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Concept: X-linked ichthyosis

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X-Linked ichthyosis (XRI) is a keratinisation disorder caused by a mutation of the steroid sulfatase gene. An association with mental retardation and epilepsy has been reported earlier. Here, we report on a patient suffering from cerebellar symptoms such as yes/yes head tremor, scanning dysarthria, pronounced dysmetria and intention tremor, without any abnormalities of the cerebellum in MRI, in addition to XRI proven by molecular genetics. Furthermore, the patient suffered from anxiety disorder, depression, and a male pattern baldness. One of the patient' s brothers and a nephew showed a similar clinical presentation. Because of the fact that several members of the patient´s family suffered from similar symptoms, we consider a syndromic link between XRI and cerebellar disorder to be possible.

Concepts: DNA, Genetics, Ataxia, Alopecia, Baldness, Androgenic alopecia, X-linked ichthyosis

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X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is a rare dermatological condition arising from deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase (STS). Preliminary evidence in boys with XLI, and animal model studies, suggests that individuals lacking STS are at increased risk of developmental disorders and associated traits. However, the behavioural profile of children with XLI is poorly-characterised, and the behavioural profile of adults with XLI has not yet been documented at all.

Concepts: X-linked ichthyosis

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Recessive X-linked ichthyosis (XLI), the second most common ichthyosis, is caused by mutations in the STS gene encoding the steroid sulfatase enzyme. A complete deletion of the STS gene is found in 85-90% of cases. Rarely, larger deletions involving contiguous genes are detected in syndromic patients. We report the clinical and molecular genetic findings in a series of 35 consecutive Italian male patients. All patients underwent molecular testing by MLPA or aCGH, followed, in case of negative results, by next generation sequencing analysis. Neuropsychiatric, ophthalmological and pediatric evaluations were also performed. Our survey showed a frequent presence of disease manifestations at birth (42.8%). Fold and palmoplantar surfaces were involved in 18 (51%) and 7 (20%) patients, respectively. Fourteen patients (42%) presented neuropsychiatric symptoms, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and motor disabilities. In addition, two patients with mental retardation were shown to be affected by a contiguous gene syndrome. Twenty-seven patients had a complete STS deletion, one a partial deletion and 7 carried missense mutations, two of which previously unreported. In addition, a de novo STS deletion was identified in a sporadic case. The frequent presence of palmoplantar and fold involvement in XLI should be taken into account when considering the differential diagnosis with ichthyosis vulgaris. Our findings also underline the relevance of involving the neuropsychiatrist in the multidisciplinary management of XLI. Finally, we report for the first time a de novo mutation which shows that STS deletion can also occur in oogenesis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: DNA, Genetics, Mutation, Attention, Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, Hyperactivity, Point mutation, X-linked ichthyosis

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X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is a keratinization disorder caused by deficient activity of steroidsulfatase. In contrast, ichthyosis vulgaris is due to semidominant mutations of the filaggrin gene (FLG). In view of phenotypic variations of these ichthyoses we speculated that XLI may be influenced by additional FLG mutations in a significant number of patients. We characterized a group of 51 patients with XLI and systematically analyzed them for additional FLG mutations (R501X, 2282del4, R2447X, S3247X). The study was complemented by morphological analyses. Full FLG sequencing for rare mutations was performed in special cases. Interestingly, prevalence of FLG mutations was significantly increased compared to a population-based control cohort of 1,377 individuals (17.6% vs. 8.4%, p=0.038). Palmoplantar hyperlinearity was significantly associated with the FLG mutation status. Ichthyosis severity score seemed to be increased in XLI with FLG mutations, but the difference was not significant (p=0.124). To our surprise, percentages of atopic manifestations were highly prevalent in both subgroups, 40% and 33% in XLI without and with filaggrin deficiency, respectively. Of note, reduction of filaggrin staining or keratohyalin could not be explained by FLG mutations in all patients. However, we conclude that FLG mutations represent a significant genetic modifier of XLI. [196 words].

Concepts: Genetics, Evolution, Genodermatoses, Ichthyosis, Ichthyosis vulgaris, X-linked ichthyosis, Carvajal syndrome, Filaggrin

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X-linked ichthyosis is a dermatological condition caused by deficiency for the enzyme steroid sulfatase. Previously, X-linked ichthyosis/steroid sulfatase deficiency has been associated with developmental and neurological phenotypes. Here, we show for the first time, that X-linked ichthyosis may be comorbid with an additional psychiatric phenotype (psychosis).

Concepts: Medicine, Phenotype, Psychiatry, X-linked ichthyosis

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X-linked ichthyosis (XLI) is a metabolic disease with steroid sulfatase deficiency and often occurs at birth or shortly after birth. The encoding gene of steroid sulfatase, STS, is located on the short arm of the X chromosome, and STS deletion or mutation can lead to the development of this disease. This study collected the data on the clinical phenotype from a family, and the proband, a boy aged 11 years with full-term vaginal delivery, had dry and rough skin and black-brown scaly patches, mainly in the abdomen and extensor aspect of extremities. Peripheral blood samples were collected from each family member and DNA was extracted. Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) was used to measure the copy number of STS on the X chromosome. Whole-genome microarray was used to determine the size of the segment with microdeletion in the X chromosome. MLPA was then used for prenatal diagnosis for the mother of the proband. The results revealed that the proband and another two male patients had hemizygotes in STS deletion. Gene microarray identified a rare deletion with a size of 1.6 Mb at Xp22.31 (chrX: 6,516,735-8,131,442). Two female family members were found to be carriers. Prenatal diagnosis showed that the fetus carried by the proband’s mother was a carrier of this microdeletion. This study showed STS gene deletion in this family of XLI, which causes the unique skin lesions of XLI. MLPA is a convenient and reliable technique for the molecular and prenatal diagnosis of XLI.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Childbirth, Genetics, Evolution, Chromosome, DNA repair, X-linked ichthyosis

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Steroid sulfatase (STS) gene disruption causes X-linked ichthyosis (XLI). Interrogating the entire genome through chromosomal microarray (CMA), a test primarily used to screen patients with noncutaneous congenital anomalies, may detect STS deletions incidentally.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Bacteria, Genomics, DNA sequencing, Drosophila melanogaster, X-linked ichthyosis

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Steroid sulfatase (STS) deficiency is the underlying cause of the skin condition known as recessive X-linked ichthyosis (RXLI). RXLI patients show scales on their skin caused by high concentrations of cholesterol sulfate (CS), as they are not capable of releasing the sulfate group from its structure to obtain free cholesterol. CS has been reported so far as the sole sulfated steroid with increased concentrations in the blood of RXLI patients. A non-targeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry approach in negative mode detection (LC-MS precursor ion scan mode) was applied to serum samples of 12 RXLI patients and 19 healthy males. We found that CS was not the only sulfated compound consistently elevated in RXLI patients, since a group of compounds with a mass-to-charge ratio of 481 was found in high concentrations, too. Further liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis (LC-MS/MS) demonstrated that the main contributor to the m/z 481 signal in RXLI serum is 27-hydroxycholesterol-3-sulfate (27OHC3S). Accordingly, a new method for 27OHC3S quantification in the context of RXLI has been developed and validated. Other hydroxycholesterol sulfate compounds were elevated as well in RXLI patients.

Concepts: Cholesterol, Mass spectrometry, Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Sulfate, Mass-to-charge ratio, Ichthyosis, X-linked ichthyosis, Steroid sulfatase