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Concept: Winter Olympic Games


Violent death is a serious problem in the US. Previous research showing US rates of violent death compared with other high-income countries used data that are more than a decade old.

Concepts: United States, U.S. state, Olympic Games, Canada, Mexico, Humid subtropical climate, Winter Olympic Games, Passenger vehicles in the United States


Transcatheter aortic-valve replacement (TAVR) has had a profound effect on the management of structural heart disease, as evidenced by the fact that since 2010 the Journal has featured six reports on pivotal registries or randomized TAVR trials.(1)-(6) The effect can also be assessed by the incredible growth in the number of procedures. The Transcatheter Valve Therapy Registry, launched by the Society of Thoracic Surgeons and the American College of Cardiology, has enrolled approximately 35,000 patients who have been treated with commercially approved devices at 376 centers in 49 states in the United States alone. The rapid growth of this . . .

Concepts: Hospital, Heart, United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Olympic Games, Humid subtropical climate, Winter Olympic Games


Rio de Janeiro in Brazil will host the Summer Olympic Games in 2016. About 400,000 non-immune foreign tourists are expected to attend the games. As Brazil is the country with the highest number of dengue cases worldwide, concern about the risk of dengue for travelers is justified.

Concepts: Olympic Games, Rio de Janeiro, Winter Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, 2008 Summer Olympics, 2012 Summer Olympics, 2016 Summer Olympics, 2020 Summer Olympics


The laboratory anti-doping services during XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic Games in Sochi in 2014 were provided by a satellite laboratory facility. In total, 2134 urine and 479 blood samples were analyzed during Olympic Games (OG), and 403 urine and 108 blood samples-during Paralympic Games (PG). The number of erythropoietin tests requested in urine was 946 and 166 at the OG and PG, respectively. Several adverse analytical findings have been reported including pseudoephedrine (1), methylhexaneamine (4), trimetazidine (1), dehydrochloromethyltestosterone (1), clostebol (1), and a designer stimulant N-ethyl-1-phenylbutan-2-amine (1.).

Concepts: Olympic Games, Russia, Winter Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, Paralympic Games, World Wheelchair and Amputee Games, Special Olympics, 2014 Winter Olympics


The objective is to briefly review air pollution and its effects on athletes' health and performance and to examine air quality (AQ) at specific Olympic Summer Games between 1964 and 2008. It will focus on any attempts made by the cities hosting these Olympics to improve AQ for the Games and if undertaken, how successful these were.

Concepts: United States, Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, Ancient Olympic Games, 2008 Summer Olympics, International Olympic Committee, Athens


Initial 14-m start performance has substantial influence on 500 m race outcome at the international level yet the relationship has not been systematically quantified. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship between rank position entering first corner (RPEFC) and race outcome and to understand how this relationship changes with competition round and absolute race intensity. Data were compiled from 2011-2014 World Cup seasons and 2010 and 2014 Olympic Winter Games. Association between RPEFC and race outcome was determined through Kendall’s tau rank correlations. A visual comparison was made of how the relationship changes with relative competition level (race tau correlations were sorted by competition round), and with race intensity (race tau correlations were sorted by within-event winning time). A very large relationship between RPEFC and race outcome was observed (correlations for; cohort: T=0.60, men: T=0.53 and women: T=0.67). When examined by competition round (quarter- to A-finals), no substantial change in relationship was observed (men: T=0.57 to 0.46; and women: T=0.73 to 0.53). However, when the start performance relationship was considered by within-event winning time, the relationship strength increased with decreasing time (men: T=0.61 to T=0.46; women: T=0.76 to T=0.57, fastest to 7th and 8th fastest combined respectively). These results establish and quantify RPEFC as an important aspect of elite short track 500 m race outcome. RPEFC as an indicator of race outcome becomes increasingly important with absolute race intensity suggesting that RPEFC capability is a discriminating factor for competitors of similar top speed and speed endurance capabilities.

Concepts: Competition, Spearman's rank correlation coefficient, Olympic Games, TheStart, Winter Olympic Games, Olympic sports, Speed skating, Short track speed skating


The aim of this case study was to compare the competition approaches for the Race Walking World Cup and the Olympic Games of a world-class 50-km racewalker.

Concepts: United States, United Kingdom, Olympic Games, Germany, France, Winter Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, Ancient Olympic Games


BACKGROUND: The Olympic Movement Medical Code encourages all stakeholders to ensure that sport is practised without danger to the health of the athletes. Systematic surveillance of injuries and illnesses is the foundation for developing preventive measures in sport. AIM: To analyse the injuries and illnesses that occurred during the Games of the XXX Olympiad, held in London in 2012. METHODS: We recorded the daily occurrence (or non-occurrence) of injuries and illnesses (1) through the reporting of all National Olympic Committee (NOC) medical teams and (2) in the polyclinic and medical venues by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic and Paralympic Games' (LOCOG) medical staff. RESULTS: In total, 10 568 athletes (4676 women and 5892 men) from 204 NOCs participated in the study. NOC and LOCOG medical staff reported 1361 injuries and 758 illnesses, equalling incidences of 128.8 injuries and 71.7 illnesses per 1000 athletes. Altogether, 11% and 7% of the athletes incurred at least one injury or illness, respectively. The risk of an athlete being injured was the highest in taekwondo, football, BMX, handball, mountain bike, athletics, weightlifting, hockey and badminton, and the lowest in archery, canoe slalom and sprint, track cycling, rowing, shooting and equestrian. 35% of the injuries were expected to prevent the athlete from participating during competition or training. Women suffered 60% more illnesses than men (86.0 vs 53.3 illnesses per 1000 athletes). The rate of illness was the highest in athletics, beach volleyball, football, sailing, synchronised swimming and taekwondo. A total of 310 illnesses (41%) affected the respiratory system and the most common cause of illness was infection (n=347, 46%). CONCLUSIONS: At least 11% of the athletes incurred an injury during the games and 7% of the athletes' an illness. The incidence of injuries and illnesses varied substantially among sports. Future initiatives should include the development of preventive measures tailored for each specific sport and the continued focus among sport bodies to institute and further develop scientific injury and illness surveillance systems.

Concepts: Olympic Games, Winter Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, 2008 Summer Olympics, 2012 Summer Olympics, Olympic sports, International Olympic Committee, Athens


To examine characteristics and causes of legal induced abortion-related deaths in the United States between 1998 and 2010.

Concepts: United States, Poverty in the United States, U.S. state, Olympic Games, Appeal, Western culture, Common law, Winter Olympic Games


While the research base is limited, studies have consistently reported poor oral health in elite athletes since the first report from the 1968 Olympic Games. The finding is consistent both across selected samples attending dental clinics at major competitions and more representative sampling of teams and has led to calls from the International Olympic Committee for more accurate data on oral health. Poor oral health is an important issue directly as it can cause pain, negative effects on appearance and psychosocial effects on confidence and quality of life and may have long-term consequences for treatment burden. Self-reported evidence also suggests an impact on training and performance of athletes. There are many potential challenges to the oral health of athletes including nutritional, oral dehydration, exercise-induced immune suppression, lack of awareness, negative health behaviours and lack of prioritisation. However, in theory, oral diseases are preventable by simple interventions with good evidence of efficacy. The consensus statement aims to raise awareness of the issues of oral health in elite sport and recommends strategies for prevention and health promotion in addition to future research strategies.

Concepts: Olympic Games, France, Winter Olympic Games, Summer Olympic Games, 2008 Summer Olympics, International Olympic Committee, Avery Brundage, Athens