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Concept: Winemaking

128

Regionally distinct wine characteristics (terroir) are an important aspect of wine production and consumer appreciation. Microbial activity is an integral part of wine production, and grape and wine microbiota present regionally defined patterns associated with vineyard and climatic conditions, but the degree to which these microbial patterns associate with the chemical composition of wine is unclear. Through a longitudinal survey of over 200 commercial wine fermentations, we demonstrate that both grape microbiota and wine metabolite profiles distinguish viticultural area designations and individual vineyards within Napa and Sonoma Counties, California. Associations among wine microbiota and fermentation characteristics suggest new links between microbiota, fermentation performance, and wine properties. The bacterial and fungal consortia of wine fermentations, composed from vineyard and winery sources, correlate with the chemical composition of the finished wines and predict metabolite abundances in finished wines using machine learning models. The use of postharvest microbiota as an early predictor of wine chemical composition is unprecedented and potentially poses a new paradigm for quality control of agricultural products. These findings add further evidence that microbial activity is associated with wine terroir

Concepts: Yeast, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Fermentation, Viticulture, Winemaking, Terroir, Vineyard

28

In order to investigate the effects of cryomaceration and reductive vinification on chemical and physical indices and on antioxidant compounds of Sauvignon blanc wines, four wine-making procedures were applied: traditional white vinification, skin cryomaceration, vinification in a reductive environment, and a combination of the last two procedures. Significant differences were highlighted by both conventional analyses and NMR spectroscopy. The strongest changes were for organic acid concentrations (tartaric, in particular) and phenolic content. Cryomaceration caused a strong precipitation of tartaric acid, which may be desired if grapes have high acidity values. Cryomaceration protected those flavans reactive with vanillin from the action of oxidative enzymes. Vinification in a reductive environment, alone or combined with a cryomaceration step, gave wines with the highest solids content and caused a greater extraction of phenolic compounds from skins compared to traditional winemaking or cryomaceration alone, due to SO(2) solubilisation. Grape oenological expression can be strongly affected by the application of the investigated wine-making procedures.

Concepts: Yeast, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Oenology, Fermentation, Winemaking, Sauvignon blanc, Potassium bitartrate

28

Broken rice, pretreated by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction, was used to produce Chinese rice wine by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) process in this study. The study compared the novel process and traditional process for Chinese rice wine fermentation utilizing broken rice and head rice, respectively. With the optimum extrusion parameters (barrel temperature, 98 °C; moisture content, 42 % and amylase concentration, 1 ‰), 18 % (v/v at 20 °C) alcoholic degree, 37.66 % fermentation recovery and 93.63 % fermentation efficiency were achieved, indicating enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine from broken rice exhibited much higher fermentation rate and efficiency than traditional-processed rice wine from head rice during SSF. The starch molecule distribution data indicated that the alcoholic degree was related to the oligosaccharides' formation during enzymatic extrusion. Sum of amino acid (AA) in the extrusion-processed wine was 53.7 % higher than that in the traditional one. These results suggest that the enzymatic extrusion pretreatment for broken rice is a feasible and alternative process in the fermentation of Chinese rice wine.

Concepts: Alcohol, Enzyme, Yeast, Starch, Wine, Fermentation, Winemaking, Rice wine

28

Wine colour, phenolics and volatile fermentation-derived composition are the quintessential elements of a red wine. Many viticultural and winemaking factors contribute to wine aroma and colour with choice of yeast strain being a crucial factor. Besides the traditional Saccharomyces species S. cerevisiae, S. bayanus and several Saccharomyces interspecific hybrids are able to ferment grape juice to completion. This study examined the diversity in chemical composition, including phenolics and fermentation-derived volatile compounds, of an Australian Cabernet Sauvignon due to the use of different Saccharomyces strains. Eleven commercially available Saccharomyces strains were used in this study; S. cerevisiae (7), S. bayanus (2) and interspecific Saccharomyces hybrids (2). The eleven Cabernet Sauvignon wines varied greatly in their chemical composition. Nine yeast strains completed alcoholic fermentation in 19 days; S. bayanus AWRI 1375 in 26 days, and S. cerevisiae AWRI 1554 required 32 days. Ethanol concentrations varied in the final wines (12.7-14.2 %). The two S. bayanus strains produced the most distinct wines, with the ability to metabolise malic acid, generate high glycerol concentrations and distinctive phenolic composition. Saccharomyces hybrid AWRI 1501 and S. cerevisiae AWRI 1554 and AWRI 1493 also generated distinctive wines. This work demonstrates that the style of a Cabernet Sauvignon can be clearly modulated by choice of commercially available wine yeast.

Concepts: Ethanol, Yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Wine, Oenology, Fermentation, Cabernet Sauvignon, Winemaking

27

Chemical profiles of anthocyanin and non-anthocyanin phenolics of Cabernet Sauvignon wine made by two different winemaking techniques (traditional vinification and Ganimede method) were determined by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Particularly, effect of extraction on and subsequent stability of the phenolic compounds from the end of fermentation to bottling were investigated. The results showed that the total anthocyanin content was higher in the young wines produced in the Ganimede fermenter. The anthocyanin contents in these wines subsequently decreased significantly after two years of ageing. By contrast, the traditional vinification was slightly better than the Ganimede to yield the non-anthocyanin phenolics. This indicates that the Ganimede fermenter might be suitable for the production of brightly coloured red wines for early consumption, which could save time and labour cost for industrial production of highquality wines.

Concepts: Yeast, Wine, Oenology, Fermentation, Cabernet Sauvignon, Oak, Winemaking, Chilean wine

27

The impact of extended maceration (EM) was studied in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes sourced from a vineyard subjected to four regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) treatments: (I) 100% replenishment of crop evapotranspiration (100% ETc), (II) 70% ETc, (III) 25% ETc until véraison, followed by 100% ETc until harvest, and IV) 25% ETc. Each vineyard replicate was made into wine with two replicates designated as controls (10-day skin contact) and two as extended maceration (EM, 30-day skin contact). The mean degree of polymerization (mDP), size distribution, concentration, and composition of wine proanthocyanidins (PAs) and monomeric flavan-3-ols of 90 fractions were characterized by preparative and analytical HPLC techniques. The maceration length imparted a larger effect on most chemical parameters. The RDI treatment had no effect on the extraction patterns of anthocyanins, PAs, and/or on the origin of the PAs extracted into the wines. Conversely, EM led to anthocyanin losses and increased PA extraction during maceration, with ∼73% of seed-derived PAs. Accordingly, the concentration of monomeric flavan-3-ols, oligomeric (2 ≤ mDP < 5) and polymeric PAs (mDP ≥ 5) was higher in EM wines. The size distribution of the wines' PAs revealed two major peaks as a function of concentration at mDP 2 (22-27% of total PAs mass) and at mDP 6-7 (12-17% of total PAs mass) and was found to follow a non-normal Rayleigh-type distribution.

Concepts: Polymer, Polymer chemistry, Monomer, Wine, Cabernet Sauvignon, Winemaking, Chilean wine

27

We present a population model of the insect Scaphoideus titanus Ball, the leafhopper vector of Flavescence Dorée phytoplasma in Vitis vinifera L. The model accounted for the stage-dependent S. titanus life cycle rates and timing, and vineyard settings such as surface area, plant density, and sampling characteristics. The model parameters were estimated against 13 independent cases of population counting in both laboratory and field conditions, and returned a correlation coefficient in the range 86.4 to 99.1% with residuals in the range 3.5 to 26.3%. A statistical parametric analysis showed that the standard deviation of life cycle rates generally varied more than the one resulting from timing parameters. However, a stochastic sensitivity analysis showed that S. titanus dynamics were more susceptible to variations in timing than rate parameters. Analysis of scenarios of insecticide suppression efficiency and timing showed that S. titanus presence could be optimally controlled by a combination of suppression efficiency and timing. These results were instrumental to understand in which specific aspect of S. titanus life cycle could pest management operations be most effective to reduce S. titanus presence in vineyards, and possibly reduce the risk of Flavescence phytoplasma spread.

Concepts: Statistics, Vitis vinifera, Deviation, Wine, Vitis, Viticulture, Parametric statistics, Winemaking

27

Cost-effective production of optically pure lactic acid from lignocellulose sugars is commercially attractive but challenging. Bacillus coagulans C106 was isolated from environment and used to produce l-lactic acid from xylose at 50°C and pH 6.0 in mineral salts medium containing 1-2% (w/v) of yeast extract without sterilizing the medium before fermentation. In batch fermentation with 85g/L of xylose, lactic acid titer and productivity reached 83.6g/L and 7.5g/Lh, respectively. When fed-batch (120+80+60g/L) fermentation was applied, they reached 215.7g/L and 4.0g/Lh, respectively. In both cases, the lactic acid yield and optical purity reached 95% and 99.6%, respectively. The lactic acid titer and productivity on xylose are the highest among those ever reported. Ca(OH) was found to be a better neutralizing agent than NaOH in terms of its giving higher lactic acid titer (1.2-fold) and productivity (1.8-fold) under the same conditions.

Concepts: Bacteria, Acid, Metabolism, Lactic acid, Fermentation, Winemaking, Bacillus coagulans

26

The effect of the addition of enzymatic extract of Kluyveromyces marxianus NRRL-Y-7571 during the maceration and fermentation steps of Cabernet Sauvignon wine production was evaluated. The results obtained in the analytical determinations of the wines showed levels within the limits established by legislation and similar to values found in other studies. The results show that by adding the enzyme to the red wines these showed color characteristics considered to be superior to those of the control wine and accelerated the extraction of phenolic compounds and anthocyanins. It was observed that by using the commercial enzyme preparation there was an increase of 15 % in polyphenol content compared to the control wine and an increase of 28 % when the crude enzyme extract was used. Anthocyanin content in the wine increased after treatment with the commercial enzyme preparation (10 %) and with the use of the crude enzymatic extract (22 %). Considering all comparison criteria, the K. marxianus enzymatic extract showed results statistically similar or superior to those obtained with the commercial enzyme preparation.

Concepts: Yeast, Wine, Oenology, Fermentation, Cabernet Sauvignon, Winemaking, Italian wine, Chilean wine

25

Wine is one of the most popular alcoholic beverages in the world although it is mainly consumed in European and South American Countries. Several thousand years is passed since the product of grape fermentation was accidentally discovered. Over the last 100-150 years, wine making has been completely revolutionised in terms of procedures and equipment. This work was aimed to give a comprehensive overview on of consolidated use but also on winemaking innovations still in the development step or already applied to commercial products. Their effects on physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of wines will be also discussed in comparison with those of the consolidate vinification procedures.

Concepts: Yeast, Vitis vinifera, Wine, Oenology, Alcoholic beverage, Fermentation, Acids in wine, Winemaking