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Concept: X-linked agammaglobulinemia


An available supply of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is essential for individuals with primary humoral immunodeficiency. A shortage in 1997 prompted the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to revise guidelines for the licensure, production, and distribution of new IVIG products, including the standardization of United States clinical trials regarding endpoints for safety, efficacy, and pharmacokinetics. The following review is intended to present current information and results of clinical trials in patients with primary immunodeficiency treated with IVIG products currently licensed or awaiting licensure in the United States. The data presented are compiled from published clinical trials and prescribing information generated by manufacturers.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Pharmacology, United States, Pharmaceutical industry, Intravenous immunoglobulin, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, Food and Drug Administration


Kawasaki disease (KD) is the most common pediatric vasculitis. The study aimed to identify the risk factors of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) unresponsiveness from the initial clinical parameters of the Taiwanese KD patients.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Vasculitis, Wegener's granulomatosis, Intravenous immunoglobulin, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, Kawasaki disease


A highly-concentrated (20%) immunoglobulin G (IgG) preparation for subcutaneous administration (IGSC 20%), would offer a new option for antibody replacement therapy in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD). The efficacy, safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of IGSC 20% were evaluated in a prospective trial in Europe in 49 patients with PIDD aged 2 to 67 years. Over a median of 358 days, patients received 2349 IGSC 20% infusions at monthly doses equivalent to those administered for previous intravenous or subcutaneous IgG treatment. The rate of validated acute bacterial infections (VASBIs) was significantly lower than 1 per year (0.022/patient-year, p<0.0001); the rate of all infections was 4.38/patient-year. Median trough IgG concentrations were ≥8g/l. There was no serious adverse event (AE) deemed related to IGSC 20% treatment; related non-serious AEs occurred at a rate of 0.101 event/infusion. The incidence of local related AEs was 0.069 event/infusion (0.036 event/infusion, when excluding a 13 year-old patient who reported 79/162 total related local AEs). The incidence of related systemic AEs was 0.032 event/infusion. Most related AEs were mild, none severe. For 64.6% of patients and in 94.8% of IGSC 20% infusions, no local related AE occurred. The median infusion duration was 0.95 (range: 0.3-4.1) h using mostly 1 to 2 administration sites (median = 2 sites [range: 1-5]). Almost all infusions (99.8%) were administered without interruption/stopping or rate reduction. These results demonstrate that IGSC 20% provides an effective and well-tolerated therapy for patients previously on intravenous or subcutaneous treatment, without the need for dose adjustment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Bacteria, Fc receptor, Immunology, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, Immunodeficiency, Primary immunodeficiency


BACKGROUND: Rituximab has altered the treatment approach to B-cell malignancies and other diseases. Reports consider that rituximab had limited impact on serum immunoglobulins. However, anecdotes suggest that rituximab can cause symptomatic hypogammaglobulinemia. This retrospective study examined the relationship among rituximab, hypogammaglobulinemia, and treatment of symptomatic hypogammaglobulinemia with intravenous immune globulin (IVIG). METHODS: Patients with serial quantitative serum immunoglobulin (SIgG) concentrations before and subsequent to rituximab administration at Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center were identified. Information regarding rituximab administration, SIgG concentrations, frequency of infection, and administration of IVIG were recorded. RESULTS: Between December 1998 and April 2009, 211 patients with B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab and with serial SIgG concentrations were identified. One hundred seventy-nine (85%) patients had normal SIgG before rituximab, 32 (15%) had low SIgG. After rituximab use, hypogammaglobulinemia was identified in 38.54% of patients with initially normal SIgG. The risk was greater in patients who received maintenance rituximab. Symptomatic hypogammaglobulinemia that prompted IVIG administration developed in 6.6% of patients. CONCLUSIONS: In this data set, rituximab administration was associated with a high frequency of hypogammaglobulinemia, particularly symptomatic hypogammaglobulinemia, among patients who received multiple courses of rituximab. Baseline and periodic monitoring of SIgGs is appropriate in patients who receive rituximab.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Humoral immunity, Immunity, Lymphoma, Intravenous immunoglobulin, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, Gamma globulin


A recognized paradigm for the therapeutic action of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) involves up-regulation of the inhibitory Fcγ receptor (FcγRIIB) in splenic macrophages. However, published data have indicated that opposing results are obtained when using FcγRIIB-deficient mice on different strain backgrounds. Herein we show BALB/c FcγRIIB(-/-) and wild-type, with or without spleens, all recover ITP with similar dynamics after IVIG (1 g/kg) treatment; however, this was not the case for C57BL/6 (B6) FcγRIIB(-/-). In investigating this conundrum, we found that wild-type B6 mice are much less sensitive than BALB/c to IVIG-mediated amelioration of ITP, requiring approximately 2- to 2.5-fold more IVIG than BALB/c. When using 2.5 g/kg IVIG in FcγRIIB(-/-) B6 mice, amelioration of ITP was as in wild-type in all animals. Our findings led us to the conclusion that different strains of mice respond differently to IVIG and that FcγRIIB plays no role in the mechanism of effect of IVIG in experimental ITP.

Concepts: Immune system, White blood cell, Antibody, Platelet, Spleen, Intravenous immunoglobulin, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura


We examined seizure, cognitive, and motor outcomes in patients with Rasmussen syndrome or Rasmussen encephalitis (RS), after recent initiation of immunomodulatory therapies. Among 53 patients with a diagnosis of RS referred from all over Japan, 49 patients (male 22, female 27) with symptoms and findings characteristic of RS were evaluated. Regular intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) therapy was administered at a dose of 100mg/kg/day, etc. Regular steroid pulse therapy was conducted with methylprednisolone at a dose of 30mg/kg/day (children) or 1000mg/day (adults) for 3days. Tacrolimus was given at an initial dose of 0.1mg/kg/day (children). Mean onset age was 8.7±10.5years. Seizure-free rate was 71% after treatment by functional hemispherectomy (FH), and response rate for seizures was 81% by regular steroid pulse therapy, 42% by tacrolimus therapy, and 23% by regular IVIg therapy. Rate of patients with IQ higher than 80 (R80) was 50% by regular steroid pulse therapy, 43% by regular IVIg therapy, 29% by tacrolimus therapy, and 0% by FH. R80 after regular steroid pulse therapy was 100% in patients without MRI lesions, and 37% in those with advanced MRI lesions. Improvement of motor function (paresis) was observed only by immunomodulatory therapy. Motor function was aggravated in 100% of patients treated by FH, 62% by regular IVIg, and 10% by regular steroid pulse therapy. We suggest a new treatment strategy for RS using early immunomodulatory therapy: initiation of regular steroid pulse therapy after early diagnosis indicated by biomarkers, then switching to tacrolimus therapy after several months.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Epilepsy, Intravenous immunoglobulin, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, Encephalitis, Hemispherectomy, Rasmussen's encephalitis


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disorder with large annual costs. This study evaluated utilization and costs for the management of MS relapses with H.P. Acthar(®) Gel (repository corticotropin injection; Acthar; Mallinckrodt) compared to receipt of plasmapheresis (PMP) or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) among patients with MS who experienced multiple relapses.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Multiple sclerosis, Autoimmune diseases, Intravenous immunoglobulin, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, Medical treatments, Myasthenia gravis


Resistance to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) occurs in 10-20% of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD). The risk of resistance is about two-fold higher in patients with elevated gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels. We sought to understand the biological mechanisms underlying IVIG resistance in patients with elevated GGT levels.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Glycoproteins, Molecular biology, Intravenous immunoglobulin, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, Medical treatments, Kawasaki disease


To (1) determine the value of the recently proposed criteria of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) spectrum disorder (NMOSD) that unify patients with NMO and those with limited forms (NMO/LF) with aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) antibodies; and (2) investigate the clinical significance of the serologic status in patients with NMO.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Fc receptor, Glycoproteins, Immunology, Multiple sclerosis, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, Serology


Trachoma is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct). It is targeted for global elimination as a public health problem. In 2014, a population-based cross-sectional study was performed in two previously trachoma-endemic areas of The Gambia. Participants of all ages from Lower River Region (LRR) (N = 1028) and Upper River Region (URR) (N = 840) underwent examination for trachoma and had blood collected for detection of antibodies against the Ct antigen Pgp3, by ELISA. Overall, 30 (1.6%) individuals had active trachoma; the prevalence in children aged 1-9 years was 3.4% (25/742) with no statistically significant difference in prevalence between the regions. There was a significant difference in overall seroprevalence by region: 26.2% in LRR and 17.1% in URR (p < 0.0001). In children 1-9 years old, seroprevalence was 4.4% in LRR and 3.9% in URR. Reversible catalytic models using information on age-specific seroprevalence demonstrated a decrease in the transmission of Ct infection in both regions, possibly reflecting the impact of improved access to water, health and sanitation as well as mass drug administration campaigns. Serological testing for antibodies to Ct antigens is potentially useful for trachoma programmes, but consideration should be given to the co-endemicity of sexually transmitted Ct infections.

Concepts: Immune system, Antibody, Epidemiology, Bacteria, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, Serology, Chlamydia trachomatis, Divisions of The Gambia