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Concept: Wire


An essential element in the web-trap architecture, the capture silk spun by ecribellate orb spiders consists of glue droplets sitting astride a silk filament. Mechanically this thread presents a mixed solid-liquid behavior unknown to date. Under extension, capture silk behaves as a particularly stretchy solid, owing to its molecular nanosprings, but it totally switches behavior in compression to now become liquid-like: It shrinks with no apparent limit while exerting a constant tension. Here, we unravel the physics underpinning the unique behavior of this “liquid wire” and demonstrate that its mechanical response originates in the shape-switching of the silk filament induced by buckling within the droplets. Learning from this natural example of geometry and mechanics, we manufactured programmable liquid wires that present previously unidentified pathways for the design of new hybrid solid-liquid materials.

Concepts: Calculus, Liquid, Surface tension, Arachnid, Spider silk, Spider, Wire, Mechanical


Ag core MP35N (Ag/MP35N) wire has been used in lead electric conductor wires in the medical device industry for many years. Recently it was noticed that the combination of silver and MP35N restricts its wire drawing process. The annealing temperature in Ag/MP35N has to be lower than the melting temperature of pure Ag (960°C), which cannot fully anneal MP35N. The lower annealing temperature results in a highly cold worked MP35N, which significantly reduces Ag/MP35N ductility. The embrittlement phenomenon of Ag/MP35N cable was observed in tension and bending deformation. The effect of the embrittlement on the wire flex fatigue life was evaluated using a newly developed flex fatigue testing method. The Ag/MP35N cable fatigue results was analyzed with a Coffin-Manson approach and compared to the MP35N cable fatigue results. The root causes of the Ag/Mp35N embrittlement phenomenon are discussed.

Concepts: Copper, Silver, Steel, Wire, Cable, Ductility, Wire drawing


PURPOSE: Cerclage technology is regaining interest due to the increasing number of periprosthetic fractures. Different wiring techniques have been formerly proposed and have hibernated over years. Hereby, they are compared to current cerclage technology. METHODS: Seven groups (n = 6) of different cable cerclage (Ø1.7 mm, crimp closure) configurations (one single cerclage looped once around the shells, one single cerclage looped twice, two cerclages each looped once) and solid wire cerclages (Ø1.5 mm, twist closure) (same configurations as cable cerclages, and two braided wires, twisted around each other looped once) fixed two cortical half shells of human femoral shaft mounted on a testing jig. Sinusoidal cyclic loading with constantly increasing force (0.1 N/cycle) was applied starting at 50 N peak load. Cerclage pretension (P), load leading to onset of plastic deformation (D) and load at total failure (T) were identified. Statistical differences between the groups were detected by univariate ANOVA. RESULTS: Double looped cables (P442N ± 129; D1334N ± 319; T2734N ± 330) performed significantly better (p < 0.05) than single looped cables (P292N ± 56; D646N ± 108; T1622N ± 171) and were comparable to two single cables (P392N ± 154; D1191N ± 334; T2675N ± 361). Double looped wires (P335N ± 49; D752N ± 119; T1359N ± 80) were significantly better (p < 0.05) than single looped wires (P181N ± 16; D343N ± 33; T606N ± 109) and performed similarly to single looped cables. Braided wires (P119N ± 26; D225N ± 55; T919N ± 197) exhibited early loss of pretension and plastic deformation. CONCLUSION: Double looped cerclages provided a better fixation stability compared to a single looped cerclage. Double looped wires were comparable to a single looped cable. The use of braided wires could not be recommended mechanically.

Concepts: Solid mechanics, Wire, Transformer, Electrical wiring, Cable, Cables


Hammertoe digital deformity correction is a very controversial topic among foot and ankle surgeons. Hammertoes are characterized by an extension deformity at the metatarsophalangeal joint (MTPJ) and flexion deformity at the proximal interphalangeal joint (PIPJ). Current treatment options are often guided by the patient’s discomfort as well as the reducibility of the affected digit. Kirschner wires (K-wires) have long been considered the gold standard for hammertoe digital repair. Although K-wires are simplistic to use as fixation, they carry inherit risks such as pin tract infections, migration, and breakage. This has lead to multiple intramedullary hammertoe devices including the PROTOE intramedullary device. This paper will discuss the usage and benefits the PROTOE has to offer over the conventional K - wire. Level of Evidence: IV.

Concepts: Foot, Device, Knee, Joints, Wire, Kirschner wire, Hammer toe


SUMMARY:: Although Kirschner wires (K-wires) are useful implants in many situations, migration of the wire and irritation of the surrounding soft tissues are common complications. Seven steps are described herein which result in a K-wire that is bent 180°, providing a smooth anchor into bone. Use of this technique produces implants that provide stable fixation with few soft tissue complications.

Concepts: Soft tissue sarcoma, Tissues, Implants, Orthopedic surgery, Soft tissue, Wire, Ilizarov apparatus, Kirschner wire


Insight into crumpling or compaction of one-dimensional objects is important for understanding biopolymer packaging and designing innovative technological devices. By compacting various types of wires in rigid confinements and characterizing the morphology of the resulting crumpled structures, here, we report how friction, plasticity and torsion enhance disorder, leading to a transition from coiled to folded morphologies. In the latter case, where folding dominates the crumpling process, we find that reducing the relative wire thickness counter-intuitively causes the maximum packing density to decrease. The segment size distribution gradually becomes more asymmetric during compaction, reflecting an increase of spatial correlations. We introduce a self-avoiding random walk model and verify that the cumulative injected wire length follows a universal dependence on segment size, allowing for the prediction of the efficiency of compaction as a function of material properties, container size and injection force.

Concepts: Fundamental physics concepts, Force, Space, Materials science, Classical mechanics, Point, Wire, Torsion


We fabricated flexible, transparent, and conductive metal grids as Transparent Conductive Materials (TCM) with adjustable properties by direct nanoimprinting of self-assembling colloidal metal nanowires. Ultrathin gold nanowires (diameter below 2 nm) with high mechanical flexibility were confined in a stamp and readily adapted to its features. During drying, the wires self-assembled into dense bundles that percolated throughout the stamp. The high aspect ratio and the bundling yielded continuous, hierarchical superstructures that connected the entire mesh even at low gold contents. A soft sintering step removed the ligand barriers but retained the imprinted structure. The material exhibited high conductivities (sheet resistances down to 29 Ω/sq) and transparencies that could be tuned by changing wire concentration and stamp geometry. We obtained TCMs that are suitable for applications such as touch screens. Mechanical bending tests showed a much higher bending resistance than commercial ITO: conductivity dropped by only 5.6 % after 450 bending cycles at a bending radius of 5 mm.

Concepts: Ratio, Copper, Solar cell, Electrical conductivity, Aspect ratio, Wire, Flexible, Flexible electronics


We encountered two cases that resulted in unusual deflection of the protruded struts after proximal optimization technique (POT) with side branch (SB) dilation in coronary bifurcation stenting, when the guide wires recrossed into proximal cells of the struts overhung in the SB ostium. In one case, POT before SB dilation enabled adequate strut expansion with some deflection toward the distal SB, and subsequent SB dilation completed this deflection. In another case, POT after SB dilation resulted in the deflection toward distal main branch, opposite side of the previous case. The sequence of adequate POT dilation before SB dilation confirmation of guide wire recrossing point in 3-dimentional optical coherence tomography are crucial to prevent unexpected deflection of protruded struts.

Concepts: Optics, Case, Wire, Angie Stone


Self assembling wire networks typically evolve to minimize the resistance across electrical contacts which are frequently used in a manner comparable to Hebbian learning. In this work, we demonstrate that electrical fields can also be used to cause an increase in the resistance of the wire network. We show that if such a wire is exposed to a transverse electric field, the wire is deformed in a way that depends on it’s tensile strength. We measure the wire resistance as a function of transverse field for several field strengths and show that by deforming the wire, the amplitude of the resulting shape can be modified in a controllable fashion. At a critical value of the transverse field, we show that the wire loses stability. At this point we observe thresholding behavior in that the resistance increases abruptly to a maximum value and the wire is destroyed. This thresholding behavior suggests that self assembled wires may be manipulated via an transverse electric field and demonstrates that a mechanism exists for the destruction of undesirable connections.

Concepts: Electromagnetism, Electric charge, Electromagnetic field, Fundamental physics concepts, Tensile strength, Critical point, Faraday's law of induction, Wire


The control of domain walls in magnetic wires underpins an emerging class of spintronic devices. Propagation of these walls in imperfect media requires defects that pin them to be characterized on the nanoscale. Using a magnetic microscope based on a single nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center in diamond, we report domain-wall imaging on a 1-nanometer-thick ferromagnetic nanowire and directly observe Barkhausen jumps between two pinning sites spaced 50 nanometers apart. We further demonstrate in situ laser control of these jumps, which allows us to drag the domain wall along the wire and map the pinning landscape. Our work demonstrates the potential of NV microscopy to study magnetic nano-objects in complex media, whereas controlling domain walls with laser light may find an application in spintronic devices.

Concepts: Magnetic field, Light, Paramagnetism, Magnetism, Ferromagnetism, Antiferromagnetism, Wire, Domain wall