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Concept: Xbox 360


Observing social interactions between children and adults is a major method in the toolkit of psychologists who examine social development and social relationships. Although this method has revealed many interesting phenomena, it cannot determine the effect of behavior independent of other traits. Research on the role of attractiveness in social development provides an example of this conundrum: Are attractive and unattractive children/adults treated differently because of their attractiveness (independent of their behavior), do they behave differently and thus elicit differential treatment, or both? Virtual world and avatar-based technologies allow researchers to control the social behaviors of targets; however, whether children and adults use the facial attractiveness of avatars as a social cue in the same way as they do with real peers is currently unknown. Using Mii avatars from the popular Nintendo Wii video game console, Study 1 found that the facial attractiveness ratings of real people strongly predicted the attractiveness ratings of avatar faces based on the former group. Study 2 revealed that adults (n=46) and children (n=42) prefer attractive avatars as social partners. The results of this set of methodological studies may help to clarify future research on the relationship between attractiveness and behavior throughout the lifespan. Furthermore, the use of avatars may allow studies to experimentally examine the effects of attractiveness in situations where such research is not ethical (e.g., peer victimization).

Concepts: Scientific method, Sociology, Behavior, Social relation, Wii, Video game console, Mii, Xbox 360


Limited evidence is available about the effectiveness of virtual reality using low cost commercial consoles for children with developmental delay.

Concepts: Virtual reality, Modality, Video game console, Xbox 360


Large numbers of children and adolescents in Canada, UK and USA are not getting their recommended daily dose of moderate to vigorous physical activity, and are thus more prone to obesity and its ill health effects. Exergames (video games that require physical activity to play) are rapidly gaining user acceptance, and may have the potential to increase physical activity levels among young people. Mobile exergames for GPS (global positioning system)-enabled smartphones and mini-tablets take players outdoors, in the open air, unlike console exergames, e.g., Xbox 360 Kinect exergames, which limit players to playing indoors in front of a TV set. In this paper and its companion ‘Additional file 1’, we review different examples of GPS exergames and of gamified geosocial apps and gadgets (mobile, location-aware apps and devices with social and gamification features), and briefly discuss some of the issues surrounding their use. Further research is needed to document best practices in this area, quantify the exact health and fitness benefits of GPS exergames and apps (under different settings and scenarios), and find out what is needed to improve them and the best ways to promote their adoption by the public.

Concepts: Illness, Navigation, Global navigation satellite system, GPS, Radio navigation, Video game console, Xbox 360, Wide Area Augmentation System


The Microsoft Xbox One Kinect™ (Kinect V2) contains a depth camera that can be used to manually identify anatomical landmark positions in three-dimensions independent of the standard skeletal tracking, and therefore has potential for low-cost, time-efficient three-dimensional movement analysis (3DMA). This study examined inter-session reliability and concurrent validity of the Kinect V2 for the assessment of coronal and sagittal plane kinematics for the trunk, hip and knee during single leg squats (SLS) and drop vertical jumps (DVJ). Thirty young, healthy participants (age = 23 ± 5yrs, male/female = 15/15) performed a SLS and DVJ protocol that was recorded concurrently by the Kinect V2 and 3DMA during two sessions, one week apart. The Kinect V2 demonstrated good to excellent reliability for all SLS and DVJ variables (ICC ≥ 0.73). Concurrent validity ranged from poor to excellent (ICC = 0.02 to 0.98) during the SLS task, although trunk, hip and knee flexion and two-dimensional measures of knee abduction and frontal plane projection angle all demonstrated good to excellent validity (ICC ≥ 0.80). Concurrent validity for the DVJ task was typically worse, with only two variables exceeding ICC = 0.75 (trunk and hip flexion). These findings indicate that the Kinect V2 may have potential for large-scale screening for ACL injury risk, however future prospective research is required.

Concepts: Anatomy, Anatomical terms of location, Flexion, Coronal plane, Sagittal plane, Microsoft, Xbox 360, Xbox


Finding suitable and engaging ways for older people living in long-term care (LTC) to engage in physical activity, to maintain function is challenging. There is a need to explore the use of exergames for LTC residents who have mobility and cognitive impairments. We investigated the effect of a group-based Xbox Kinect (Microsoft Corp., Redmond, WA) exergame program on mobility in LTC residents with and without cognitive impairment.

Concepts: Randomized controlled trial, Pharmaceutical industry, Microsoft, Internet Explorer, Xbox 360, Xbox, Bellevue, Washington, Redmond, Washington


The purpose of this report is to describe the impact of a videogame-based physical activity program using the Kinect for Xbox 360 game system (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) on walking speed in adults with schizophrenia. In this randomized controlled trial, 28 participants played either an active videogame for 30 min (intervention group) or played a sedentary videogame for 30 min (control group), once a week for 6 weeks. Walking speed was measured objectively with the Short Physical Performance Battery at enrollment and at the end of the 6-week program. The intervention group (n = 13) showed an average improvement in walking speed of 0.08 m/s and the control group (n = 15) showed an average improvement in walking speed of 0.03 m/s. Although the change in walking speed was not statistically significant, the intervention group had between a small and substantial clinically meaningful change. The results suggest a videogame based physical activity program provides clinically meaningful improvement in walking speed, an important indicator of health status.

Concepts: Epidemiology, Randomized controlled trial, Control, Walking, Microsoft, Video game console, Xbox 360, Xbox


Exergames appear to be a promising tool to increase energy expenditure and physical fitness. However, less is known about the effect of a single session of an exergame on anxiety state. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a single session of the exergame Zumba(®) Fitness (Xbox 360 Kinect(®)) on the anxiety state of healthy young women.

Concepts: Anxiety disorder, Anxiolytic, Xbox 360


Effective drugs for type 1A Charcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT1A) disease are not available. Various forms of moderate exercise are beneficial, but few data are available on the effectiveness of exercise in CMT1A children.

Concepts: Video game console, Xbox 360


The challenge of describing 3D real scenes is tackled in this paper using qualitative spatial descriptors. A key point to study is which qualitative descriptors to use and how these qualitative descriptors must be organized to produce a suitable cognitive explanation. In order to find answers, a survey test was carried out with human participants which openly described a scene containing some pieces of furniture. The data obtained in this survey are analysed, and taking this into account, the QSn3D computational approach was developed which uses a XBox 360 Kinect to obtain 3D data from a real indoor scene. Object features are computed on these 3D data to identify objects in indoor scenes. The object orientation is computed, and qualitative spatial relations between the objects are extracted. These qualitative spatial relations are the input to a grammar which applies saliency rules obtained from the survey study and generates cognitive natural language descriptions of scenes. Moreover, these qualitative descriptors can be expressed as first-order logical facts in Prolog for further reasoning. Finally, a validation study is carried out to test whether the descriptions provided by QSn3D approach are human readable. The obtained results show that their acceptability is higher than 82%.

Concepts: Psychology, Mathematics, Language, Logic, Object, Programming language, Formal language, Xbox 360


Although the Kinect gaming system (Microsoft Corp, Redmond, WA) has been shown to be of therapeutic benefit in rehabilitation, the applicability of Kinect-based virtual reality (VR) training to improve motor function following a stroke has not been investigated. This study aimed to investigate the effects of VR training, using the Xbox Kinect-based game system, on the motor recovery of patients with chronic hemiplegic stroke.

Concepts: Virtual reality, Microsoft, Video game console, Xbox 360, Xbox, Bellevue, Washington, Redmond, Washington