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Concept: William Bateson


BACKGROUND: Cultivated peanut or groundnut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is an important oilseed crop with an allotetraploid genome (AABB, 2n = 4x = 40). Both the low level of genetic variation within the cultivated gene pool and its polyploid nature limit the utilization of molecular markers to explore genome structure and facilitate genetic improvement. Nevertheless, a wealth of genetic diversity exists in diploid Arachis species (2n = 2x = 20), which represent a valuable gene pool for cultivated peanut improvement. Interspecific populations have been used widely for genetic mapping in diploid species of Arachis. However, an intraspecific mapping strategy was essential to detect chromosomal rearrangements among species that could be obscured by mapping in interspecific populations. To develop intraspecific reference linkage maps and gain insights into karyotypic evolution within the genus, we comparatively mapped the A- and B-genome diploid species using intraspecific F2 populations. Exploring genome organization among diploid peanut species by comparative mapping will enhance our understanding of the cultivated tetraploid peanut genome. Moreover, new sources of molecular markers that are highly transferable between species and developed from expressed genes will be required to construct saturated genetic maps for peanut. RESULTS: A total of 2,138 EST-SSR (expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat) markers were developed by mining a tetraploid peanut EST assembly including 101,132 unigenes (37,916 contigs and 63,216 singletons) derived from 70,771 long-read (Sanger) and 270,957 short-read (454) sequences. A set of 97 SSR markers were also developed by mining 9,517 genomic survey sequences of Arachis. An SSR-based intraspecific linkage map was constructed using an F2 population derived from a cross between K 9484 (PI 298639) and GKBSPSc 30081 (PI 468327) in the B - genome species A. batizocoi. A high degree of macrosynteny was observed when comparing the homoeologous linkage groups between A (A. duranensis) and B (A. batizocoi) genomes. Comparison of the A - and B - genome genetic linkage maps also showed a total of five inversions and one major reciprocal translocation between two pairs of chromosomes under our current mapping resolution. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings will contribute to understanding tetraploid peanut genome origin and evolution and eventually promote its genetic improvement. The newly developed EST-SSR markers will enrich current molecular marker resources in peanut.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Genetics, Genome, Genetic linkage, William Bateson, Peanut, Arachis


Strabismus is a common condition with misalignment between two eyes that may lead to decrease of visual acuity, lack of binocularity, and diplopia. It is caused by heterogeneous environmental and genetic risk factors. Our previous research has identified new chromosomal susceptibility loci in 4q28.3 and 7q31.2 regions for comitant strabismus in Japanese families. We conducted a verification study by linkage analysis to narrow the chromosomal loci down to a single gene.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Cell, Biology, Genetic linkage, William Bateson, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Binocular vision


Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent fungicide applications, which greatly increase the economic and environmental costs to produce banana. Weekly applications in most banana plantations lead to rapid evolution of fungicide-resistant strains within populations causing disease-control failures throughout the world. Given its extremely high economic importance, two strains of P. fijiensis were sequenced and assembled with the aid of a new genetic linkage map. The 74-Mb genome of P. fijiensis is massively expanded by LTR retrotransposons, making it the largest genome within the Dothideomycetes. Melting-curve assays suggest that the genomes of two closely related members of the Sigatoka disease complex, P. eumusae and P. musae, also are expanded. Electrophoretic karyotyping and analyses of molecular markers in P. fijiensis field populations showed chromosome-length polymorphisms and high genetic diversity. Genetic differentiation was also detected using neutral markers, suggesting strong selection with limited gene flow at the studied geographic scale. Frequencies of fungicide resistance in fungicide-treated plantations were much higher than those in untreated wild-type P. fijiensis populations. A homologue of the Cladosporium fulvum Avr4 effector, PfAvr4, was identified in the P. fijiensis genome. Infiltration of the purified PfAVR4 protein into leaves of the resistant banana variety Calcutta 4 resulted in a hypersensitive-like response. This result suggests that Calcutta 4 could carry an unknown resistance gene recognizing PfAVR4. Besides adding to our understanding of the overall Dothideomycete genome structures, the P. fijiensis genome will aid in developing fungicide treatment schedules to combat this pathogen and in improving the efficiency of banana breeding programs.

Concepts: Gene, Virus, Genetic linkage, William Bateson, Banana, Black sigatoka, Sigatoka, Mycosphaerella


Idiopathic scoliosis (IS) is a spine deformity that affects approximately 3% of the population. The underlying causes of IS are not well understood, although there is clear evidence that there is a genetic component to the disease. Genetic mapping studies suggest high genetic heterogeneity, but no IS disease-causing gene has yet been identified. Here, genetic linkage analyses combined with exome sequencing identified a rare missense variant (p.A446T) in the centriolar protein gene POC5 that cosegregated with the disease in a large family with multiple members affected with IS. Subsequently, the p.A446T variant was found in an additional set of families with IS and in an additional 3 cases of IS. Moreover, POC5 variant p.A455P was present and linked to IS in one family and another rare POC5 variant (p.A429V) was identified in an additional 5 cases of IS. In a zebrafish model, expression of any of the 3 human IS-associated POC5 variant mRNAs resulted in spine deformity, without affecting other skeletal structures. Together, these findings indicate that mutations in the POC5 gene contribute to the occurrence of IS.

Concepts: Family, DNA, Gene, Affect, Genetic linkage, William Bateson, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Mendelian inheritance


Resistance of eggplant against Ralstonia solanacearum phylotype I strains was assessed in a F(6) population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a intra-specific cross between S. melongena MM738 (susceptible) and AG91-25 (resistant). Resistance traits were determined as disease score, percentage of wilted plants, and stem-based bacterial colonization index, as assessed in greenhouse experiments conducted in Réunion Island, France. The AG91-25 resistance was highly efficient toward strains CMR134, PSS366 and GMI1000, but only partial toward the highly virulent strain PSS4. The partial resistance found against PSS4 was overcome under high inoculation pressure, with heritability estimates from 0.28 to 0.53, depending on the traits and season. A genetic map was built with 119 AFLP, SSR and SRAP markers positioned on 18 linkage groups (LG), for a total length of 884 cM, and used for quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis. A major dominant gene, named ERs1, controlled the resistance to strains CMR134, PSS366, and GMI1000. Against strain PSS4, this gene was not detected, but a significant QTL involved in delay of disease progress was detected on another LG. The possible use of the major resistance gene ERs1 in marker-assisted selection and the prospects offered for academic studies of a possible gene for gene system controlling resistance to bacterial wilt in solanaceous plants are discussed.

Concepts: Gene, Genetics, Classical genetics, Quantitative trait locus, Genetic linkage, William Bateson, Amplified fragment length polymorphism, Epistasis


Absolute pitch and synesthesia are two uncommon cognitive traits that reflect increased neuronal connectivity and have been anecdotally reported to occur together in a same individual. Here we systematically evaluate the occurrence of syesthesia in a population of 768 subjects with documented absolute pitch. Out of these 768 subjects, 151(20.1%) reported synesthesia, most commonly with color. These self-reports of synesthesia were validated in a subset of 21 study subjects using an established methodology. We further carried out combined linkage analysis of 53 multiplex families with absolute pitch and 36 multiplex families with synesthesia. We observed a peak NPL LOD=4.68 on chromosome 6q, as well as evidence of linkage on chromosome 2 using a dominant model. These data establish the close phenotypic and genetic relationship between absolute pitch and synesthesia. The chromosome 6 linkage region contains 73 genes; several leading candidate genes involved in neurodevelopment were investigated by exon resequencing. However, further studies will be required to definitively establish the identity of the causative gene(s) in the region.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Biology, Chromosome, Genetic linkage, William Bateson, Thomas Hunt Morgan, Chromosomal crossover


In crop plants, a high-density genetic linkage map is essential for both genetic and genomic researches. The complexity and the large size of wheat genome have hampered the acquisition of a high-resolution genetic map. In this study, we report a high-density genetic map based on an individual mapping population using the Affymetrix Wheat660K single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array as a probe in hexaploid wheat. The resultant genetic map consisted of 119 566 loci spanning 4424.4 cM, and 119 001 of those loci were SNP markers. This genetic map showed good collinearity with the 90 K and 820 K consensus genetic maps and was also in accordance with the recently released wheat whole genome assembly. The high-density wheat genetic map will provide a major resource for future genetic and genomic research in wheat. Moreover, a comparative genomics analysis among gramineous plant genomes was conducted based on the high-density wheat genetic map, providing an overview of the structural relationships among theses gramineous plant genomes. A major stable quantitative trait locus (QTL) for kernel number per spike was characterized, providing a solid foundation for the future high-resolution mapping and map-based cloning of the targeted QTL.

Concepts: Gene, Genetics, Genome, Genomics, Classical genetics, Quantitative trait locus, Genetic linkage, William Bateson


With increasing demand for novel traits in crop breeding, the plant research community faces the challenge of quantitatively analyzing the structure and function of large numbers of plants. A clear goal of high-throughput phenotyping is to bridge the gap between genomics and phenomics. In this study, we quantified 106 traits from a maize recombinant inbred line population (n=167) across 16 developmental stages using the automatic phenotyping platform. QTL mapping with a high-density genetic linkage map, including 2496 recombinant bins, was used to uncover the genetic basis of these complex agronomic traits and 988 QTLs have been identified for all investigated traits, including 3 QTL hotspots. Biomass accumulation and final yield were predicted using a combination of dissected traits in the early growth stage. These results reveal the dynamic genetic architecture of maize plant growth and enhance ideotype-based maize breeding and prediction.

Concepts: Scientific method, Gene, Genetics, Homologous recombination, Classical genetics, Genetic linkage, William Bateson, Breeding


Evidence has emerged that suggests a link between motor deficits, obesity and many neurological disorders. However, the contributing genetic risk factors are poorly understood. Here we used the Collaborative Cross (CC), a large panel of newly inbred mice that captures 90% of the known variation among laboratory mice, to identify the genetic loci controlling rotarod performance and its relationship with body weight in a cohort of 365 mice across 16 CC strains. Body weight and rotarod performance varied widely across CC strains and were significantly negatively correlated. Genetic linkage analysis identified 14 loci that were associated with body weight. However, 45 loci affected rotarod performance, seven of which were also associated with body weight, suggesting a strong link at the genetic level. Lastly, we show that genes identified in this study overlap significantly with those related to neurological disorders and obesity found in human GWA studies. In conclusion, our results provide a genetic framework for studies of the connection between body weight, the central nervous system and behavior.

Concepts: Central nervous system, Nervous system, Gene, Genetics, Brain, Neurology, Genetic linkage, William Bateson


Chronic pain conditions are multifactorial disorders with a high frequency in the population. Their pathophysiology is often unclear, and treatment is inefficient. During the last twenty years, genetic linkage analysis and association studies have made considerable strides toward identifying key molecular contributors to the onset and maintenance of chronic pain. Here, we review the genetic variants that have been implicated in chronic pain conditions, divided into the following etiologically-grouped categories: migraine, musculoskeletal pain disorders, neuropathic pain disorders, and visceral pain disorders. In rare familial monogenic pain conditions several strong-effect mutations have been identified. In contrast, the genetic landscape of common chronic pain conditions suggests minor contributions from a large number of single nucleotide polymorphisms representing different functional pathways. A comprehensive survey of up-to-date genetic association results reveals migraine and musculoskeletal pain to be the most investigated chronic pain disorders, in which nearly half of identified genetic variability alters neurotransmission pathways.

Concepts: DNA, Gene, Classical genetics, Pain, Genetic linkage, William Bateson, Genetic association, Genetic epidemiology