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Concept: Yield surface


A strategy to halt dissolution of particle-coated air bubbles in water based on interfacial rheology design is presented. Whereas previously a dense monolayer was believed to be required for such an “armored bubble” to resist dissolution, in fact engineering a 2D yield stress interface suffices to achieve such performance at submonolayer particle coverages. We use a suite of interfacial rheology techniques to characterize spherical and ellipsoidal particles at an air-water interface as a function of surface coverage. Bubbles with varying particle coverages are made and their resistance to dissolution evaluated using a microfluidic technique. Whereas a bare bubble only has a single pressure at which a given radius is stable, we find a range of pressures over which bubble dissolution is arrested for armored bubbles. The link between interfacial rheology and macroscopic dissolution of [Formula: see text] 100 [Formula: see text]m bubbles coated with [Formula: see text] 1 [Formula: see text]m particles is presented and discussed. The generic design rationale is confirmed by using nonspherical particles, which develop significant yield stress at even lower surface coverages. Hence, it can be applied to successfully inhibit Ostwald ripening in a multitude of foam and emulsion applications.

Concepts: Volume, Physical chemistry, Design, Elasticity, Linear elasticity, Yield surface


Abstract Objective. This study evaluated the influence of framework material and vertical misfit on stress created in an implant-supported partial prosthesis under load application. Materials and methods. The posterior part of a severely reabsorbed jaw with a fixed partial prosthesis above two osseointegrated titanium implants at the place of the second premolar and second molar was modeled using SolidWorks 2010 software. Finite element models were obtained by importing the solid model into an ANSYS Workbench 11 simulation. The models were divided into 15 groups according to their prosthetic framework material (type IV gold alloy, silver-palladium alloy, commercially pure titanium, cobalt-chromium alloy or zirconia) and vertical misfit level (10 µm, 50 µm and 100 µm). After settlement of the prosthesis with the closure of the misfit, simultaneous loads of 110 N vertical and 15 N horizontal were applied on the occlusal and lingual faces of each tooth, respectively. The data was evaluated using Maximum Principal Stress (framework, porcelain veneer and bone tissue) and a von Mises Stress (retention screw) provided by the software. Results. As a result, stiffer frameworks presented higher stress concentrations; however, these frameworks led to lower stresses in the porcelain veneer, the retention screw (faced to 10 µm and 50 µm of the misfit) and the peri-implant bone tissues. Conclusion. The increase in the vertical misfit resulted in stress values increasing in all of the prosthetic structures and peri-implant bone tissues. The framework material and vertical misfit level presented a relevant influence on the stresses for all of the structures evaluated.

Concepts: Bone, Finite element method, Materials science, Osseous tissue, Partial differential equation, Finite element method in structural mechanics, Canine tooth, Yield surface


We report the development of a stress-responsive colorimetric film that can memorize the stress it has experienced. The system is designed by taking advantage of the plasmonic shift associated with the disassembly of one-dimensional gold nanoparticle chains driven by the plastic deformation of the surrounding polymer matrix. By modifying the plasticity of the polymer, we demonstrate that the plasmonic shift and colorimetric change respond to a large range of stresses. This novel pressure indicating film can be used to capture and record the pressure distribution and magnitude between two contacting or impacting surfaces by outputting color information.

Concepts: Nanoparticle, Polymer, Vector space, Gold, Elasticity, Solid mechanics, Yield surface, Plasticity


Selection for divergent performance optima has been proposed as a central mechanism underlying adaptive radiation. Uncovering multiple optima requires identifying forms associated with different adaptive zones and linking those forms to performance. However, testing and modeling the performance of complex morphologies like the cranium is challenging. We introduce a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of the cranium that can be morphed into different shapes by varying simple parameters to investigate the relationship between two engineering-based measures of performance, mechanical advantage and von Mises stress, and four divergent adaptive zones occupied by New World leaf-nosed bats. To investigate these relationships,we tested the fit of Brownian motion and Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models of evolution in mechanical advantage and von Mises stress using dated multi-locus phylogenies. The analyses revealed three performance optima for mechanical advantage among species from three adaptive zones: bats that eat nectar; generalized insectivores omnivores and some frugivores; and bats that specialize on hard canopy fruits. Only two optima, one corresponding to nectar feeding, were consistently uncovered for von Mises stress. These results suggest that mechanical advantage played a larger role than von Mises stress in the radiation of New World leaf-nosed bats into divergent adaptive zones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Evolution, Eating, Model, Materials science, All rights reserved, Copyright, Yield surface, Leaf-nosed bat


Understanding and controlling the glass transition temperature (Tg) and dynamics of polymers in confined geometries are of significance in both academia and industry. Here, we investigate how the thermal stress induced by a mismatch in the coefficient of thermal expansion affects the Tg behavior of polystyrene (PS) nanorods located inside cylindrical alumina nanopores. The size effects and molecular weight dependence of the Tg are also studied. A multi-step relaxation process was employed to study the relationship between thermal stress and cooling rate. At fast cooling rates, the imparted thermal stress would overcome the yield stress of PS and peel chains off the pore walls, while at slow cooling rates, chains are kept in contact with the pore walls due to timely dissipation of the produced thermal stress during vitrification. In smaller nanopores, more PS chains closely contact with pore walls, then stronger internal thermal stress would be generated between core and shell of PS nanorod, which results in a larger deviation between two Tgs. The core part of PS shows lower Tg than bulk value, which can induce faster dynamics in the center region. A complex and important role stress plays is supposed in complex confinement condition, e.g., in nanopores, during vitrification.

Concepts: Temperature, Force, Differential scanning calorimetry, Glass, Glass transition, Elasticity, Linear elasticity, Yield surface


The exceptional mechanical flexibility observed with certain organic crystals defies the common perception of single crystals as brittle objects. Here, we describe the morphostructural consequences of plastic deformation in crystals of hexachlorobenzene that can be bent mechanically at multiple locations to 360° with retention of macroscopic integrity. This extraordinary plasticity proceeds by segregation of the bent section into flexible layers that slide on top of each other, thereby generating domains with slightly different lattice orientations. Microscopic, spectroscopic and diffraction analyses of the bent crystal showed that the preservation of crystal integrity when stress is applied on the (001) face requires sliding of layers by breaking and re-formation of halogen-halogen interactions. Application of stress on the (100) face, in the direction where π···π interactions dominate the packing, leads to immediate crystal disintegration. Within a broader perspective, this study highlights the yet unrecognized extraordinary malleability of molecular crystals with strongly anisotropic supramolecular interactions.

Concepts: Crystal, Chemistry, Elasticity, Solid mechanics, Yield surface, Plasticity, Crystals, Molecular crystal


The stress distributions in a thick welded specimen with a partial repair weld were measured with the three-cut contour method. The longitudinal stress maps in the original weld and the repair weld were obtained and the transverse stress map at the weld centerline in the original weld was acquired. The difference between the longitudinal stress in the partial repair weld and that in the original weld was investigated. Results show that the longitudinal stress increases significantly within the entire repair region with a peak tensile longitudinal stress close to the yield strength of weld material; and the longitudinal stress in the region above the repair weld decreases distinctly after repair; the introduction of the partial repair weld does not affect the stress distribution trend in the original weld (whether it is beyond or above the repair weld), and it has a slight effect on the tensile stress distribution width in the repair region.

Concepts: Force, Tensile strength, Elasticity, Solid mechanics, Linear elasticity, Yield surface, Welding, Residual stress


Nasoalveolar Molding (NAM) is associated with ambivalent acceptance regarding effectiveness and unknown long-term results. Our purpose was to analyze the stress distribution patterns within the viscero- and neurocranium of neonates during the first phase of NAM therapy. A finite element (FE) model of a healthy four-week-old neonate was generated, derived from a computed tomography scan allowing the implementation of a bone-density-dependent material model. The influence of dental germs with variable material properties, the cleft width and area of expected force application were analyzed in a worst-case scenario. The resulting stress distribution patterns for each situation were analyzed using the software Ansys APDL. The established FE model was verified with a convergence analysis. Overall, stress patterns at the age of four weeks showed von Mises stress values below 60.000 Pa in the viscero- and neurocranium. The influences of the allocation of material properties for the dental germs, the area of force application, and the cleft width were negligible. A workflow to simulate the stress distribution and deformation in neonates attributable to various areas of force application has been established. Further analyses of the skulls of younger and older neonates are needed to describe the stress distribution patterns during NAM therapy.

Concepts: Mathematics, Medical imaging, Tomographic reconstruction, Engineering, Continuum mechanics, Materials science, Yield surface, Skull and Bones


BACKGROUND Although aortic valve disease caused by left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support has attracted more and more attention, the precise biomechanical effects of LVAD support level on the aortic valve are still unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS A structural finite element models study was conducted using an ideal aortic valve geometric model. Four different study conditions were designed, according to the reduction of the open duration of the aortic valve. The isotropic hyperelastic constitutive equation was chosen to reflect the mechanical property of the leaflets. The distribution of the stress, strain, and transient dynamics of the leaflet were calculated. RESULTS Along with the increase of LVAD support level, the open duration of the aortic valve was also reduced by the increase of LVAD support (low support level case 0.23 seconds versus middle support level case 0.2 seconds versus high support level case 0.14 seconds). Moreover, along with the increase of support mode of LVAD, the von Mises stress in most leaflet areas was increased from the low stress level (0-0.4 MPa) to the middle region (0.4-0.8 MPa). Once the leaflets were continuously closed, the high stress level (larger than 0.8 MPa) was observed. In contrast, the support level of LVAD only had slight effects on the distribution of von Mises strain. According to the aforementioned results, maintaining the open duration of aortic valve longer than 0.2 seconds could achieve better performance of biomechanical states of leaflets. CONCLUSIONS This study could provide useful information on the determination of optimal LVAD support strategy.

Concepts: Topology, Materials science, Left ventricle, Elasticity, Ventricular assist device, Aortic valve, Linear elasticity, Yield surface


A model of internally-structured emulsion droplets is presented that accounts for the traction forces generated by interfacial tension and the von Mises yield criterion of the internal supporting network. For symmetric droplets, the method calculates the total stress acting on a droplet locally, allowing droplet stability and location of failure to be predicted. It is not regions of high interfacial curvature that prompt droplet reconfiguration, rather regions transitioning from high to low curvature. The model enables the design of emulsion droplet response and reconfigurability to external triggers such as changes in surface tension (surfactant concentration) and temperature.

Concepts: Force, Liquid, Surface tension, Emulsion, Drop, Surfactant, Yield, Yield surface