SciCombinator

Discover the most talked about and latest scientific content & concepts.

Concept: Wavelet

138

The main goal of the present work is to study the coherent phonon in strongly confined CdSe quantum dots (QDs) under varied pump fluences. The main characteristics of coherent phonons (amplitude, frequency, phase, spectrogram) of CdSe QDs under the red-edge pump of the excitonic band [1S(e)-1S3/2(h)] are reported. We demonstrate for the first time that the amplitude of the coherent optical longitudinal-optical (LO) phonon at 6.16 THz excited in CdSe nanoparticles by a femtosecond unchirped pulse shows a non-monotone dependence on the pump fluence. This dependence exhibits the maximum at pump fluence ~0.8 mJ/cm². At the same time, the amplitudes of the longitudinal acoustic (LA) phonon mode at 0.55 THz and of the coherent wave packet of toluene at 15.6, 23.6 THz show a monotonic rise with the increase of pump fluence. The time frequency representation of an oscillating signal corresponding to LO phonons revealed by continuous wavelet transform (CWT) shows a profound destructive quantum interference close to the origin of distinct (optical phonon) and continuum-like (exciton) quasiparticles. The CWT spectrogram demonstrates a nonlinear chirp at short time delays, where the chirp sign depends on the pump pulse fluence. The CWT spectrogram reveals an anharmonic coupling between optical and acoustic phonons.

Concepts: Photon, Condensed matter physics, Wave, Phase, Wavelength, Sound, Phonon, Wavelet

28

In this work, the authors present an effective denoising method to attempt reducing the noise in mammographic images. The method is based on using hierarchical correlation of the coefficients of discrete stationary wavelet transforms. The features of the proposed technique include iterative use of undecimated multi-directional wavelet transforms at adjacent scales. To validate the proposed method, computer simulations were conducted, followed by its applications to clinical mammograms. Mutual information originating from information theory was used as an evaluation measure for selection of an optimal wavelet basis function. We examined the performance of the proposed method by comparing it with the conventional undecimated discrete wavelet transform (UDWT) method in terms of processing time-consuming and image quality. Our results showed that with the use of the proposed method the computation time can be reduced to approximately 1/10 of the conventional UDWT method consumed. The results of visual assessment indicated that the images processed with the proposed UDWT method showed statistically significant superior image quality over those processed with the conventional UDWT method. Our research results demonstrate the superiority and effectiveness of the proposed approach.

Concepts: Computer graphics, Mammography, Information theory, Wavelet, Wavelet series, Discrete wavelet transform, Wavelets, Complex wavelet transform

25

Electroencephalogram (EEG) plays an important role in E-healthcare systems, especially in the mental healthcare area, where constant and unobtrusive monitoring is desirable. In the context of OPTIMI project, a novel, low cost, and light weight wearable EEG sensor has been designed and produced. In order to improve the performance and reliability of EEG sensors in real-life settings, we propose a method to evaluate the quality of EEG signals, based on which users can easily adjust the connection between electrodes and their skin. Our method helps to filter invalid EEG data from personal trials in both domestic and office settings. We then apply an algorithm based on Discrete Wavelet Transformation (DWT) and Adaptive Noise Cancellation (ANC) which has been designed to remove ocular artifacts (OA) from the EEG signal. DWT is applied to obtain a reconstructed OA signal as a reference while ANC, based on recursive least squares, is used to remove the OA from the original EEG data. The newly produced sensors were tested and deployed within the OPTIMI framework for chronic stress detection. EEG nonlinear dynamics features and frontal asymmetry of theta, alpha and beta bands have been selected as biological indicators for chronic stress, showing relative greater right anterior EEG data activity in stressful individuals. Evaluation results demonstrate that our EEG sensor and data processing algorithms have successfully addressed the requirements and challenges of a portable system for patient monitoring, as envisioned by the EU OPTIMI project.

Concepts: Anxiety, Algorithm, Evaluation, Signal processing, Electroencephalography, Snake scales, Stress, Wavelet

24

Camera-based systems in dairy cattle were intensively studied over the last years. Different from this study, single camera systems with a limited range of applications were presented, mostly using 2D cameras. This study presents current steps in the development of a camera system comprising multiple 3D cameras (six Microsoft Kinect cameras) for monitoring purposes in dairy cows. An early prototype was constructed, and alpha versions of software for recording, synchronizing, sorting and segmenting images and transforming the 3D data in a joint coordinate system have already been implemented. This study introduced the application of two-dimensional wavelet transforms as method for object recognition and surface analyses. The method was explained in detail, and four differently shaped wavelets were tested with respect to their reconstruction error concerning Kinect recorded depth maps from different camera positions. The images' high frequency parts reconstructed from wavelet decompositions using the haar and the biorthogonal 1.5 wavelet were statistically analyzed with regard to the effects of image fore- or background and of cows' or persons' surface. Furthermore, binary classifiers based on the local high frequencies have been implemented to decide whether a pixel belongs to the image foreground and if it was located on a cow or a person. Classifiers distinguishing between image regions showed high (⩾0.8) values of Area Under reciever operation characteristic Curve (AUC). The classifications due to species showed maximal AUC values of 0.69.

Concepts: Milk, Cattle, Dairy farming, Dairy cattle, Beef cattle, Veal, Wavelet, Discrete wavelet transform

23

The main aim of this paper is to classify mental functions by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised tests with a mixed method based on wavelets and partial correlation. The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised is a widely used test designed and applied for the classification of the adults cognitive skills in a comprehensive manner. In this paper, many different intellectual profiles have been taken into consideration to measure the relationship between the mental functioning and psychological disorder. We propose a method based on wavelets and correlation analysis for classifying mental functioning, by the analysis of some selected parameters measured by the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised tests. In particular, 1-D Continuous Wavelet Analysis, 1-D Wavelet Coefficient Method and Partial Correlation Method have been analyzed on some Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Revised parameters such as School Education, Gender, Age, Performance Information Verbal and Full Scale Intelligence Quotient. In particular, we will show that gender variable has a negative but a significant role on age and Performance Information Verbal factors. The age parameters also has a significant relation in its role on Performance Information Verbal and Full Scale Intelligence Quotient change.

Concepts: Hilbert space, Intelligence quotient, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Wavelet, Wavelet series, Discrete wavelet transform, Wavelets, Mexican hat wavelet

22

Compression of digital holograms can significantly help with the storage of objects and data in 2D and 3D form, its transmission, and its reconstruction. Compression of standard images by methods based on wavelets allows high compression ratios (up to 20-50 times) with minimum losses of quality. In the case of digital holograms, application of wavelets directly does not allow high values of compression to be obtained. However, additional preprocessing and postprocessing can afford significant compression of holograms and the acceptable quality of reconstructed images. In this paper application of wavelet transforms for compression of off-axis digital holograms are considered. The combined technique based on zero- and twin-order elimination, wavelet compression of the amplitude and phase components of the obtained Fourier spectrum, and further additional compression of wavelet coefficients by thresholding and quantization is considered. Numerical experiments on reconstruction of images from the compressed holograms are performed. The comparative analysis of applicability of various wavelets and methods of additional compression of wavelet coefficients is performed. Optimum parameters of compression of holograms by the methods can be estimated. Sizes of holographic information were decreased up to 190 times.

Concepts: Wavelet, Wavelet series, Discrete wavelet transform, Wavelets

4

Admixture between long-separated populations is a defining feature of the genomes of many species. The mosaic block structure of admixed genomes can provide information about past contact events, including the time and extent of admixture. Here, we describe an improved wavelet-based technique that better characterizes ancestry block structure from observed genomic patterns. Principal Components Analysis is first applied to genomic data to identify the primary population structure, followed by wavelet decomposition to develop a new characterization of local ancestry information along the chromosomes. For testing purposes, this method is applied to human genome-wide genotype data from Indonesia, as well as virtual genetic data generated using genome-scale sequential coalescent simulations under a wide range of admixture scenarios. Time of admixture is inferred using an approximate Bayesian computation framework, providing robust estimates of both admixture times and their associated levels of uncertainty. Crucially, we demonstrate that this revised wavelet approach, which we have released as the R package adwave, provides improved statistical power over existing wavelet-based techniques and can be used to address a broad range of admixture questions.

Concepts: DNA, Scientific method, Gene, Genetics, Human Genome Project, Genome, Genomics, Wavelet

3

ShapeR is an open source software package that runs on the R platform and is specifically designed to study otolith shape variation among fish populations. The package extends previously described software used for otolith shape analysis by allowing the user to automatically extract closed contour outlines from a large number of images, perform smoothing to eliminate pixel noise, choose from conducting either a Fourier or Wavelet transform to the outlines and visualize the mean shape. The output of the package are independent Fourier or Wavelet coefficients which can be directly imported into a wide range of statistical packages in R. The package might prove useful in studies of any two dimensional objects.

Concepts: Statistics, Vector space, Open source, Wavelet, Wavelet series, Discrete wavelet transform, Cartesian coordinate system, Fourth dimension

2

Characteristics of muscle activity, represented by surface electromyography (EMG), have revealed differences between patients with low back pain (LBP) and healthy adults; how they relate to functional and clinical parameters remains unclear. The purpose of the current study was to examine the correlation between frequency characteristics of EMG (analysed using continuous wavelet transform (CWT) analysis) and patients' self-rated score of disability.

Concepts: Low back pain, Back pain, Energy, Muscle, Electromyography, Functional analysis, Wavelet, Phonomyography

2

Multi-resolution analyses involving wavelets are commonly applied to data derived from accelerometer-based wearable technologies (wearables) to identify and quantify postural transitions (PTs). Previous studies fail to provide rationale to inform their choice of wavelet and scale approximation when utilising discrete wavelet transforms. This study examines varying combinations of those parameters to identify best practice recommendations for detecting and quantifying sit-to-stand (SiSt) and stand-to-sit (StSi) PTs.

Concepts: Scientific method, Best practice, Wavelet, Wavelet series, Discrete wavelet transform, Wavelets