deformations and stresses in comparison to uncoated NW.

Concepts: Materials science, Elasticity, Yield, Solid mechanics, Yield surface, Deformation, Plasticity


Conical implant-abutment connections are popular for their excellent connection stability, which is attributable to frictional resistance in the connection. However, conical angles, the inherent design parameter of conical connections, exert opposing effects on 2 influencing factors of the connection stability: frictional resistance and abutment rigidity. This pilot study employed an optimization approach through the finite element method to obtain an optimal conical angle for the highest connection stability in an Ankylos-based conical connection system. A nonlinear 3D finite element parametric model was developed according to the geometry of the Ankylos system (conical half angle = 5.7°) by using the ANSYS 11.0 software. Optimization algorithms were conducted to obtain the optimal conical half angle and achieve the minimal value of maximum von Mises stress in the abutment, which represents the highest connection stability. The optimal conical half angle obtained was 10.1°. Compared with the original design (5.7°), the optimal design demonstrated an increased rigidity of abutment (36.4%) and implant (25.5%), a decreased microgap at the implant-abutment interface (62.3%), a decreased contact pressure (37.9%) with a more uniform stress distribution in the connection, and a decreased stress in the cortical bone (4.5%). In conclusion, the methodology of design optimization to determine the optimal conical angle of the Ankylos-based system is feasible. Because of the heterogeneity of different systems, more studies should be conducted to define the optimal conical angle in various conical connection designs.

Concepts: Finite element method, Operations research, Methodology, Computational fluid dynamics, Optimization, Numerical analysis, Yield surface, Torsion


Nanostructured metals have high strength while they usually exhibit limited uniform elongation. While, a yield strength of approximately 2.1 GPa and a uniform elongation of about 26% were achieved in a severely deformed Fe-24.8%Ni-6.0%Al-0.38%C alloy in the present work. The plastic deformation mechanisms for the coarse-grained (CG) sample and the cold-rolled (CR) samples of this alloy were investigated by a series of mechanical tests and microstructure characterizations before and after tensile tests. No obvious phase transformation was observed during the tensile deformation for the CG sample, and the plastic deformation was found to be mainly accommodated by deformation twins and dislocation behaviors. While significant phase transformation occurs for the CR samples due to the facts that the deformed grains by CR are insufficient to sustain the tensile deformation themselves and the flow stress for the CR samples is high enough to activate the martensite transformation. The amount of phase transformation increases with increasing thickness reduction of CR, resulting in excellent tensile ductility in the severely deformed alloy. The back stress hardening was found to play a more important role in the CR samples than in the CG sample due to the dynamically reinforced heterogeneous microstructure by phase transformation.

Concepts: Tensile strength, Elasticity, Yield, Solid mechanics, Yield surface, Work hardening, Deformation, Dislocation