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Concept: Yangon


A survey was performed to investigate the infection status of zoonotic trematode (ZT) metacercariae in fish from a local market in Yangon City, Myanmar. A total of 264 fish (12 species) were collected through 4 times from December 2013 to June 2015. All collected fish were transferred to our laboratory on ice and examined by the artificial digestion method. More than 7 species of ZT metacercariae, i.e., Haplorchis taichui, H. pumilio, H. yokogawai, Centrocestus spp., Stellantchasmus falcatus, Pygidiopsis cambodiensis, and Procerovum sp. were detected. Metacercariae of H. taichui were collected in 58 (42.3%) out of 137 fish (5 species), and their average density was 42.9 per fish infected. Metacercariae of H. pumilio were detected in 96 (49.0%) out of 196 fish (9 species), and their average density was 23.6 per fish infected. H. yokogawai metacercariae were found in 40 (50.0%) out of 80 fish (5 species), and Centrocestus spp. metacercariae in 91 (50.8%) out of 179 fish (8 species), and their densities were 306 and 25.8 per fish infected, respectively. Metacercariae of S. falcatus and P. cambodiensis were detected only in mullets, Chelon macrolepis. A total of 280 Procerovum sp. metacercariae were found in 6 out of 12 climbing perch, Anabas testudineus. Morphological characteristics of adult flukes recovered from experimental animals were described. It has been first confirmed that fish from Yangon, Myanmar are commonly infected with various species of ZT metacercariae.

Concepts: Density, Water, Anabas testudineus, Relative density, Perciformes, Yangon


Mosquito-borne diseases are prevalent in Myanmar, with the number of dengue cases showing a significant increase in recent years. Dengue vectors have developed resistance to insecticides and currently used larvicides show only short-term effectiveness. As a result, an alternative larvicide is urgently needed. The present study evaluated the larvicidal effectiveness of long-lasting pyriproxyfen resin discs (SumiLarv®2MR) against dengue virus vectors in schools in Hlaing Thar Yar Township, Yangon.

Concepts: Malaria, Mosquito, Aedes aegypti, Aedes, Dengue fever, Insecticide, Larvicide, Yangon


Pseudodiaptomus binghami Sewell, 1912 was first described from the Rangoon River (now Yangon River) estuary, Myanmar. Pseudodiaptomus malayalus Wellershaus, 1969 previously known as P. binghami malayalus, is a typical brackish-water calanoid copepod from Cochin Estuary, Kerala. Morphological examination of P. malayalus and P. binghami collected from Cochin Estuary and the Nambur canal in Andhra Pradesh revealed crucial differences between the two congeners. Female specimens of P. malayalus exhibited marked differences from those described by Wellershaus. They are (1) the number of terminal spines on P5, (2) ornamentation of GS, (3) ornamentation of Ur1-4, (4) length ratio of the Ur and CR segments and (5) length:width ratio of the CR setae. Furthermore, significant and discrete morphological differences were observed between the two Indian species in their P5 and urosome. But the male specimens of P. malayalus did not show any major differences from the original description. In addition, distance matrix data revealed 22% interspecific divergence values which in turn confirmed the status of P. malayalus and P. binghami as two distinct species.

Concepts: Biology, India, Distance, Cytochrome c, Cytochrome c oxidase, Burma, Calanoida, Yangon


Due to the open policy of the Chinese government, a large number of Burmese individuals enter China at land ports in Yunnan province for travel or business. However, the situation of HIV-1 infection and its phylogenetic characteristics among these travelers remains unclear, which is a potential threat to public health. From January 2003 to December 2012, a total of 1,961 travelers were detected to be positive for HIV-1 infection at land ports between Myanmar and Yunnan province, China. From 1153 (58.8%) Burmese of them, we randomly collected 489 serum samples for HIV-1 subtype/recombinant analysis. Based on successfully obtained 223 gag-RT sequences, 187 of them were genotyped as 2 subtypes and 3 CRFs. CRF01_AE was showed to be the most prevalent genotype (54.3%), followed by subtypes C (13.5%) and B (10.8%). Notably, CRF07_BC (1.3%) and CRF08_BC (4.0%) were mainly distributed in travelers from Shan state and Kachin (91.7%, 11/12), but was not found in travelers from the capital city of Yangon (0/16). Additionally, there were 36 samples (16.1%) were preliminary determined as unique recombinant forms (URFs). The higher HIV-1 infection among entering travelers from Myanmar and its diverse and complex genotypes distribution suggest this bridge population may facilitate the transmission of HIV-1. It is necessary to have the strict monitoring on this population for prevention of HIV-1 cross-border transmission. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Southeast Asia, People's Republic of China, Yunnan, Copyright, Burma, Shan State, Yangon, Shan


Many Burmese women have migrated to Yunnan Province and married local residents over the past few decades; however, limited information is available on their HIV prevalence and ability to cope with HIV. This study aims to assess the prevalence of HIV and knowledge related to AIDS, as well as to discover possible risk factors of HIV infection among foreign brides from Burma in Yunnan Province.

Concepts: HIV, AIDS, Immune system, Cytomegalovirus, Yunnan, Malaise, Burma, Yangon


Single amino acid substitutions in the voltage-gated sodium channel associated with pyrethroid resistance constitute one of the main causative factors of knockdown resistance in insects. The kdr gene has been observed in several mosquito species; however, point mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti populations in Myanmar have not been fully characterized. The aim of the present study was to determine the types and frequencies of mutations in the para gene of Aedes aegypti collected from used tires in Yangon City, Myanmar.

Concepts: Protein, Gene, Amino acid, Mosquito, Yellow fever, Aedes aegypti, Aedes, Yangon


Millions of villagers across South and Southeast Asia are exposed to toxic levels of arsenic (As) by drinking well water. In order to confirm the field-kit results that Myanmar is also affected, a total of 55 wells were tested in the field in January 2013 and sampled for laboratory analysis across seven villages spanning a range of As contamination in the lower Ayeyarwady basin. Elevated concentrations of As (50-630 μg/L) were measured in wells up to 60 m deep and associated with high levels of Fe (up to 21 mg/L) and low concentrations of SO4 (<0.05 mg/L). Concentrations of As <10 μg/L were measured in some shallow (<30 m) grey sands and in both shallow and deep orange sands. These results indicate that the main mechanism of As release to groundwater in Myanmar is the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxides, as in the neighboring Bengal, Mekong, and Red River basins. Concentrations of As in groundwater of Myanmar are therefore unlikely to change rapidly over time and switching to existing low-As wells is a viable way of reducing exposure in the short term. However, only 17 of the 55 well owners interviewed correctly recalled the status of their well despite extensive testing in the region. A renewed effort is thus needed to test existing wells and new wells that continue to be installed and to communicate the health risks of exposure to As for infants, children, and adults.

Concepts: Southeast Asia, Water, Drainage basin, Yunnan, Thailand, Water well, Burma, Yangon


Massive rodent population outbreaks occurred in the Ayeyarwady Delta, Myanmar, in July 2009, 15 months after cyclone Nargis. Satellite imagery with high temporal frequency was used to identify the area and planting time of rice at a landscape scale of > 80 000 ha, and household surveys of farmers were conducted to validate the mapping and to quantify losses.

Concepts: Burma, Cyclone Nargis, Yangon, Ayeyarwady Division, Irrawaddy Delta, Karen people, 2008 North Indian Ocean cyclone season


OBJECTIVE: to examine the postpartum beliefs and practices among young women (15-24 years) DESIGN: both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used: a cross-sectional comparative study using a semi-structured questionnaire and focus group discussions (FGDs). SETTING: Kyimyindaing Township in the western district of Yangon, Myanmar. PARTICIPANTS: young women (15-24 years) who had experience of at least one live birth were included. A total of 196 women for a quantitative survey and 31 women for FGDs were recruited. MEASUREMENT AND FINDINGS: postpartum beliefs and practices at the last childbirth were explored by a pretested semi-structured questionnaire and four FGDs (two in urban and two in rural areas). The survey questionnaire covered socio-demographic data, food and behavioural restrictions and observances during the last postpartum period and underlying reasons for those practices. Majority of participants followed the traditional postpartum practices regardless of the area of residence and education level. Notion of ‘dirty lochia’ was identified. KEY CONCLUSIONS: traditional beliefs and practices surrounding post partum were highly prevalent among young women. Variation in degree and duration of adherence to postpartum taboos was noted. These beliefs and practices were imparted and perpetuated by women’s close social network. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: the findings point out the importance of awareness of postpartum beliefs and practices among health staff for providing culturally sensitive health care and gaining better co-operation and mutual understanding in giving health care.

Concepts: Health care, Childbirth, Focus group, Sociology, Qualitative research, Postnatal, Doula, Yangon