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Concept: Western culture


Background: Suicide is a leading cause of death in the United States. Social media such as Twitter is an emerging surveillance tool that may assist researchers in tracking suicide risk factors in real time. Aims: To identify suicide-related risk factors through Twitter conversations by matching on geographic suicide rates from vital statistics data. Method: At-risk tweets were filtered from the Twitter stream using keywords and phrases created from suicide risk factors. Tweets were grouped by state and departures from expectation were calculated. The values for suicide tweeters were compared against national data of actual suicide rates from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Results: A total of 1,659,274 tweets were analyzed over a 3-month period with 37,717 identified as at-risk for suicide. Midwestern and western states had a higher proportion of suicide-related tweeters than expected, while the reverse was true for southern and eastern states. A strong correlation was observed between state Twitter-derived data and actual state age-adjusted suicide data. Conclusion: Twitter may be a viable tool for real-time monitoring of suicide risk factors on a large scale. This study demonstrates that individuals who are at risk for suicide may be detected through social media.

Concepts: Cold War, Midwestern United States, Sociology, Twitter, Eastern Europe, U.S. state, Western culture, United States


Pharmaceutical trials are mainly initiated by sponsors and investigators in the United States, Western Europe and Japan. However, more and more patients are enrolled in Central and Eastern Europe, Latin America and Asia. The involvement of patients in new geographical settings raises questions about scientific and ethical integrity, especially when experience with those settings is lacking at the level of trial management. We therefore studied to what extent the geographical shift in patient enrolment is anticipated in the composition of trial management teams using the author nationalities on the primary outcome publication as an indicator of leadership.

Concepts: Spain, World War II, Russia, Europe, European Union, Western culture, Eastern Europe, United States


Upper gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding is one of the most common, high risk emergency disorders in the western world. Almost nothing has been reported on longer term prognosis following upper GI bleeding. The aim of this study was to establish mortality up to three years following hospital admission with upper GI bleeding and its relationship with aetiology, co-morbidities and socio-demographic factors.

Concepts: Central Europe, Western Europe, Surgery, Western culture, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Western world, Gastroenterology, Upper gastrointestinal bleeding


Most societies are economically dominated by a small elite, and similarly, natural communities are typically dominated by a small fraction of the species. Here we reveal a strong similarity between patterns of inequality in nature and society, hinting at fundamental unifying mechanisms. We show that chance alone will drive 1% or less of the community to dominate 50% of all resources in situations where gains and losses are multiplicative, as in returns on assets or growth rates of populations. Key mechanisms that counteract such hyperdominance include natural enemies in nature and wealth-equalizing institutions in society. However, historical research of European developments over the past millennium suggests that such institutions become ineffective in times of societal upscaling. A corollary is that in a globalizing world, wealth will inevitably be appropriated by a very small fraction of the population unless effective wealth-equalizing institutions emerge at the global level.

Concepts: Western culture, Ecological economics, Humanities, Institution, Science, Society, Sociology


Excessive sedentary time is ubiquitous in Western societies. Previous studies have relied on self-reporting to evaluate the total volume of sedentary time as a prognostic risk factor for mortality and have not examined whether the manner in which sedentary time is accrued (in short or long bouts) carries prognostic relevance.

Concepts: Cold War, Sociology, Actuarial science, Long, Short, Epidemiology, Western culture


The Late Pleistocene Campanian Ignimbrite (CI) super-eruption (Southern Italy) is the largest known volcanic event in the Mediterranean area. The CI tephra is widely dispersed through western Eurasia and occurs in close stratigraphic association with significant palaeoclimatic and Palaeolithic cultural events. Here we present new high-precision (14)C (34.29 ± 0.09 (14)C kyr BP, 1σ) and (40)Ar/(39)Ar (39.85 ± 0.14 ka, 95% confidence level) dating results for the age of the CI eruption, which substantially improve upon or augment previous age determinations and permit fuller exploitation of the chronological potential of the CI tephra marker. These results provide a robust pair of (14)C and (40)Ar/(39)Ar ages for refining both the radiocarbon calibration curve and the Late Pleistocene time-scale at ca. 40 ka. In addition, these new age constraints provide compelling chronological evidence for the significance of the combined influence of the CI eruption and Heinrich Event 4 on European climate and potentially evolutionary processes of the Early Upper Palaeolithic.

Concepts: Western culture, Middle Ages, Turkey, Mediterranean Sea, Paleolithic, Radiocarbon dating, Europe, Pleistocene


Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs)-therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs.

Concepts: Christendom, Soviet Union, Central Europe, Western Europe, Medicine, Western culture, Western world


Current literature supports the comprehensive health benefits of exposure to nature and green environments on human systems. The aim of this state-of-the-art review is to elucidate empirical research conducted on the physiological and psychological effects of Shinrin-Yoku (or Forest Bathing) in transcontinental Japan and China. Furthermore, we aim to encourage healthcare professionals to conduct longitudinal research in Western cultures regarding the clinically therapeutic effects of Shinrin-Yoku and, for healthcare providers/students to consider practicing Shinrin-Yoku to decrease undue stress and potential burnout.

Concepts: Natural environment, Science, Empirical research, Western culture, Health insurance, Medicine, Health care, Sociology


After 2 decades of progress toward tuberculosis (TB) elimination with annual decreases of ≥0.2 cases per 100,000 persons (1), TB incidence in the United States remained approximately 3.0 cases per 100,000 persons during 2013-2015. Preliminary data reported to the National Tuberculosis Surveillance System indicate that TB incidence among foreign-born persons in the United States (15.1 cases per 100,000) has remained approximately 13 times the incidence among U.S.-born persons (1.2 cases per 100,000). Resuming progress toward TB elimination in the United States will require intensification of efforts both in the United States and globally, including increasing U.S. efforts to detect and treat latent TB infection, strengthening systems to interrupt TB transmission in the United States and globally, accelerating reductions in TB globally, particularly in the countries of origin for most U.S.

Concepts: Western culture, Late-2000s recession, Latent tuberculosis, Humid subtropical climate, U.S. state, Poverty in the United States, United States, Tuberculosis


Hydrochlorothiazide, one of the most frequently used diuretic and antihypertensive drugs in the United States and Western Europe, is photosensitizing and has previously been linked to lip cancer.

Concepts: Republic of Ireland, Russia, United Kingdom, Europe, Eastern Europe, Western culture, European Union, United States