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Concept: White Hispanic and Latino Americans

61

Observational studies have reported that black and Hispanic adults receiving maintenance dialysis survive longer than non-Hispanic white counterparts. Whether there are racial disparities in survival of children with ESRD is not clear. We compared mortality risk among non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white children who started RRT between 1995 and 2011 and were followed through 2012. We examined all-cause mortality using adjusted Cox models. Of 12,123 children included for analysis, 1600 died during the median follow-up of 7.1 years. Approximately 25% of children were non-Hispanic black, and 26% of children were of Hispanic ethnicity. Non-Hispanic black children had a 36% higher risk of death (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.21 to 1.52) and Hispanic children had a 34% lower risk of death (95% CI, 0.57 to 0.77) than non-Hispanic white children. Adjustment for transplant as a time-dependent covariate abolished the higher risk of death in non-Hispanic black children (hazard ratio, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.12) but did not attenuate the finding of a lower risk of death in Hispanic children (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.68). In conclusion, Hispanic children had lower mortality than non-Hispanic white children. Non-Hispanic black children had higher mortality than non-Hispanic white children, which was related to differences in access to transplantation by race. Parity in access to transplantation in children and improvements in strategies to prolong graft survival could substantially reduce disparities in mortality risk of non-Hispanic black children treated with RRT.

Concepts: Race in the United States, White Hispanic and Latino Americans, White people, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Race, White American, Ethnic group

18

We examined 22 articles to compare Black Latinos/as' with White Latinos/as' health and highlight findings and limitations in the literature. We searched 1153 abstracts, from the earliest on record to those available in 2016. We organized the articles into domains grounded on a framework that incorporates the effects of race on Latinos/as' health and well-being: health and well-being, immigration, psychosocial factors, and contextual factors. Most studies in this area are limited by self-reported measures of health status, inconsistent use of race and skin color measures, and omission of a wider range of immigration-related and contextual factors. We give recommendations for future research to explain the complexity in the Latino/a population regarding race, and we provide insight into Black Latinos/as experiences. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 13, 2016: e1-e6. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2016.303452).

Concepts: United States, Black people, White Hispanic and Latino Americans, Human skin color, Mexican American, Spanish American, Demographics of the United States, Hispanic and Latino Americans

13

Patients are being encouraged to go online to obtain health information and interact with their health care systems. However, a 2014 survey found that less than 60% of American adults aged 65 and older use the Internet, with much lower usage among black and Latino seniors compared with non-Hispanic white seniors, and among older versus younger seniors.

Concepts: Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, White Hispanic and Latino Americans, Race in the United States, Mexican American, Health informatics, Health care, Hispanic and Latino Americans, White American

7

During 2011-2014, 71.2% of adults aged ≥20 years had their blood cholesterol checked in the past 5 years. A smaller percentage of Hispanic adults (62.1%) had their cholesterol checked in the past 5 years compared with non-Hispanic white (73.5%), non- Hispanic black (72.3%), and non-Hispanic Asian (72.9%) adults. This pattern was observed for both men and women. A larger percentage of non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic women had their cholesterol checked compared with their male counterparts, but there was no difference between non-Hispanic Asian men and women.

Concepts: Demographics of the United States, Nutrition, United States, Race in the United States, White Hispanic and Latino Americans, Mexican American, Hispanic and Latino Americans, White American

6

From 2007 to 2015, the birth rate for female teens aged 15-19 years declined 46%, from 41.5 to 22.3 births per 1,000, the lowest rate ever recorded for this population in the United States. In 2015, rates declined to record lows for all racial/ethnic populations, with declines ranging from 41% for non-Hispanic white teens to 54% for Hispanic teens. Despite the declines, teen birth rates by race/Hispanic ethnicity continued to reflect wide disparities, with rates ranging from 6.9 per 1,000 for Asian or Pacific Islander teens to 34.9 for Hispanic teens in 2015.

Concepts: Demography, Race in the United States, White Hispanic and Latino Americans, Population, Mexican American, Hispanic and Latino Americans, United States, White American

6

Racial disparities in colorectal cancer (CRC) persist, despite overall reductions in morbidity and mortality. In addition, incidence is rising among individuals younger than 50 years of age. We compared the survival of young-onset CRC among non-Hispanic black (NHB), non-Hispanic white (NHW), and Hispanic individuals.

Concepts: Ethnic group, Mexican American, Race in the United States, Colorectal cancer, White Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic and Latino Americans, White American, White people

6

Black and Hispanic adults have long experienced higher uninsurance rates than white adults. Under the Affordable Care Act, differences in uninsurance rates have narrowed for both black and Hispanic adults compared to their white counterparts, but Hispanics continue to face large gaps in coverage.

Concepts: Hispanic, Mexican American, Spanish American, Demographics of the United States, White American, Black Hispanic and Latino Americans, White Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic and Latino Americans

5

During 2011-2014, 17.6% of adults aged ≥65 years were edentulous or had lost all their natural, permanent teeth. Adults aged ≥75 years (23.0%) were more likely to be edentulous compared with adults aged 65-74 years (13.9%). Non-Hispanic black adults aged ≥65 years were more likely to be edentulous (27.0%) compared with non-Hispanic white (16.2%), non-Hispanic Asian (18.0%), and Hispanic adults (16.4%) aged ≥65 years.

Concepts: Demographics of the United States, White people, Teeth, Mexican American, Race in the United States, White Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic and Latino Americans, White American

5

During 2000-2015, among adults aged 50-75 years, the use of colorectal cancer tests or procedures increased for all racial/ ethnic groups included in the analysis. Colorectal screening percentages more than doubled for non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic Asian adults during that period. Despite these increases, in 2015, the prevalence of colorectal cancer screening was higher among non-Hispanic white (65.6%) adults than among non-Hispanic black (60.3%), non-Hispanic Asian (52.1%), and Hispanic (47.4%) adults.

Concepts: White Hispanic and Latino Americans, United States, Mexican American, United Kingdom, Hispanic and Latino Americans, Race, Ethnic group, White American

5

The “Hispanic Paradox” suggests that despite rates of poverty similar to African Americans, Hispanics have far better health and mortality outcomes, more comparable to non-Hispanic White Americans. Three prominent possible explanations for the Hispanic Paradox have emerged. The “Healthy Migrant Effect” suggests a health selection effect due to the demands of migration. The Hispanic lifestyle hypothesis focuses on Hispanics' strong social ties and better health behaviors. The reverse migration argument suggests that the morbidity profile in the USA is affected when many Hispanic immigrants return to their native countries after developing a serious illness. We analyzed data from respondents aged 55 and over from the nationally representative 2006 American Community Survey including Mexican Americans (13,167 U.S. born; 11,378 immigrants), Cuban Americans (314 U.S. born; 3,730 immigrants), and non-Hispanic White Americans (629,341 U.S. born; 31,164 immigrants). The healthy migrant effect was supported with SES-adjusted disability comparable between Mexican, Cuban and non-Hispanic Whites born in the USA and all immigrants having lower adjusted odds of functional limitations than U.S. born non-Hispanic Whites. The reverse migration hypothesis was partially supported, with citizenship and longer duration in the USA associated with higher rates of SES-adjusted disability for Mexican Americans. The Hispanic healthy life-style explanation had little support in this study. Our findings underline the importance of considering nativity when planning for health interventions to address the needs of the growing Hispanic American older adult population.

Concepts: Southern United States, New Mexico, White Hispanic and Latino Americans, Immigration to the United States, Mexican American, White American, Hispanic and Latino Americans, United States